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• Electric Power System (EPS):

• GOAL: GENERATE, STORE & DISTRIBUTE POWER to all Systems in


a reliable way according to the requirements of each load.

• The design of an EPS means to determine:


• The solar arrays surface (depends on the orbit, spacecraft
design,etc)
• Dimension of Storage Capacity (Voltage, capacity, depends on
the orbit and payload operation, battery pack arrangement)
• Requirement of power of all spacecraft systems

• 1.- GENERATION: Solar cells


• 2.- STORAGE: Batteries
• 3.- DISTRIBUTION: Power converters
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 1.- SOLAR CELLS
• Equivalent circuit model: Current source as a function of radiation.

Connection in:
Series increases Voltage
Parallel increases Current

High currents could


interfere with ACS operation

High voltages could produce


breakdown discharges
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 1.- SOLAR CELLS
• Power obtained from PV-cells depends on the operation point.
• Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms are needed in
order to maximize power under different radiation contidions
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 1.- SOLAR CELLS
• MPPT algorithms
• Perturb and Observe (PAO)
• Incremental Conductance Technique (ICT
• Constant reference voltage/current
PAO
Consists of continuously perturb the
operation point and see if power
increases/decreases
Easy implementation and good performance
for slow changes in irradiation
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERIES
• We will focus in the Li-ion technology.
• This technology offers the best specific ratios (J/kg, J/cm3)
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY PERFORMANCE METRICS
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY PERFORMANCE METRICS. Specific Energy vs Specific Power
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY PERFORMANCE METRICS. Specific Energy (mass vs
volume)
• For comparison: gasoline has 9700Wh/liter , 13000Wh/kg
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY PERFORMANCE METRICS. Life cycles.
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY PERFORMANCE METRICS. PROS & CONTRAS
• PROS
• High Energy density : 200Wh/kg ; 500Wh/dm3
• Could be designed for high energy or power
• Chemistry with high voltage (3,2V-3,8V)
• Low self-discharge ratio. Retains charge for months
• No liquid electrolyte / Long life cycle ( 3000 deep cycles)
• CONTRAS
• Safety concerns: Battery Management System (BMS)
required
• Expensive (1€/Wh)
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY CHARGE CHARACTERISTICS
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY CHARGE CHARACTERISTICS
Charge at high C rates:
- Heat dissipation
- Capacity loss
- Dendrite creation
Charge Capacity (%)

High voltage can cause


electrolyte breakdown

Time (min)
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS. Influence of C rate
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY DISCHARGE CHARACTERISTICS. Influence of Temperature

1C
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY MODEL

Open Circuit Voltage [V]

SOC [%]
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY MODEL

• There are many different models, each of them intended to


simulate some specific characteristic:
• - life cycle, aging
• - dynamic behaviour

• Estimation of SOC under operation is challenging

• We will focus on an equivalent cell dynamic model capable to


predict voltage as a function of charge/discharge current and
temperature
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (BMS)

• GOAL: To keep all cells of the battery pack inside the SOA (Safe Operation
Area) during charge and discharge
• Voltage: Vmin<V< Vmax
• Current: Limit current
• Temperature: Limit temp
• During Charge: BMS supervises the battery pack condition (Go/NoGo)
and performs cell balancing.
• During Discharge: BMS supervises cell voltage, temperature and SOC
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 2.- BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (BMS)
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 3.- POWER CONVERTERS (DC/DC)

• GOAL: Supply power according load requirements (voltage,


power, slew-rate, ElectoMagnetic Compatibility, etc). If necessary
they can provide galvanic isolation.

• Two main approaches:


• - Linear PS: Poor efficiency, energy dissipation (not used)
• - Switched PS: High efficiency, high power density
• High performance switches (SiC, GaN) can be used to reduce
switching losses and increase switching frequency.
• Parallel modular architecture
• Electric Power System (EPS):
• 3.- POWER CONVERTERS (DC/DC)

• BASIC TOPOLOGIES
• BUCK
• BOOST
• BUCK-BOOST
• FLYBACK