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ALKYL HALIDE AND ARYL HALIDE

Compounds derived from hydrocarbons by replacement of one or more H-atoms by corresponding no. of
halogen atoms are known as halogen derivatives.

 Classification :

On the basis of nature of hydrocarbon from which they are obtained, hydrocarbon derivatives can be classified
as :
Halogen Derivatives

Alkyl halides Alkenyl halide Alkynyl halide Aryl halide

Mono halides Di-halides Tri-halides Tetra halides

Primary halide Secondary halide Tertiary halide


(a) Alkyl halides : Halogen derivative of alkanes.
(b) Alkenyl halides : Halogen derivative of alkenes.
(c) Alkynyl halides : Halogen derivative of alkynes
(d) Aryl halides : Halogen derivative of arenes (aromatic)
 Alkyl halides : They are further classified on the basis of halogen atoms introduced in the molecule. e.g.
(i) Mono halides: These involves replacement of one H-atom by halogen atom.
General formula C n H 2n+1 X
Example : CH 3 Cl Methyl chloride (Chloro methane)
CH 3 CH 2 Br Ethyl bromide (Bromo ethane)
(ii) Dihalides : Replacement of two H-atom by halogen atoms.
General formula C nH 2n X 2
Example : CH 2 X 2 Methylene dihalide

CH2X Ethylene dihalide or Vicinal dihalide


CH2X
CH3 Ethylidene dihalide or geminal dihalide
CHX2
(iii) Trihalides : Replacement of three H-atoms by halogen atoms. General formula - C nH 2n-1X3 .
Example : CHX3 Trihalo methane or haloform

(iv) Tetra halide and Perhalo compounds : Replacement of 4 H-atoms by halogen atoms
(in CH4  CCl4)   Tetrahalides.
When all the H-atoms from an alkane are replaced by halogen atoms, then the compounds are called as
perhalo compound - General formula C nH 2n–2X4 (tetra halide).
CH 4  CX4 (Per halo methane)
C2H6  C2X6 (Per halo ethane)
 MONO HALIDES : These are classified on the basis of nature of C-atom carrying the halogen atom .
(A) Primary halide or 1 0 alkyl halides : Halogen atom attached with a primary or 1 0 C-atom.
Example : C H 3 — X Halo methane or methylhalide
C H 3— C H 2— X Halo ethane or ethyl halide
C H 3— C H 2— C H 2— X 1-Halo propane or n-propyl halide
(B) Secondary or 2 0 alkyl halides : Halogen atom linked with 2 0 C-atom.

Example : CH3 CH CH3 2-halo propane


or
X Iso propyl halide

CH3 CH CH2 CH3 2-halo butane


or
X Sec. butyl halide
(C) Ter tiar y halide or 3 0 alkyl halide : halogen atom linked with 3 0 C-atom.

Example : R C X (tert.alkyl halide)

 Isomerism : Alkyl halides shows position and chain isomerism -

Example : C 3 H 7 Cl  CH3CHCH


2 2Cl

CH3CHCH3 Position isomers

Cl
Example : C 4 H 9 Cl(a) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 Cl 1 - chloro butane
CH3
(b) CH CH2Cl 1-chloro-2-methyl propane
CH3
(c) CH3 CH2 CH CH3 2 - chloro butane
Cl
CH3

(d) CH3 C Cl 2-chloro-2-methyl propane


CH3
a, b  Chain isomers a, c  Position isomers
a, d  Chain and position isomers b,c  Chain and position iosmers
b, d  Position isomers c, d  Chain isomers
Reactivity order : The order of reactivity of alkyl halides is - RI > RBr > RCl > RF
Bond energy values : C–I ( 57. 4), C–Br (65.9), C–Cl (78.5) and C–F (105.4) K.cal/mole
C–I bond is most reactive because lower energy is required to break the bond. On the basis of nature of alkyl

group the reactivity order of alkyl halide is - tert > Sec. > Primary
Since alkyl groups, are electron repelling or electron releasing, larger no. of alkyl groups on C-atom of C–X
greater is the electron density on C-atom hence ease in release of X atom as X – ion (+ I effect of alkyl group)
CH3 CH3

+ –
CH3 C X  CH3 C+ X

CH3 CH3
Alkyl halides are generally more reactive than the corresponding alkanes due to the presence of polar covalent

( C X ) bond. So alkyl halides ( R–X) undergo nucleophilic substitution reaction.

 +
The centre for attacking Nu is C atom

 Genreal Met ho d of Preparat ion of Monohalide s :


1. By direct halogenat ion of alka ne s :
R—H + Cl2 U.V.light
  R—Cl + HCl
(excess)
2. By the addition of H—X on alkenes :
R—CH CHR + HX  R CH 2 — C H X R
CH2 CH2 + HX  CH 3 —CH 2 X
CH 3–CH CH 2 + HX  CH3 CH CH3
X
Isopropyl halide
3. By Alcohols :
(a) By t he act ion of hydrogen halide s :
H –X
Example : R—CH 2 —OH 
ZnCl2  R C H 2 — X

Mechanism :

.. H+  –H2O  X
R CH2 OH R CH2 O H  R CH2  R CH2 X
(H—X)
H
(unstable) (Product)

In this reaction intermidiate carbocation is formed so rearrangement ( H – shifting or CH 3– shifting) can takee
place.
ZnCl2 act as dehydrating agent and absorbs H2O from the reaction so good yield of halide is obtained. Also it
generates H + from HCl.
HCl + ZnCl 2  ZnCl 
3 + H

Reactivity order for alcohol :

Reactivity  stability of intermediate carbocation , so reactivity order : Tert. alc. > Sec. alc. > Pri. alc.
Reactivity order of H—X is : HI > HBr > HCl
HI is maximum reactive so it reacts readily with 1°, 2° and 3° alcohols.
R—OH + HI  R—I + H 2 O
HCl and also 1° alcohol are less reactive so ZnCl 2 or some amount of H 2 SO 4 is needed to increase the
reactivity.
Example : CH 3 —CH 2 —OH + HCl ZnCl CH 3 —CH 2 —Cl

2

At normal condition :
CH 3—CH 2 —OH + HCl  × (no reaction)
Note : HCl + ZnCl 2 is called as lucas reagent, alchol gives turbidity with lucas reagent.
Reactivity towards lucas reagent (difference in 1°, 2° and 3° alcohol).
1° alcohol 2° alcohol 3° alcohol
Time to in 30 min. in 5 min. in 1 min.
give turbidity
(b) By the action of phosphorus halides ( S N1 mechanism) :

R—OH + PCl 5   R—Cl + POCl3 + HCl


3R—OH + PCl 3  3RCl + H3PO3
PBr3 and PI3 are less stable, thus for bromides and Iodides, ( P + Br2) Or ( P + I2) mixture is used.

(c) By react ion w ith thionyl chloride - (Darzen's procedure) ( S N i and S N 2 mechanism) :

Pyridine
R—OH + SOCl2 
(1 m ole ) R—Cl + SO2 + HCl
One mole One mole
Because of less stability of SOBr2 and SOI2, R—Br and RI does not obtained by this method.
4. Boro di ne – Hunsdicker's react ion :
CCl 4
R—COOAg + X2 

R—X + CO2 + AgX
Silver salt of (Cl2 or Br2)
a fatty acid
5. By halide exchange :

R–Cl or Acetone
R—Br + KI  R–I + KCl or KBr (Conant finkelstein reaction)

2CH 3Cl + HgF 2  2CH 3 –F + HgCl 2 (Swar t reaction)


R– I and R—F can be prepared by this method only.
6. By react ion of alka ne s w it h sulphur yl chloride (SO 2 Cl 2 ) :
light
R—H + SO2 Cl2 
organic peroxide   R—Cl + HCl + SO2

 Physical Proper t ie s :
(a) The lower members CH3F, CH3Cl, CH3Br , C2H5Cl and C2H5F are gases at room temp.
CH3I and members upto C18 are colourless sweet smelling liquids.
(b) Higher B.P. than parent alkanes.
Decreasing order of B.P. is : R – I > R—Br > R—Cl > R—F
among isomeric R—X decreasing order of B.P. is : Primary > Secondary > tertiary
(c) R—F and R—Cl  lighter than water
R—Br and R—I  heavier than water
Decreasing order of density is : R—I > R—Br > R—Cl > R—F
(d) R—X are polar co-valent compounds but insoluble i n water because the y can not form
H–bonds. They dissolve in organic solvents.
(e) R—X burns with a green flame due to interaction of X with Cu wire.(Beilstein test)
(f) The stability order is : R—F > R—Cl > R—Br > R—I
R—I is least stable and darken in light due to photodecomposition.

2R—I h
  R—R + I2

 Chemical Proper t ie s :

A. Nucleophilic substitution reaction (S N ) : Due to electronegativity difference the C X bond is highly


polarised bond. C X
 
Thus the C-atom of the C X bond becomes centre to attack by a nucleophile (Nu) .

X  ion from R—X molecule is substituted by a Nu . i.e.SN reaction are the most common reactions in R—X.

R—X + Nu R—Nu + X
These may be takes place by two ways -

(a) S N1 mechanism (b) S N 2 mechanism

R2

R1 C X > R1 CH X > R1CH2 X


Reactivity order is : R3 R2
SN1 SN1and SN2 SN2
(Tertiary) (secondary) (secondary)
 Mechenism of S N 1 a n d S N 2 :

 S N 1 Mechanism : SN1 stands for uni molecular nucleophilic substitution. The mechanism involves two steps.
Consider the hydrolysis of tert. butyl bromide with aqueous NaOH.
Step 1: The alkyl halide ionises to give a planar corbonium ion. The corbonium ion is planar because the
central positively charged carbon is sp2 hybridized.

R R R
C
Slow
Br  C  + Br

R R
R
t–alkyl bromide Planar
Step-2 : The nucleophile can attack the planar carbonium ion from either side to give the product.

R
R R R
Fast
C  C OH + OH C

R R R
R
R
OH– t–alkyl alcohol t–alkyl alcohol

(i) Ionisation is the rate determining step because it is the slow step. In other words, the rate at which
alcohol is formed should depend upon the concentration of tertiary alkyl halide alone.
  Rate = K[R 3 C—Br]
It is obvious that the reaction follows first order kinetics, therefore reaction is called S N1 .
(ii) The reactivity order for S N1 reaction  stability of carbocations formed by halides.
  reactivity order of halides ( S N1 ) varies as follows :
Benzyl halide > Allylhalide > 3°halide > 2° halide > 1° halide > methyl halide.
(iii) Remember that in case alkyl halide is optically active, SN1 reactions lead to racemisation.
 S N 2 mechanism : S N 2 stands for bimolecular nucleophilic substitution. In this type of nucleophilic substitution
reaction, there occurs bond making and bond breaking simultaneously.

H H H H H
 Slow
– 
OH C Br  HO C Br  HO C H + Br
H H H
H Walden inversion

Transition state
(i) Reactivities of alkyl halides in S N 2 substitution is governed by steric factors. The bulkier the group, that
less reactive it will be.
(ii) Reactivity order of alkyl halide varies as follows : CH 3X > 1°halide > 2°halide > 3° halide
(iii) The order of reactivity among 1° alkyl halides is : CH 3 X > C 2 H 5 X > C 3H 7X etc.
Remember that in case alkyl halide is optically active, SN2 reactions lead to Walden inversion.
(iv) Thus in short 3° alkyl halides react by S N1 , 1° by S N 2 and 2° by either or both of them SN1 and SN2
depend upon the nature of the alkyl halide and the reagent.
(v) For a given alkyl group the order of reactivity is - (for S N1 and S N 2 both) : RI > RBr > RCl > RF
(vi) In addition to substitution reaction alkyl halide also undergo elimination reactions to form alkene with
the removal of a molecule of hydrogen halide (dehydrohalogenation). In dehydrohalogenation, hydrogen
and halogen atoms are eliminated from two adjacent carbon atoms, the reaction also known as
elimination may proceed by E1 & E2 mechanism (analogous to S N1 and S N 2 mechanism).
The order of elimination reaction is : 3° halides > 2° halides > 1° halides
(vii) In general 3° halides tend to react by elimination; 1° halides by substitution and 2° halides by either or
both of the reactions.

B. Elimination Reactions (ER) : Alkyl halides also undergo ER in the presence of base as Nu (Loss of H—X
and formation of = bond)
H R
 
OR + CH2 CH2 Cl  ROH+ CH3—CH=CH2+ Cl
CH3
1. Nucleoph i lic subst itut ion react ion ( S N ) :
Replacement of Product
HOH(Boil)
(a) X by — OH
R—OH (alcohol) + HX

KOH aq. 
(b) R—OH (alcohol) + KX
X by — OH

moist Ag2O
(c) R—OH (alcohol) + AgX
X by — OH
R—X
KSH alc. 
(d) R—SH + KX
X by — SH
(Mercapto Gp.) Alkane thiol
(Mercaptane)
NaSR
(e) RSR' + NaX
X by SR
Thioether
R' COOAg 
(f) R' COOR + AgX
X by(R'COO)
(Alkyl alkanoate) ester
(g) Reaction with KCN and AgCN :
  Alc.
R—X + K CN 
  R—C N + KX + RNC
Ionic bond cyanide (major)
  .. Alc.
R — X + Ag CN  R— N C + Ag—X + RCN

covalent bond isocyanide (major)

(h) Reaction with KNO 2 and AgNO 2


  + Alc.
R— X + KNO2  R— O—N O + KX + RNO2

Ionic bond (Alkyl nitrites) major

  O
Alc.
R — X + AgNO2  R— N + Ag—X + RONO
 O
covalent bond Nitroalkane (major)

(i) Reaction with NaOR' (Sodium alkoxide) : (wi lliamson synthesis reaction)
R—X + NaOR'  R—OR' + NaX
Example : (i) CH 3 —CH 2 —Cl + NaOCH 3  CH 3 —CH 2 —O—CH 3 (major)
(ii) CH3 CH CH3 + NaOCH3  CH3 CH CH3 + CH3—CH=CH2
(minor)
Cl O CH3
(major)

CH3

(iii) CH3 C Cl + NaOCH3  CH3 C CH2 + NaCl + CH3OH


CH3 CH3
(more reactive) (Alkene) (elimination is more)
(major)

(j) Reaction with NH 3 :



Example : (i) R — X  NH 3  R — NH 2  H — X

(ii) R — X  NH 3  R — NH 2  H — X
(excess)
 R— X R— X
(iii) R — X  NH 3  R — NH 2   R — NH — R  R N R
R


R X

R


R N R X
R

(iv) 
CH 3 —CH 2 —Cl+ NH 3   CH 3 —CH 2 —NH 2 + HCl

(v) CH3 CH CH3 + NH3   CH3 CH CH3 + HCl
Cl NH2 (or elimination product)
CH3 CH2

(vi) CH3 C Cl + NH3  CH3 C + NH4Cl

CH3 CH3
(more reactive) (Elimination is more)

(k) Reaction with CH C Na :
 
R—X + CH C Na  R—C CH + NaX

CH3
– +

IF CH3 C X + CH C Na  CH3 C CH2 + NaX + CH CH
CH3 CH3
(Elimination is more)

2. Elimi nat ion React ion : (Dehydrohalogenation) Alkyl halides undergo  - elimination on treatment with
KOH (alc.)
 

R — C H 2 — CH 2 — X  KOH (alc.)    R—CH CH 2 + HX


CH 3 —CH 2 —CH 2 —CH 2 —Br + KOH(alc.)  CH 3 —CH 2 —CH CH 2 + HBr

H Br
Alc. KOH
CH3 CH CH CH3    CH 3 —CH CH—CH 3 + CH 3 —CH 2 —CH CH 2 + HBr

2 - butene (80%) 1 - butene (20%)


 Compet it ion bet ween subst itut ion a nd elemi nat ion react ions :

Reactivity order of alkyl halides : E1 - Reaction : 1° < 2° < 3°

E2 - Reaction : 1° < 2° < 3°


SN1 - Reaction : 1° < 2° < 3°
SN2 - Reaction : 1° > 2° > 3°

Alkyl halides S N 2 /E 2 S N 1 /E 2
1° Alkyl halides Mainly give substitution unless Can not undergo SN 1/E 1
sterically hindered alkyl halide
or sterically hindered base in
which case elimination is favoured
2° Alkyl halides Both substitution and elemination, Both substitution and elemination
stronger base/ bulkier base or high high temp. greater of percentage
temp. greater percentage of elimination. of elimination
3° Alkyl halides Mainly elimination Both substitution and elimination, high
temp greater percentage of elimination.

(i) S N 2 / E 2 is favoured by high conc. of good neucleophile or strong base. (CH3O, HO)

Rate of Reaction  (Substrate) (Reagent)


(ii) S N1 / E 1 is favoured by low conc. of poor neucleophile or weak base (CH3OH, H2O)
(iii) If an alkyl halide, undergoes S N 2 / S N1 – Reaction then S N 2 will be favoured by high conc. of goodd
neucleophile (negetively charged) in presence of polor aprotic solvent . where as S N1 – reaction is
favoured by low conc. of poor neucleophile (neutral) is presence of polar protic solvent.
Polar protic solvent : H2O, CH3OH, HCOOH.
Polar aprotic solvent : DMSO, CH3CN, C2H 5–O–C 2H 5
CH 3 OH
Example : CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 —Br + CH 3 O    CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 —OCH 3 + CH 3 CH CH 2
major minor
S N2 E2

CH3 CH3 CH3


CH OH

Example : CH3 CH CH2 Br + CH3O  CH3 CH CH2 + CH3 C CH2
3

minor major
OCH3
SN2 E2

CH3 CH3
Example : CH3 C CH2 CH OH

Br + CH3O  CH3 C CH CH3
3

major
CH3
E1

CH3
Example : CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + CH3 C ONa  CH—CHCH=CH 3 2 2

(E2) mech.
CH3


CH3CH2O
CH3CH2OH
CH3 CH CH2
(major)
Example : CH3 CH CH3
Br
CH2COO
CH3 CH CH3
CH3COOH

O C CH3
O
(major)

CH3
H2O
CH3 C OH
CH3 Via SN1 mech.
CH3
CH3OH
CH3 C OCH3

conc.HO CH3
CH3 
conc.CH3O CH3

Example : CH3 C Br CH C
 CH3 C Via E2 mech.
CH3 NH2
 CH2
CN
(major)

Saytzeff rule : According to this rule "The dehydrohalogenation of an alkyl halide results preferentially in the
production of more alkylated alkene i.e. more stable alkene.
3. Wurtz Reaction : When a mixture of different alkyl halides, (R1 - X) and (R2 - X) is used a mixture of alkane
is formed -
R1—X + 2Na + X—R 2 Ether  R 1 —R 2 + R 1 —R 1 + R 2 —R 2 + NaX
 
If 'Zn' is used in place of 'Na' the reaction is called Frankland's Reaction.
4. Halogenation of alkyl halides :
 or. U.V. Cl 2 Cl 2
CH 3 —Cl + Cl 2 
light (– HCl )
 CH 2 Cl 2 
– HCl
 CHCl 3 
– HCl
 CCl 4

Cl2 Cl2 Cl
  C2H3Cl3   C2Cl 6
2
Similarly C2H 5Cl    C2H4Cl2  (excess)

5. Reduction : R - X are reduced to corresponding alkane.

R—X + 2H 
Re ducing agent
 R—H + HX

(i) CH 3 CH 2 Br + H 2 Ni
  CH3CH3 + HBr

(ii) Zn / HCl
CH3CH2CH2 Br + 2H   CH3 - CH2 - CH3 + HBr

(iii) Re d.P
C 2H 5I + HI   C2H6 + I 2
6. Format ion of Orga nometalic compounds :

(i) R—X + dry ether


Mg   RMgX (Grignard reagent)

(ii) 2C2H5Br + 2Zn dry ether


  (C2H5)2 Zn + ZnBr2

(iii) 2C2H5Br + Hg(Na) (C2H5)Hg 2NaBr


Sodium Amalgam
(iv) 4C2H5Cl + 4Na / Pb (C2H5)4 Pb + 4NaCl + 3Pb
Sodium lead Alloy Tetra ethyl lead (used as antiknocking agent)
7. Friedel - Craft s react ion :

CH3
AlCl3(anhyd)
+ CH3Cl  + HCl
Benzene Toluene

8. Action of heat :
At or below 300  C
(i) CH 3 —CH 2 —CH 2 —Cl 
(Re arrangem ent )  CH3 CH CH3
Cl

Above
(ii) CH3 CH CH2  CH3CH CH2 + HI (Elimination)
300° C
Propylene
l H

 Uses :
(a) As alkylation agent (Wurtz reaction)
(b) As synthetic reagent
(c) Lower members used as anaesthetic agent, refrigerent or solvent.
DIHALIDES
General formula CnH2nX2 .Two H - atom of alkanes, replaced by two halogen atoms to form dihalides.
Dihalides are classified as :
(a) Gem dihalide : The term Gem is derived from geminal means - same position.
Two similar halogen atoms are attached to same C - atom
Example : CH 3 CHX 2 ethylidene dihalide (1, 1 - dihalo ethane)

CH3
CHX2 Isopropylidene dihalide (2, 2 - dihalo propane)
CH3

(b) Vic dihalides : Vic term from - Vicinal means adjacent C - atoms
Two halogen atoms are attached on adjacent carbon atom.

Example : CH2 CH2 H C CH CH2 Vic and Gem dihalide s are posit ion isomer s.
X X H X X

ethylene dihalide Propylene dihalide


(1,2-dihaloethane) (1,2-dihalopropane)
(c)   dihalides : Halogen atoms are attached with terminal C - atom. They are separated by 3 or more
C - atom . They are also known as polymethylene halides.

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 (1,4-dichloro butane)


Ex. Tetramethylene dichloride
X X
 General Met ho d of Preparat ion :
(a) Gem dihalides :
(i) By the reaction of PCl5 on carbonyl compound.

O Cl
CH3 C H + PCl5  CH3 C H + POCl3
Cl

Acetaldehyde Ethylidene chloride

O Br
CH3 C CH3 + PBr5  CH3 C CH3 + POBr3
Br

Acetone 2, 2 - dibromo propane


(ii) By addition of halogen acids on alkynes :

CH CH + HBr  CH 2 HBr


CHBr   CH 3 CHBr2
Vinyl bromide 1, 1 - dibromo ethane

Br
HBr
CH3 C CH + HBr  CH3 C CH2  CH3 C CH3
Propyne Br Br
2, 2 - dibromo propane
(b) Vic-dihalide s :
(i) By the addition of halogens to alkenes :

CH2 CH2Br
+ Br2 
CH2 CH2Br
1, 2 - dibromo ethane

CH3 CH CH2 + Br2  CH3 CH CH2


Br Br
1, 2 - dibromo propane

(ii) By the action of PCl5 on glycols :

CH2OH CH2Cl
+ 2PCl5  + 2POCl3 + 2HCl
CH2OH CH2Cl

(c)    dihalides :
(i) CH 2 CH—CH 2 Br + HBr  Br—CH 2 —CH 2 —CH 2 Br
1, 3 - dibromo propane

(ii) h
+ Cl2    CH2 CH2 CH2
Cl Cl

(ii) h
+ Cl2    CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2
Cl Cl

Cl

(iii) h
+ Cl2  + HCl


Note : Here has less tendency to open the ring.

 Physical Proper t ie s :
(i) Lower members are colourless, oily liquids with sweet smell. Higher members are solid.
(ii) The reactivity of gemdihalides is lesser than vicinal or mono halides. [Reason - in presence of one
halogen atom (Strong attracting –I effect) the other halogen atom can not be so easily replaced.
(iii) These are heavier than water.
 Chemical Proper t ie s :
(i) Action of KOH(alc.)  (Dehydrohalogenation)

CH2X CH3 CH
(i) alc. KOH
or
CH2X CHX2 (ii) NaNH2 CH

(ii) Action of KOH(aq.)  (Hydrolysis) It is a distinction test for gem and vic dihalides.
CH2 Cl CH2 OH
(a) + 2KOH(aq.)  + 2KCl
CH2 Cl CH2 OH
Glycol
Vic - dihalide. 1, 2 - ethane diol.

(b) CH3CHXCH2Y KOH (aq.)


  CH3 CH CH2
Vic-dihalide.
OH OH
propane - 1, 2 - diol

CH3 KOH
CH3 KOH(aq.)
Gem.
(aq.)
 and CH3CX2CH3  CH3COCH3 (Ketone)
CHX2 CHO
(iii) Reaction with KCN : Gem and Vic dihalide gives different products
Vic. :

CH2Cl CH2 CN CH2 COOH CH2 CO


H O/H+ 
+ 2KCN  
2
 O
CH2Cl — 2KCl CH2 CH2 —H2O CH2
CN COOH CO
Succinic acid Succinic anhydride
Gem. :

Cl 2KCN CN H O/H+ COOH 


CH3 CH CH3 CH 
2
CH3 CH  CH3 CH2COOH
— 2KCl —CO2
Cl CN COOH
Propionic acid

(i) – CN group on acid hydrolysis gives - COOH


(ii) Two – COOH group on one C – atom on heating always loose CO2 to form monocarboxylic acid.
(iii) Two – COOH group on vic. C – atom on heating loose H2O to form anhydride.
(iv) Dehalogenation :

CH2Br CH3OH
CH2
+ Zn  + ZnBr2
Heat
Vic. CH2Br CH2
Same Carbon Product

CH 3 OH
Gem. CH 3 —CH 2 CH Br 2 + Zn 
   CH 3 —CH 2 —CH CH—CH 2 —CH 3 + ZnBr 2
(Twice Carbon Product)

CH2Br CH OH CH2
 CH2 + Zn 
3
H2C + ZnBr2

CH2Br CH2
  - dihalide. cyclopropane

GRIGNARD REAGENT
 General Met ho d of Preparat ion :
Grignard reagents are prepared in the laboratory by the action of alkyl halides on magnesium metal in the
presence of dry ether.
dry
R – X + Mg 
ether RMgX

(Grignard reagent)
(Alkyl magensium halide)
The ease of formation of Grignard reagent is in the order RI > RBr > RCl
Ether is used to dissolved the Grignard reagent by coordination.
 Chemical Reactions :

2 (i) O (ii) H O+
3

 R—OH 1° Alcohol
H2CO/H3O+

 RCH2—OH 1° Alcohol
O

2 CH —CH /H O+
2 3
 R—CH2—CH2—OH 1° Alcohol
RCHO/H3O+
 R2CHOH 1° Alcohol
HCOOEt/H3O+
 R2CHOH 2° Alcohol
RCOR/H2O
 R3C—OH 3° Alcohol
RCOOEt/H2O
 R3C—OH 3° Alcohol
HCOOEt
 RCHO aldehyde
RMgX RCN/H O
 2
 RCOR Ketone
RCOOEt
 RCOR Ketone
CO2 + H2O
 RCOOH Acids
HOH or ROH or
NH3 or Ph — OH
or R—NH2 or RNH — R
or CH CH or Ph — NH2
 R—H Alkane
R—X
 R—R Alkane
R3N
 No reaction
ClCH2—CH CH2
 R—CH2—CH CH2 Alkene
Cl—NH

2
R—NH2 1° Amine
Cl—CN
 R—CN Cyanides
X2
 R—X Alkyl halide
ClCOOEt
 RCOOEt Ester

ARYL HALIDE
If halogen atom is directly attached to the benzene ring, then compound is called as Haloarene.

CH3
CH3 Cl
Cl Cl
Example :
Cl

(Chlorobenzene) (2–Chlorotoluene) (2,4–Dichlorotoluene)


 General Met ho ds of Preparat ion :
 Halogenation of Benzene :

Cl

AlCl
+ Cl2 
3
+ HCl
 From Phenol :

OH Cl

+ PCl5  + POCl3 + HCl


(minor)

3C6H5OH + POCl3  (C6H5)3 PO4 + 3HCl


(major)
 Sa ndme yer's react ion :

N2Cl Cl
HCl
+ CuCl  + N2

N2Cl Br
HBr
+ CuBr  + N2

 Reaction with KI :

N2Cl I
+ KI  + N2 + KCl

 Balz-sch iema nn's react ion :

 
F
N2Cl N2BF4

+ HBF4   + BF3 + N2

 Hunsdicker react ion :

COOAg Cl
+ Cl2  + CO2 + AgCl

 Rasch ig Proce ss :

Cl

2 2 Cu Cl
2 + 2HCl + O2 

2 + 2H2O

 Chemical Proper t ie s :
(i) Chlorobenzene is essentially inert to aqueus sodium hydroxide at room temperature.
(ii) Aryl halide are very less reactive than alkyl halides in nucleophilic substitution reactions.
(iii) The carbon-halogen bonds of aryl halides are too strong & aryl cations are too high in energy to permit
aryl halides to ionize readily S N1 -type process.
(iv) The optimal transition state geometry required for S N 2 process cannot be achieved.
(v) Nucleophilic attack from the side opposite the carbon-halogen bond is blocked by the aromatic ring.
T he Elimi nat ion-Addit ion Mecha nism of Nucleoph i lic Aromat ic Subst itut ion (Benz yne) :

(i) Very stong base such as sodium or potassium amide react with aryl halide, even those without electron
withdrawing substituents to give products corresponding to nucleophilic substitution of halide by the base.

Cl NH2
KNH2, NH3
+
–33°C
NH2
14 14 14
Chlorobenzyne-1- C Aniline - 1- C Aniline-2- C

Mechanism
Step-1 : Elimination stage ; Amide ion is a very strong base and brings about the dehydrohalogenation of
chlorobenzene by abstracting a proton from the carbon adjacent to the one that bears the leaving group. The
product of this step is an unstable intermediate called benzyne.

H H
..
Cl
..

H .. H
.. –
+ :NH3 + :Cl
.. :
H H NH H
..

.. 2
H H
Chlorobenzene Benzyne

Step-2 : Beginning of addition phase ; Amide ion acts as a nucleophile and adds to one of the carbons of the
triple bond. The product of this step is a carbanion.
H H

H H
..
:NH
.. 2 ..
H H NH2
H H
Benzyne Aryl anion
Step-3 : Completion of addition phase ; The aryl anion abstracts a proton from the ammonia used as the
solvent in the reaction.

H H

H H–NH
.. 2 H H –
..
+ NH2
..
H NH2 H NH2
H H
Aryl anion Aniline
NOTE : The sp 2 orbital in the plane of the ring in benzyne are not properly aligned for good overlap thus 
bonding is weaker than alkyne.

CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3


Cl NH2
KNH2 KNH2
NH3
+
NH3
(i) NH2
O-chloro toluene 3-Methylbenzyne o-Methylaniline m-Methylaniline

CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3

KNH2 KNH2
(ii) NH3 NH3
+
H2N

Cl NH2
p-Chlorotoluene 4-methylbenzyne m-Methylaniline p-Methylaniline

CH3 CH3 CH3


NH2
KNH2
+
NH3
CH3 NH3
3-Methylbenzyne o-Methylaniline p-Methylaniline
KNH2
(iii) NH3 CH3
CH3 CH3
Cl

KNH2 +
NH3
NH2
NH2
4-Methylbenzyne o-Methylaniline p-Methylaniline

Nucleoph i lic Aromat ic Subst itut ion by t he addit ion Elimi nat ion Mecha nism :
(i) The generally accepted mechanism for nucleophilic aromatic substitution in nitro-substituted aryl halides.

Cl OCH3

CH3OH
+ NaOCH3 + NaCl
85°C

NO2 NO2
p-Chloronitrobenzene p-Nitroanisole
(ii) An ortho - nitro group exert a comparable rate-enhancing effect, m-chloronitrobenzyne while much
more reactive than chlorobenzyne itself, is thousand of times less reactive than either o-or
p-chloronitrobenzene.
(iii) The effect of o- & p-nitro substituents is cummulative, as the rate data for substitution with methoxide
ion in a series of nitro-substituted chlorobenzene derivative demostrate increasing rate of reaction as :

Cl Cl Cl Cl

NO2 O2N NO2

NO2 NO2 NO2


Chlorobenzene 1-Chloro-4-nitrobenzene 1-Chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene 2-Chloro-1, 3, 5-trinitrobenzene
Relative rate : 1.0 7 × 10
10
2.4 × 10
15
(too fast to measure)

(iv) In contrast to nucleophilic substitution in alkyl halides, where alkyl fluorides are exceedingly unreactive,
aryl fluorides undergo nucleophilic substitution readily when the ring bears an o-or a p-nitro group.

F OCH3

CH3OH
+ KOCH3 85°C
+ KF

NO2 NO2
p-Fluoro Potassium p-Nitroanisole Potassium
nitrobenzene methoxide (93%) fluoride
(v) Indeed, the order of leaving group reactivity in nucleophilic aromatic substitution is the opposite of that
seen in alphatic substitution.
(vi) Fluoride is the best reactive leaving group in nucleophilic aromatic substitution, iodide the least reactive.

Relative reactivity towards sodium methoxide in methanol (50°C)


X = F Cl Br I
312 1.0 0.8 0.4
NO2

(vii) Kinetic studies of many of the reactions described in teh section have demostrated that they follow a
second-order rate law.
Rate = k[aryl halide] [nucleophile]
(viii) Second order kinetics is usually interpreated in terms of a bimolecular rate determining step.
F OCH3

+ NaOCH3 + NaF

NO2 NO2
p-Fluoronitrobenzene Sodium methoxide p-Nitroanisole Sodium Fluoride
Mechanism :
Step -1 - Addition stage. The nucleophile, in this case methoxide ion, adds to the carbon atom that bears the
leaving group to give a cyclohexadienyl anion intermediate.

.. .. ..
:F: :F: :OCH3

H H H .. H
.. slow
+ :OCH
.. 3
H H H H

NO2 NO2
p-Fluoronitrobenzene Methoxide ion Cyclohexadienyl anion intermediate

Step -2 - Elimination stage. Loss of halide form the cyclohexadienyl intermediate restores the aromaticity of
the ring and gives the product of nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

.. .. ..
:F: :OCH3 :OCH3

H .... H H H .. –
+ F

..
..
– Fast ..
Fluoride ion
H H H H
NO2 NO2

Cyclohexadienyl p-Nitroanisole
anion intermediate

(a) Dow proce ss :

Cl OH

300°C
+ Aq.NaOH 
High pressure + NaCl (via benzyne mechanism)

Presence of deactivating group in ortho and para position makes the nucleophilic substitution easier.
Reactivity Order : (Towards nucleophilic substatitution)

Cl Cl Cl Cl
NO2 NO2 NO2
> > >

NO2 NO2 NO2

Br NH2

liq. NH3
(b) + KNH2  + KBr
low temperature
Strong base

Cl CN

(c) Pyridine, 300°C


+ CuCN  + CuCl
high pressure
 Fit t i ng react ion :

dry ether
Cl + 2Na + Cl  + 2NaCl

(Diphenyl)

 Wur tz fit t i ng react ion :


dry ether
Cl + 2Na + ClCH2CH2CH3 

CH2CH2CH3 + 2NaCl

 Format ion of ar yl megnisium halide :

THF
Cl + Mg  MgCl

 Reduction :
X
Ni—Al/NaOH


 With Chloral :

H Cl Cl
H2SO4, 
CCl3CHO +  Cl3C—CH
–H2O
H Cl Cl

DDT (insecticide)
p,p–Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane
 Electroph i lic Subst itut ion React ion :

Cl Cl Cl
FeCl3
Cl
(i) + Cl2  +

Cl is o– and p– directing group. Cl

Cl Cl Cl
NO2
H SO
(ii) + HNO3  2 4
+

NO2

Cl Cl Cl
SO3H
(iii) + H2SO4

 +

SO3H

(iv) Friedal Craft Reaction :

Cl Cl Cl
CH3
AlCl
+ CH3Cl  3
+

CH3
SOLVED EXA MPLES

Ex.1 Which of the following undergoes Hydrolysis most easily :

Cl Cl
Cl Cl NO2 NO2 NO2
NO2
(A) (B) (C) (D)
NO2 NO2

Ans. (D)
Sol. If there is more m-directing group then there will be more nuclephilic substitution reaction.
Ex.2 The product in the following reaction is :
Ph – Cl + Fe / Br2  Product
(A) o– bromo-chloro benzene (B) p– bromo-chloro benzene
(C) (A) and (B) both (D) 2, 4, 6-tribromo chloro benzene Ans. (C)
Sol. Since – Cl group is deactivating and o/p directing group so only o– and p– products are formed.
Ex.3 The most reactive towards SN1 is :
(A) PhCH 2Cl (B) Ph–Cl (C) CH 3CHCl(CH 3 ) (D) p–NO 2 —Ph—CH 2 —Cl
Ans. (A)
Sol. S N1 the intermediate carbocation is formed.

C6H5—CH2Cl  C 6 H 5CH 2 is maximum stable due to resonance.
Ex.4 Which of the following is used as insecticide :
(1) D.D.T. (2) Chloritone (3) Chloropicrin (4) (A) and (C) both Ans. (D)