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STEADY OR STREAMLINE FLOW

The flow of a liquid fluid is said to be


steady, orderly, streamline or laminar, if
the velocity at every point in the fluid
remains constant. The line along which
the particles of the fluid move is called a
streamline.
The fluid flow remains steady or
streamline if does not exceed a limiting
value called its critical velocity. Beyond
critical velocity , fluid loses its steadiness
and become zigzag and sinuous
acquiring
i i turbulence.
t b l

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Fundamental equation of fluid flow:

For an incompressible fluid:


B
Mass of the fluid entering Section A
A per second = Mass of the fluid
leaving section B per second

a 1 v1 ρ = a 2 v 2 ρ OR av = Constant (Volume flux,flux rate


of flow or rate of discharge, a = cross
⇒ a 1 v1 = a 2 v 2 sectional area)
CONTINUITY EQUATION
Equation of continuity also tells that volume rate of flow (also mass
rate of low)) of an incompressible
p fluid remains constant throughout
g
the flow.
Further, since av = constant,

1 The velocity of the fluid flow at any section of the pipe is inversely
v∝ proportional to the cross section of the pipe at that section
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ENERGY OF THE FLUID
1
1. Kinetic Energy KE = mv 2
2
1 1
KE per unitit mass = v 2 KE per unit
it Volume
V l = ρv 2
2 2
gy
2. Potential Energy PE = mgh

PE per unit mass = gh PE per unit Volume = ρ gh

3. Pressure Energy W = pa × δ l
pa × δ l pa × δ l p
Pressure energy per unit mass = = =
δm a δlρ ρ
p
Pressure energy
gy p
per unit volume = ×ρ = p
ρ
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BERNOULLI’S THEOREM

Theorem states that the total energy of an incompressible, non-


viscous fluid is steady flow remains constant throughout the flow.

1 2 p
v + + gh = Const .
2 ρ
Static Pressure
OR

1
ρ v 2 + p + ρ gh = Const . Velocity head
2 Gravitational
head
Dynamic Pressure 1 v2 p
Alternatively + + h = Const .
2 g gρ

Pressure head
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VISCOSITY

The tangential backward dragging


force between the two adjacent
layers of a liquid which opposes
relative motion between them is
called viscous force or viscous drag.
The property of a liquid which gives
rise to such viscous forces is called
viscosity.
F
Shearing Stress =
A
v
Shearing Strain = φ =
z
Coefficient of viscosity of the liquid
(Newton)
F F
η= A ⇒η = A
φ v
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F
η= A
v
z

For a non-linear
non linear velocity distribution,
distribution
F
F dv
η= A ⇒ =η
dv A d
dz
dz
dv
⇒ F = ηA
d
dz

This is known as Newton’s law of


viscous flow of a liquid.
q This equation
q
is applicable to laminar or streamline
flow.

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POISEULLE’S EQUATION

Assumptions:

1 Th
1. The liquid
li id flow
fl i steady
is t d or streamline
t li parallelll l to
t the
th axis
i off a
tube
2. There is no radial flow hence pressure is constant over any
given cross section of the tube
3. The liquid in contact with the tube wall is stationary.

For a horizontal tube (Negates the effect of gravity on flow)

dv
Velocity
y Gradient: dx

Backward dragging Force:


dv dv
F = ηA = η ( 2π xl )
dx dx
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For steady flow:
Driving force = backward dragging force

⇒ P × π x = −η ( 2π xl )
2 dv P × πx 2 Px
⇒ dv = − dx =− dx
dx η ( 2π xl ) 2η l
P P x2
⇒v=−
2η l ∫ xdx =−
2η l 2
+ C1

Since, at x = r, v = 0

P r2 P r2
0=− + C1 ⇒ C1 =
2η l 2 2η l 2

Px 2 Pr 2 P
⇒v=− + ⇒v= (r 2 − x 2 )
4η l 4η l 4η l

Velocity
y distribution curve of the advancing
g liquid
q is a p
parabola

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Imagine
ag e a another
ot e coco-axial
a a cycylinder
de oof radius
ad us x+dx
d e enclosing
c os g tthe
e
shell of radius x. The cross sectional area between the two;

2π xdx
Thus volume of the liquid flowing per second through this area is;

dQ = 2π xdx
d ×v
Volume of the liquid flowing through the whole tube i.e. rate of flow
through the tube is;
r r
P
Q = ∫ 2π xdx × v = ∫ 2π x ( r 2 − x 2 ) dx
0 0
4η l

r
πP ⎡ x r x ⎤
2 2
πP ⎡ r 4 x 4 ⎤
4
π P r 4 π Pr 4
= ⎢ − ⎥ = ⎢ − ⎥ ⇒Q= =
2η l ⎣ 2 4 ⎦ 0 2η l ⎣ 2 4 ⎦ 2η l 4 8η l

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STOKES’ LAW
When a body falls through a viscous medium, it
encounters an opposing viscous drag. Stokes obtained
an equation for the viscous drag on a spherical body,
body
which is given as;
F = 6πη rv
R = radius of the body; v = velocity; η =
Coefficient of viscosity of the medium
Stokes’s assumptions:
i. The body is perfectly rigid and smooth
ii Medium is infinite and homogeneous
ii.
iii. There is no slip between ball and the
medium
i There
iv. Th i no eddies
is ddi andd waves ini the
th
medium
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The viscous drag increases with velocity of the falling
body. In case of small bodies, this force may become
equal to the driving force. The body in this situation
attains a constant velocity know as TERMINAL
VELOCITY.

If ρ be the density of the spherical body,


body its weight is;
4 3
W b = mg = π r ρ × g
3
It displaces the medium of the same volume. Thus the
weight of displaced media would be;
4 3
W m = πr σ × g
3
4 3
R
Resultant
lt t downward
d d force:
f FR = π r g ( ρ − σ )
3
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When body attains terminal velocity then; F = FR
4 3
⇒ 6πη rv = π r g ( ρ − σ )
3

2 ( ρ − σ )r 2 g
⇒v= TERMINAL VELOCITY
9 η

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