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English

for 12th grade.

Cause
&
Effect

Cause is something that makes something else happen. It is the reason.


Effect is the result of the cause.
In other words, cause is the why something happens, and effect is the what
that has occurred as a result.

 Example :
1. Because Roni lighted up some firecrackers near his house, his house
was burnt down.
 Roni lighted up some firecrackers near his house (Cause)
 His house was burnt down. (Effect)

Connecting Words can sometimes help us to better see the cause of


something and its effect.

1
English
for 12th grade.
CONNECTING WORDS

Connecting words are words that connect ideas together.


Connecting words are divided by two, they are:
1. Connecting words which are followed by NOUN PHRASE.
2. Connecting words which are followed by SENTENCE.

I. Connecting Words Followed by SENTENCE


 Because
 Example : Udin left the school early because he felt under weather.
Cause : he felt under weather.
Effect : Udin left the school early.
Connecting word : because
 Consequently
 Example: The children played all afternoon in the creek consequently
they were soaking wet when they got home.
Cause : The children played all afternoon in the creek.
Effect : they were soaking wet when they got home.
Connecting word : consequently
 Therefore

 Example: The little boy played hard all day without taking nap
therefore he went bed early.
Cause : The little boy played hard all day without
taking nap.
Effect : he went bed early.
Connecting word : therefore

2
English
for 12th grade.
 Since

 Example: I asked my mother to cook me crab porridge last weekend


since it is my favorite meals.
Cause : it is my favorite meals.
Effect : I asked my mother to cook me crab porridge
last weekend
Connecting word : since
 As a result

 Example: Nancy studied math all weekend for her math test, as the

result, she got A on her test.

Cause : Nancy studied math all weekend for her math


test.
Effect : she got A on her test.
Connecting word : as the result
 So

 Example: My family stayed out of town for the whole weekend so I


stay in my friend’s boarding house for a while.
Cause : My family stayed out of town for the whole
weekend
Effect : I stay in my friend’s boarding house for a
while.
Connecting word : so
 Thus

 Example: My mother was in the kitchen cooking all day long thus my
family enjoyed delicious meals for dinner.
Cause : My mother was in the kitchen cooking all day
long
Effect : my family enjoyed delicious meals for dinner.
Connecting word : thus

3
English
for 12th grade.
II. Connecting Words Followed by NOUN PHRASE
 Because of
 Example: As a soldier, my father has to leave his family because of his
duty.
Cause : his duty.
Effect : As a soldier, my father has to leave his family
Connecting word : because of
 Due to
 Example: Mr. Johnny forgot to bring a raincoat due to a big hurry.
Cause : a big hurry.
Effect : Mr. Johnny forgot to bring a raincoat
Connecting word : due to
 Thanks to
 Example: I could finally buy a car thanks to the job.
Cause : the job.
Effect : I could finally buy a car
Connecting word : thanks to