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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing



Introduction 1

Module Tutors

 Dr Anthony Olomolaiye – Module Leader

• E-mail:

 Mr Andrew Bell – Associate HoD

• E-mail:

 Dr Miles – Senior Lecturer

• E-mail:

Introduction 2

Rules of Engagement
You are expected to behave in a very professional
Lectures start promptly
The door will probably be locked 10 minutes after the
start & not opened
Anyone arriving after then might not be admitted
The register will be checked for false entries &
checked against names if necessary
Any student disrupting the lecture will be evicted and
reported to the Dean

Introduction 3

Introduction - page 1
COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

 Lecture Notes
 A wealth of publications in
the CU & Public Libraries

Introduction 4

Module Notes
 Available on Moodle only
 The notes are divided into sections, as shown in the
sequence of sessions
 Session numbers and page numbers are shown at
the bottom, right side of each slide and page
 You should also be able to demonstrate that you
have absorbed some of the recommended reading
and researched other sources of information
 Sessions will include some additional material and
many practical exercises
Introduction 5

Intended Module Learning

On successful completion of this module,
students should be able to:
1. Assess the business case for a project.
2. Recommend a suitable structure & process for
monitoring & controlling of the project.
3. Formulate a strategy for the implementation
of change.
4. Perform effectively & efficiently as a member
of a project team.
Introduction 6

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Assessment Methods

Assessment 1 MS Project Plan Individual


Assessment 2 Simulation Team


Assessment 3 Group Project Team


Introduction 7

Lecture Outcomes
At end of today’s lecture, you should be able to:

I. Differentiate between a project, a programme, & a


II. Elucidate the characteristics of projects

III. Recount the historical development & evolution of

project management

Introduction 8

A Project is...
• “A temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product,
service or result”
• “A set of co-ordinated activities, with a specific start & finish,
pursuing a specific goal with constraints on time, cost &
resources” – ISO 8402
• “A management environment ... created for the purpose of
delivering ... business products according to a specific business
case” – PRINCE2
• “A unique process ... with start & finish dates, undertaken to
achieve an objective ... including constraints on time, cost &
resources” – BSI
• “An endeavour in which ... resources are organised ... to deliver a
unique scope of work ... within constraints of cost & time ...” - APM
Introduction 9

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Project - A Simple Definition

A project is a task with

a beginning

an end

and identifiable objectives

Dr Martin Barnes

Introduction 10

Project - Definition

… A temporary endeavor undertaken

to create a unique product/ service.

 Temporary - the project has a definite end.

 Unique - the product/ service is different in

some distinguishing way from all similar
products/ services...

Introduction 11

The Nature of Projects

 Can be revenue or capital projects
 e.g. new vehicle or new computer system

 Need to understand the objectives

 Scope, costs and timescale
 Quality, health & safety and resources

 Alternative solutions
 Affects the risks, cost, time and resources

Introduction 12

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Attributes of projects
 Temporary – Have a start & finish dates
 Non-repetitive & often have novel
features (Unique)
 Have resource constraints
 Involvement of a temporary team
(change as the work progresses)

Introduction 13

Introduction 14

Project Objectives:
Achieve Balance

Objective Definition

1. Performance The quality of the work being


2. Cost The cost of the project work,

directly related to human and
physical resources

3. Time The schedule that must be met.

Introduction 15

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Project Objectives: Trapezium

Cost Quality
Introduction 16

Project Objectives: Parallelogram

Introduction 17

Projects Vs Operations
Turner R. (2009)

Business as usual Change & innovation

 Operations  Projects

 Repetitive  Unique
 Eternal  Finite
 Evolutionary change  Revolutionary change
 Equilibrium  Disequilibrium
 Balanced objectives  Unbalanced objectives
 Stable resources  Transient resources
 Stability  Flexibility
 Efficiency  Effectiveness
 Roles  Goals
 Experience  Risk and uncertainty
Introduction 18

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Project - Some Examples

 Introducing a new  Preparing for an
vehicle exhibition

 Constructing a  Moving to another

building site

 Changing computer  Managing a culture

systems change

 Introducing new  Managing multiple

plant and machinery projects
Introduction 19

Project Classification
(Lock, 2007)

 Civil Engineering, construction, petrochemical, mining etc.

 on-site, remote from head office, exposed to elements
 massive capital investment, consortium, several contractors
 Manufacturing: (equipment, machinery, ship, etc.)
 in-house, on-the-spot management, optimum environment
 usually purpose-built for single customer
 Management: (relocation, restructuring, cultural change)
 might not be a visible tangible result but outcome still vital
 large human resource element & possible resistance to change
 high level of risk & reward, long duration, high cost
 objectives difficult or impossible to define
 needs a more flexible cost & time management control system
Introduction 20

Categorising Projects
 Strengths and weaknesses





Introduction 21

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Project Benefit / Purpose

 Corporate strategy is implemented through projects
 to increase shareholder value – future cash flows
 to give sustainable competitive advantage
 to increase profitability
 by earning more revenue
 by reducing costs
 by reducing working capital

 by improving efficiency & productivity

 to remain in business – survival

 no benefit should be exaggerated to justify a project
Introduction 22

Project Management
the most transferable management skill

Introduction … because it is founded on common sense 23

Project Activity Cycle

Identify objectives Identify work content
Understand constraints Define work scope
Identify stakeholders Create schedule of work
Develop strategy Generate budgets
Create organisation
Define procedures

Authorise work Monitor performance
Delivery, hand over
Perform defined work Control changes
Settlement of claims & fees
Implement procedures Understand variances
Disposal of redundant assets
Implement changes Initiate corrective actions
Post project review
& corrective actions Forecast the future

Introduction 24

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Some Examples of Project

 PrInCe 2: Projects in Controlled Environments

 PM2 : Project Management Methodology

 MITP : Managing the Implementation of the

Total Project

 CMM : Capability Maturity Model

 DSDM : Dynamic Systems Development
 PMBoK: ?
Introduction 25

PM Body of Knowledge
1) Project Integration Management
2) Project Scope Management
3) Project Time Management
4) Project Cost Management
5) Project Quality Management
6) Project HR Management
7) Project Communication Management
8) Project Risk Management
9) Project Procurement Management 26

Project Management
- Definition
The application of knowledge, skills,
tools & techniques to project activities in
order to meet stakeholders needs &
expectations from a project.

Introduction 27

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

A Brief History

2 Forefathers
i. Henry Gantt - Gantt chart
ii. Henri Fayol - 5 Management Functions
Introduction 28

5 Major influences which helped

shape & form the discipline of
project management:
1. Development of management thought
2. Creation of special tools and techniques
3. Development of information and
communication technologies
4. Socioeconomic and political influences
5. Expanding scope of project management
Introduction 29

Characteristics of Project
 Powerful planning tool

 Provides a structured approach

 Needs to be tailored to project scope

 Cross functional understanding needed

 Needs a facilitator or ‘Champion’

Introduction 30

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Why Project Management?

Projects and project management are essential to the
non-routine duties that must bring about change.
 Provides a systematic approach to manage
complexity, uncertainty & risk
 Better, more responsive, control
 Better client relationship
 Sharper focus on results
 Better interdepartmental co-operation
 Shorter development times
 Lower cost, higher quality & reliability
 Higher profit margins & return on investment
Introduction 31

Benefits of Project
 Allocate scarce resources
 Focus management skills on to specific tasks
 Secure commitments to deliver results
 Direct elements of the business with excessive
 Keep control of multiple projects
 Ensure that quality and safety are engineered into
projects at the design stage
 Extend the experience of staff

Introduction 32

Programme Management
 Coordinated management of a group of projects having a
common strategic objective to deliver benefits that would
not be achieved were the projects managed independently
 Product extension – extending the life of an existing product to
fill a potential gap in the product life cycle
 New Product development – designing and producing a new
product to replace an existing product
 Process development – improving the manufacturing process to
enable more efficient production
 Coordinating deliverables, interfaces, resources, priorities,
information, technology
Introduction 33

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COVENTRY UNIVERSITY Faculty of Engineering & Computing

Types of Programme:

1. The multi-project (multi-client) programme

2. The multi-project (single client) programme

3. The mega-project programme

4. The programme management (or

management by projects) organisation

Reiss (1996)
Introduction 34

Programmes Vs. Projects

Programme Management is different from
Project Management.
Programme manager:
Project manager:
• Has more complex and subtle
• Is focused on making success criteria. e.g.: A Govt
programme to manage the
project succeed;
consequences of harsh weather, floods,
• Delivering the project is drought, snowstorms & climate
change. Logically, there will not be
everything and floods & drought at the same time.

• Failure results if project • The programme can succeed

without every single project
not delivered succeeding.
Introduction 35

Project Portfolio Management

The continuous process of selecting & managing the optimum set of
project-oriented initiatives to deliver maximum business value.”

Grouping of projects for management convenience

Often sharing
common resources Programme A Project

Portfolio projects Project

do not necessarily
share common
objectives Portfolio Project

Ensures that projects Project

are ‘visible’
Avoids duplication, or
inappropriate projects, Project

Introduction Project 36

Introduction - page 12