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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.

2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

Experiment No. 2
The DC Self-Excited Shunt Generator
OBJECTIVES

1. To learn how to connect the self-excited generator


2. To study the properties of a self-excited DC shunt generator under no-load and full load
conditions
3. To obtain the armature voltage vs armature current load curve of the generator

DISCUSSION

The separately-excited generator in Experiment 1 has many applications. However, it does have
the disadvantage that a separate direct current power source is needed to excite the shunt field.
This is costly and sometimes inconvenient; and the self-excited DC generator is often more
suitable.

In a self-excited generator, the field winding is connected to the generator output. It may be
connected across the output, in series with the output, or a combination of the two. The way in
which the field is connected (shunt, series or compound) determines many of the generator’s
characteristics.

All of the above generators can have identical construction. Self-excitation is possible because
of the residual magnetism in the stator pole pieces. As the armature rotates, a small voltage is
induced across its windings. When the field winding is connected in parallel (shunt) with the
armature, a small field current will flow. If this small field current is flowing in the proper
direction, the residual magnetism will be reinforced which further increases the armature voltage
and thus, a rapid build-up of the internal armature voltage occurs.

If the field current flows in the wrong direction, the residual magnetism will be reduced and
voltage build-up cannot occur. In this case, interchanging the shunt field leads will correct the
situation. It is the purpose of this experiment to show these major points.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

1 unit 8110: Mobile Workstation 1 unit 8425: AC Ammeter


1 unit 8211: DC Motor/Generator 1 unit 8426: AC Voltmeter
1 unit 8241: Three-Phase Synchronous 1 unit 8942: Belt
Motor/Generator 1 unit 8821: Power Supply
1 unit 8311: Resistive Load 25 pcs Insulated wires with connectors
1 unit 8412: DC Voltmeter/Ammeter 1 unit Electronic VOM

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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

CHECKING ACTIVITIES
CAUTION!

High voltage is present in this experiment!


Do not make any connections with the power on!
Make sure that the set is unplugged and the main switch of the
Power Supply is in the 0 position and its variable supply knob is set
to MINIMUM.

Electronic VOM
1. Turn on the instrument
2. Check battery level. Return to the dispensing counter if the battery level indicator is
flashing on and off and have it replaced.
3. Set instrument setting for continuity test
4. Perform continuity test and ensure that a continuous beep sound can be heard.

Connecting Wires
5. Check each wire for continuity. Ensure that a continuous beep sound can be heard from
the Electronic VOM
6. Separate the wires that are not continuous and inform the instructor about it.

DC Motor/Generator Module
7. Perform continuity test for the Armature circuit (terminal pair 1-2) of the DC Generator
8. Perform continuity test for the SHUNT circuit (terminal pair 5-6) of the DC Generator
9. Open the fiberglass panel and on the lower right portion, press once the black 0.4 A
reset/fuse button to ensure that the fuse is not tripped.
10. Check smooth rotation of roller bearing assembly mounted at the right side of the
module. Inform the instructor if there is a problem with the bearings.
11. Close the fiberglass panel.
12. Set FIELD RHEOSTAT knob to full clockwise (minimum resistance) position. Connect
the Electronic VOM at terminal pair 7-8. Set instrument to measure resistance. Slowly
rotate the field rheostat counter-clockwise to increase resistance. Observe the VOM if
the resistance reading increases. Inform instructor for any irregularities observed.

Three-Phase Synchronous Motor/Generator Module


13. Perform a continuity test for the three windings (terminal pairs 1-4, 2-5, and 3-6) of the
Synchronous Motor
14. Rotate the EXCITER control knob to full counter-clockwise (MIN) position. Close switch
S1 and connect the Electronic VOM across terminal pair 7-8. Set the VOM to measure
resistance. Rotate the EXCITER full clockwise to decrease resistance and observe if the
VOM resistance reading decreases. Rotate the EXCITER full counter-clockwise and
observe if the VOM resistance reading increases.
15. Open the fiberglass panel. Check smooth rotation of roller bearing assembly mounted at
the right side of the module. Close the fiberglass panel.
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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

16. Check if the pulley aligns with the pulley of the DC Motor/Generator Module by putting
the belt and rotating the shaft clockwise and counter-clockwise. The belt should not
become loose. If it does, try to interchange the positions of the machines and repeat this
step.
17. Remove the belt and close the fiberglass panel.

Analog Meter Modules (DC Voltmeter/Ammeter, AC Ammeter and AC Voltmeter)


18. Set all meter needles to zero. Adjust plastic screw on the front panel below the meter
view screen for each meter instrument using a screw driver if necessary. Inform the
instructor if the needle will not move.

Resistive Load Module


19. Using the resistance setting of the multi-tester, check the resistance of each switch

Power Supply Module


20. Set the control knob to zero (full counter-clockwise)
21. If necessary, set the meter needle to zero. Adjust plastic screw on the front panel below
the meter view screen using a screw driver.
22. Connect AC voltmeters (equipment 8426) across terminals 1-2, 2-3 and 3-1.
23. Set the meter selector switch to 7-N.
24. Plug and turn on the Power Supply module. Observe uniformity of all three pilot lamps. If
not, inform the instructor.
25. Using the connected AC Voltmeters, check if the voltage across each pair terminals 1-2,
2-3, and 3-1 is not less than 208 V AC. Inform the instructor if you get a value less than
208 V AC.
26. Rotate control knob to 100 (full clockwise) and observe the meter of the Power Supply
module if it will indicate a value not lower than 120V DC. Inform the instructor if you get a
value less than 120 V DC.
27. Set meter selector switch to 8-N and observe meter if it will indicate a value not lower
than 120V DC. Inform the instructor if you get a value less than 120 V DC.
28. Return the control knob to zero (full counter-clockwise) and turn off the power supply.

PROCEDURE

1. Perform procedure under Appendix A to find the neutral positions of the carbon brushes
of the DC Motor/Generator.

2. Because of its constant running speed, the synchronous motor will be used to
mechanically drive the DC generator. Using your Power Supply, AC Ammeter and Three-
Phase Synchronous Motor/Generator, connect the circuit shown in Figure 2.1.

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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

Figure 2.1

CAUTION!

DO NOT APPLY POWER AT THIS TIME!

3. Terminals 1, 2 and 3 on the Power Supply provide fixed three-phase power for the three
stator windings of the synchronous motor. Terminals 8 and N on the Power Supply
provide fixed DC power for the rotor windings of the synchronous motor. In the
Synchronous Motor/Generator module, set the EXCITER control knob to its middle
position and the switch S1 to open (0 or toggle down) position. Perform the procedure in
Appendix B.

4. a. Using your DC Motor/Generator, DC Voltmeter/Ammeter, and Resistive Load, connect


the circuit shown in Figure 2.2. Please refer to Figure 2.3 for the RL resistance bank.

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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

Figure 2.2

b. Couple the synchronous motor and the DC generator with the belt. MAKE SURE THE
POWER SUPPLY IS UNPLUG AND STILL TURNED OFF!

c. Turn the DC generator FIELD RHEOSTAT control knob to almost, but not full
clockwise position for low resistance setting.

Figure 2.3

d. Place all the resistance switches to OPEN position for no-load (all switches down).
5. a. Turn on the power supply and close switch S1 of the synchronous motor. The motor
should start running immediately after you turned on the power supply.
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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

b. Does the voltage EA build up? YES (If yes, proceed to procedure 5.h.) (2 points)

c. If the voltage EA did not build up, turn off the power supply, open (0 position) switch S1
of the synchronous motor, interchange the shunt field leads at terminals 5 and 6, and
repeat procedure 5.a.

d. If voltage EA still did not build up, turn off the power supply, open (0 position) switch S1
of the synchronous motor module, disconnect the synchronous motor from all
terminals of the power supply (1, 2 and 3; and 8 and N)

e. Separately excite the shunt field circuit (the series connected combination of the
SHUNT field and FIELD RHEOSTAT) of the DC
Motor/Generator module by disconnecting it from
terminals 1 and 2 of the armature circuit and
connecting it directly to terminals 7-N of the Power
Supply module through a 500 mA range DC ammeter
as shown in Figure 2.4.

f. Turn on the power supply and slowly increase the


current to the shunt field (IF) by slowly rotating the
power supply control knob clockwise until it reaches
300 mA. Maintain it for 10 seconds. This step is called
field flashing.

g. After flashing, return the voltage to zero, turn off the


power supply and reconnect the set as indicated in
Figures 2.2 and 2.3. Then repeat procedures
Figure 2.4
beginning from 5.a.

h. Record the open circuit armature voltage. EA = 130 V DC (5 points)

6. Vary the field rheostat by slowly rotating it counter-clockwise and the clockwise and
notice if the armature voltage EA changes. Set the value of EA at 150 V DC. Explain why
the field rheostat resistance affects the armature voltage EA. (6 points)
When the rheostat resistance decreases, the armature voltage increases and

when the rheostat resistance increases, the armature voltage decreases.

7. a. In the Resistive Load module, turn on toggle switches 3, 5 and 6 so that the total load
resistance connected to the DC generator is set at 120 Ω.

b. Adjust the FIELD RHEOSTAT in the DC Generator module until the generator is
delivering an output voltage of 120 V DC. The ammeter IA should indicate 1 A DC.

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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

Note: This is the correct setting of the FIELD RHEOSTAT control knob for the
rated power output of the DC generator (120 V x 1 A = 120 W)

NEVER adjust the FIELD RHEOSTAT control knob of the DC Generator


for the remainder of the Experiment!

c. Adjust the load resistance to obtain each of the values listed in Table 2.1. Measure
and record EA and IA for each of the resistance values listed in the Table.

Load Switches Active Load Current, Generator Power Output


Resistance, in Resistor IA Terminal Po
RL Bank (amps) Voltage, EA
(ohms) (volts) (watts)
infinite None 0 145 0
600 2 0.2 140 28
300 3 0.4 135 54
200 2, 3 0.6 130 78
150 1, 4, 5, 6 0.8 125 100
120 3, 5, 6 0.9 115 103.5
100 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 1.1 110 121
80 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1.2 105 126
75 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 1.3 98 127.4

Table 2.1 (6 points)

d. Turn off the power supply and open switch S1 in the synchronous motor.

e. Calculate and record the output power for each of the resistance shown in Table 2.1.

f. Plot the EA vs IA regulation curve. Use the data from Table 2.1. Label axes properly (6
points)

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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

8. a. Reverse the rotation of the synchronous motor by interchanging any two of the stator
lead connections in terminals 1, 2 and 3 of the synchronous motor.

b. Remove the generator load by opening all the switches in the Resistor Load.

c. Turn on the power supply and turn on switch S1 in the synchronous motor.

d. Does the voltage EA builds up? NO. Explain. (5 points)

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e. Turn off the power supply and open switch S1 in the synchronous motor. Do not
disconnect your set-up.

REVIEW QUESTIONS
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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

1. If a self-excited generator has lost all of its residual magnetism, can it build up an output
voltage? Explain why. (3 points)

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2. How do you get a generator to work after it had lost all of its residual magnetism? (3
points)

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3. Calculate the regulation from no-load to full-load (1 A DC). (2 points)

Regulation = 26.09 %

4. Compare the regulation of the


self-excited generator with the regulation of the separately-excited generator under
Experiment 1. (2 points)

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CONCLUSIONS

1. Make a general statement on the effect of the polarity of the shunt field coils for a
successful voltage build-up. (6 points)

2. Make a general statement on the effect of the generator rotation direction for a successful
voltage build-up. (6 points)

3. Make a general statement on the effect of the value of field circuit resistance on the
magnitude of the build-up voltage. (6 points)

4. Make a general statement on the load-voltage characteristic curve trend of a self-excited


shunt DC generator. (6 points)

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DC Machinery Laboratory Experiment No.2
DCMACHL The Self-Excited DC Shunt Generator

5. Compare the voltage regulation of this generator to that of Experiment No. 1. Make a
general statement out of the observation made. (6 points)

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