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Subject Oral Communication

Week 2
Module 2 Communication Models


1. Aristotle’s Model of Communication

 Aristotle, an ancient Greek philosopher, was proponent of the earliest mass of communication model known as “Aristotle’s Mode of Communication”
before 300 BC.
 He stressed the importance of audience in the communication process. This focuses on public speaking.
 This model is the golden rule in public speaking, lectures, and symposia, seminars where the speaker has to carefully plan his speech and cautiously
choose his words that will impact the audience’s mind and persuade them to act accordingly.

Five Elements of Aristotle’s Model of Communication

Example: Miss Sanchez gave a lecture to her students in the Speech class to overcome stage fright.

Speaker – Miss Sanchez

Speech – how to conquer stage fright
Occasion – Speech class
Audience – students
Effect – overcome stage fright
2. Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Describes an act of communication by defining who said it, what was said, in what channel it was said, to whom it was said, and with what
effect it was said.
It is one of the earliest and most influential communication models. Developed by Harold Lasswell in 1948.
It answers the following questions:

Who – formulates the message

Says what – content of message
In which channel – medium of transmission
To whom – recipient or audience
With what effect? - feedback
3. Shannon – Weaver’s Model of Communication

 It is a transmission model.
 Also known as “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”
 Claude Shannon was an American mathematician and an Electronic engineer. Warren Weaver was an American scientist who wrote an article in “Bell
System Technical Journal”, they were the proponents of Shannon – Weaver’s Model of Communication.
 Designed to develop effective communication between the sender and the receiver.
 “Noise” is an important factor which affects the communication process.

Five Elements of Shannon – Weaver Model of Communication

Example: An individual is engaged in a telephone conversation.

Sender – information source, who sends the message

Transmitter – encodes the message into the signals
Receiver – decodes the message from the signal
Destination – where the message arrives
Noise – dysfunctional factor, any interference/distraction with the message travelling along the channel
4. Schramm’s Model of Communication

 Wilbur Schramm emphasized in 1954 that both the sender and the receiver take turns in playing the role of the encoder and decoder when it comes to
 It is a Circular Model, so that communication is something circular in nature.

Encoder – who does decoding or sends the message

Decoder – who receives the message
Interpreter – person trying to understand (analyzes, perceives) or interpret

 From the message starting to ending, there is an interpretation going on. Based on this interpretation only the message is received
 It can happen within our self or two persons; each person acts as both sender and receiver and hence use interpretation.
 Semantic noise is a concept introduced here it occurs when sender and receiver apply different meaning to the same message. It happens mostly
because of words and phrases. When semantic noise takes place decoding and interpretation becomes difficult and people get deviated from the
actual message.

Example: technical language

5. Berlo’s Model of Communication

 David Berlo pioneered this model of communication or SMCR model in 1960.

 He emphasized the relationship between the sender and the receiver of the message.
 According to this model, for the message to be accurately encoded and decoded, the communication skills of both the sender and the receiver must
be at their best. The communication will be remarkably successful only if the two individuals possesses the necessary skills.

Elements of Berlo’s Model of Communication and its Sub Elements

Source – this is where the message originates

Communication Skills – person’s ability to communicate in reading, writing, speaking, listening etc.
Attitudes – this is the way one thinks and feels towards one self, audience and the subject.
Knowledge – refers to how much information a person has about the topic to be shared. Either he has an extensive
or limited knowledge about the subject.
Social System – This includes values, beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of the society
where the communication happens.
Culture – culture of a particular society also comes under social system.
Message – the idea or information sent by the source.

Content – the substance of the message that gives the detailed information of the topic.
Elements – this includes language, gestures, body language etc. employed in transmitting the content of a person’s message.
Treatment – refers to the manner of handling or dealing with the message. How the message is conveyed or sent.
Structure: how the words are arranged, organized or put together for the message to be clear and easy to understand.
Code – refers to a system of signals or symbols for communication. This is how or in what form the message is sent.
This includes language, body language, gestures, music, art, dance etc.
Channel – refers to the five senses that we use in transmitting the message.
Receiver – the one who receives the message. He also possesses his own communication skills, attitudes, knowledge, social
system and culture.

6. White’s Model of Communication

According to Eugene White, communication is a repetitive, cyclical event but the dynamic quality of interaction is not depicted. She developed
this model in 1960.
It implies a step-by-step sequence that starts with thinking in the part of speaker and ends with monitoring the speaker.
The speaker is the originator of the communication process and the listener is a passive reactor who does not initiate communication.
Eight Stages of Communication

1. Thinking – a desire, feeling, an emotion or stimulus

2. Symbolizing – code of oral language which represents speaker’s ideas
3. Expressing – speaker uses his vocal mechanism to produce the sounds of language accompanied by facial expressions, gestures,
and body stance
4. Transmitting – use of signal or sound waves that carries the speaker’s message
5. Receiving – listener receives the message
6. Decoding – listener interprets the message
7. Feedbacking – listener’s response
8. Monitoring – the speaker is receiving and decoding messages about himself from his audience in order to adjust to a particular

7. Helical Model of Communication

In 1967, the Helical Model of Communication was proposed by Frank Dance, an American Communication professor to better understand how
communication works.
The name helical comes from “Helix” which means an object having three-dimensional shape like that of a wire wound uniformly around a cylinder or
According to Dance’s model, the process of communication evolves from the very birth of an individual and continues for as long as he lives.
This non-linear model believes that communication process is just like a helix which moves forward as well as comes backward and is dependent on
the person’s past behavior with some changes as he grows.
Communication is supposed to be continuous and non-repetitive. It is always growing, accumulative and moving forward.
8. Wood’s Symbolic Interaction Model

A Symbolic Interaction Model (Wood) Language is a system of symbols and words are symbolic. In the course of interaction or
shared experiences, people “generate, convey, and invest meanings and significance” in these symbols. This model reflects the nature of communication as a
dynamic, systemic process in which communicators construct personal meanings through their symbolic interactions. Notice that communicators are linked together
by their symbolic interactions. Interactions may be either sequential or simultaneous since there is no direction specified. Then a given interaction evolves out of
earlier interactions and is influenced by previous encounters as well as by the present situation. As communication progresses over time the shared world between
communicators is enlarged. As people communicate they learn each other’s values, beliefs, attitudes, predispositions to situations, moods and interests. Over time
people also learn to use common symbols to designate ideas, concepts, perceptions, rituals, and expectations. Shared experiences may lead to a greater
understanding between communicators. It is communication that enables people to build shared worlds. Let’s consider an example of the process by which people
construct a shared phenomenal world. Recently a freshman was admitted to a university dormitory facility. She met her roommate with whom initially she had rather
an uncomfortable, stilted encounter. As the two tried to find common areas of interest in their high school life and as they warmed up to each other in view of their
similar goals and expectations of college life, they began to communicate better. The discovery of a shared world spurred them both to relate with a sense of
togetherness in a new, exciting environment that is college. Communication can thus enlarge the shared worlds between communicators. Thus, the model
emphasizes the temporal dimension of communication — a given interaction serves as a starting point for the next and future interactions.