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IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration IEEE Power and Energy Society Sponsored by

IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

IEEE Power and Energy Society

Sponsored by the Transformers Committee

IEEE 3 Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5997 USA

IEEE Std C57.12.59™-2015

(Revision of IEEE Std C57.12.59-2001)

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IEEE Std C57.12.59™-2015

(Revision of IEEE Std C57.12.59-2001)

IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

Sponsor

Transformers Committee

IEEE Power and Energy Society

Approved 3 September 2015

IEEE-SA Standards Board

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Abstract: Recommendations believed essential for the application of overcurrent protective devic- es that limit the exposure time of dry-type transformers to short-circuit currents are set forth in this guide. This guide is not intended to imply overload capability.

Keywords: dry-type transformers, fault current, IEEE C57.12.59™, mechanical damage, mechanical duty, normal base current, short-circuit current, short-circuit impedance, thermal damage

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA

Copyright © 2015 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. All rights reserved. Published 6 November 2015. Printed in the United States of America.

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Participants

At the time this IEEE guide was completed, the DC Circuit Breaker Working Group had the following membership:

Timothy Holdway

Paulette Payne Powell, Chair Bipin Patel, Vice Chair

Charles Johnson

Richard Marek

The following members of the individual balloting committee voted on this guide. Balloters may have voted for approval, disapproval, or abstention.

Samuel Aguirre I. Antweiler Donald Ayers Robert Ballard Barry Beaster Steven Bezner Wallace Binder Thomas Bishop Thomas Blackburn William Bloethe Carl Bush Thomas Callsen Paul Cardinal Suresh Channarasappa John Crouse Ray Davis Dieter Dohnal Gary Donner Donald Dunn Jorge Fernandez Daher Joseph Foldi Marcel Fortin Derek Foster Robert Ganser Carlos Gaytan Frank Gerleve

David Gilmer Jalal Gohari Edwin Goodwin Randall Groves Ajit Gwal Michael Haas Timothy Holdway Jill Holmes Philip Hopkinson Mohammad Iman Richard Jackson Charles Johnson Laszlo Kadar Sheldon Kennedy Yuri Khersonsky Jim Kulchisky Marc Lacroix Chung-Yiu Lam Aleksandr Levin Richard Marek John Miller Daniel Mulkey Jerry Murphy K. R. M. Nair Martin Navarro Michael Newman

Raymond Nicholas Mirko Palazzo Klaus Papp Bansi Patel Wesley Patterson Paulette Payne Powell Branimir Petosic Christopher Petrola Alvaro Portillo Lewis Powell Iulian Profir Michael Roberts Charles Rogers Joseph Rostron Thomas Rozek Bartien Sayogo Jerry Smith David Stankes Kerwin Stretch David Tepen James Thompson John Vergis Kenneth White Jennifer Yu Jian Yu

6

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When the IEEE-SA Standards Board approved this guide on 3 September 2015, it had the following membership:

John D. Kulick, Chair Jon Walter Rosdahl, Vice Chair Richard H. Hulett, Past Chair Konstantinos Karachalios, Secretary

Masayuki Ariyoshi Ted Burse Stephen Dukes Jean-Philippe Faure J. Travis Grif th Gary Hoffman Michael Janezic

*Member Emeritus

Joseph L. Keop nger* David Law Hung Ling Andrew Myles T. W. Olsen Glenn Parsons Ronald C. Petersen Annette D. Reilly

Stephen J. Shellhammer Adrian P. Stephens Yatin Trivedi Philip Winston Don Wright Yu Yuan Daidi Zhong

7

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Introduction

This introduction is not part of IEEE Std C57.12.59™-2015, IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration.

This guide provides recommendations for the application of overcurrent protection devices to limit the expo- sure time of dry-type transformers to short circuits. It shall not be confused with IEEE Std C57.109™, IEEE Guide for Liquid-Immersed Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration, which applies only to liquid-im- mersed transformers.

Dry-type transformers differ significantly from liquid-immersed types in several respects:

a) There are significant variations in dry-type winding constructions, including conventional varnish im- pregnated layered windings, vertically stacked varnish-impregnated disk windings, solid cast wind- ings, and combinations thereof, all of which have different transient heating characteristics during time intervals greater than about 100 s.

b) The transient heating of liquid-immersed transformer windings is considerably buffered by the insu- lating medium in which the windings are immersed, providing a relatively long thermal time constant as compared to dry-type transformers.

Because of the foregoing, the through-fault protection curves for dry-type transformers are limited to overload time intervals of 100 s or less. No one curve for longer time intervals would characterize the thermal perfor- mance of all the different dry-type transformer constructions and temperature ratings. Moreover, such curves are not known or, at least, not available. Consequently, the curves in this guide pertain to the temperature rise of the windings during time intervals less than 100 s, wherein nearly all the heat generated is stored in the conductors. For longer time intervals, it is recommended that reference be made to IEEE Std C57.96™ [B1], IEEE Guide for Loading Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers.

As short-circuit time intervals become progressively less than 100 s, mechanical considerations become more important than thermal characteristics.

Short-circuit performance characteristics are contained in IEEE Std C57.12.01™. This guide supplements that information, but in no way supersedes it.

The substantive revisions of this guide include expansion of the scope to include Category III transformers. The basis for the equations and the thermal and mechanical damage curves of Figure 1, Figure 2, and Fig- ure 3 were developed and are detailed in Annex A. Figure 2a was corrected for consistency with the details of Annex A.

8

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Contents

1.

Overview

10

1.1 Scope

10

1.2 Purpose

10

1.3 General

10

2.

Normative references

11

3.

Definitions

11

4.

Transformer coordination

11

4.1

General transformer coordination

11

4.2

Category I transformers

13

4.3

Category III transformers

14

Annex A (informative) Basis for through-fault protection

16

Annex B (informative) Bibliography

19

9

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IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

IMPORTANT NOTICE: IEEE Standards documents are not intended to ensure safety, security, health, or environmental protection, or ensure against interference with or from other devices or networks. Imple- menters of IEEE Standards documents are responsible for determining and complying with all appropriate safety, security, environmental, health, and interference protection practices and all applicable laws and regulations.

This IEEE document is made available for use subject to important notices and legal disclaimers. These notices and disclaimers appear in all publications containing this document and may be found under the heading “Important Notice” or “Important Notices and Disclaimers Concerning IEEE Documents.” They can also be obtained on request from IEEE or viewed at http://standards.ieee.org/IPR/disclaimers.html.

1. Overview

1.1 Scope

This guide for dry-type transformer through-fault current duration applies to dry-type distribution and power transformers built in accordance with IEEE Std C57.12.01™. 1

1.2 Purpose

This guide sets forth recommendations believed essential for the application of overcurrent protective devices that limit the exposure time of dry-type transformers to short-circuit currents. This guide is not intended to imply overload capability.

1.3 General

Protective devices, such as relays and fuses, have well-dened operating characteristics that relate fault mag- nitude to clearing time. It is desirable that these characteristic curves be coordinated with comparable curves applicable to dry-type transformers that relate duration and fault magnitude to withstand capability.

The magnitude and duration of fault currents are of utmost importance in establishing a coordinated protection practice for transformers, as both mechanical and thermal effects of fault currents shall be considered. For fault-current magnitudes near the maximum short-circuit current rating of the transformer, mechanical effects are more signicant than thermal effects. The maximum symmetrical short-circuit current should not exceed

1 Information on references can be found in Clause 2.

10

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

25 times normal base current in accordance with IEEE Std C57.12.01. At lower fault-current magnitudes ap- proaching the overload range, mechanical effects are less important unless the frequency and duration of fault occurrence is high enough to promote mechanical degradation. The point of transition between mechanical concern and thermal concern cannot be precisely defined; mechanical effects tend to have a more prominent role in larger kVA ratings because the mechanical forces are greater.

2. Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document (i.e., they must be understood and used, so each referenced document is cited in text and its relationship to this document is explained). For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments or corrigenda) applies.

IEEE Std C37.91™, IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power Transformers. 2,3

IEEE Std C57.12.01™, IEEE Standard General Requirements for Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers.

3. Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. The IEEE Standards Dictionary Online should be consulted for terms not defined in this clause. 4

normal base current: Rated current of a transformer corresponding to its rated voltage and rated base kVA.

short-circuit impedance: the sum of transformer impedance and system short-circuit impedance at the trans- former location, expressed in percent of rated voltage and rated base kVA of the transformer.

transformer short-circuit impedance: the transformer impedance expressed in percent of rated voltage and rated base kVA of the transformer.

4. Transformer coordination

4.1 General transformer coordination

For the purposes of coordination of overcurrent protective devices, with transformer short-circuit withstand capability, Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3 are presented as protection curves for transformer Categories I through III as defined in IEEE Std C57.12.01 and adopted in Table 1.

2 The IEEE standards or products referred to in this clause are trademarks of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 3 IEEE publications are available from The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. (http://standards.ieee.org/). 4 IEEE Standards Dictionary Online subscription is available at:http://www.ieee.org/portal/innovate/products/standard/standards_ dictionary.html.

11

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

Table 1—Transformer categories

Category (see NOTE 1)

Single-phase (kVA) (see NOTE 2)

Three-phase (kVA) (see NOTE 2)

Reference protection

curves

I

1–500

15–500

Figure 1

II

501–1667

501–5000

Figure 2

III

1668 – 10 000

5001 – 30 000

Figure 3

NOTE 1— Category I include autotransformers of 500 kVA or less (equivalent two winding) even through nameplate kVA may exceed 500 kVA.

NOTE 2— All kVA ratings are minimum nameplate kVA for the principal winding.

 

For Category I, a single curve applies that re ects both thermal and mechanical damage considerations.

For Categories II and III, two curves apply, one of which re ects both thermal and mechanical damage con- siderations, while the other re ects primarily thermal damage considerations only. On curves that have both a solid and dotted portion, the solid portion represents a total fault duration beyond which thermal damage to insulation adjacent to current-carrying conductors and anneal-softening of aluminum may occur, while the dotted portion represents a total fault duration beyond which cumulative mechanical damage may occur. The increasing signi cance of mechanical effects for higher kVA transformers is re ected in these curves. The frequency of faults varies with different transformer applications. Applications characterizing frequent and infrequent faults are presented in the annex of IEEE Std C37.91.

The curves in Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3 are based upon maximum symmetrical short-circuit current magnitude of dry-type transformers not to exceed 25 times base current limited to a short-circuit current dura- tion of 2 s.

For Category I transformers, the symmetrical short-circuit magnitude will normally be limited only by the transformer impedance.

For Category II and Category III transformers, the symmetrical short-circuit current is calculated based on the sum of the transformer impedance plus a value of system impedance speci ed by the user. See IEEE Std C57.12.01 for additional details.

NOTE— Refer to IEEE Std C57.96 [B1] 5 for loading capabilities at durations longer than 100 s for Categories II and III transformers. 6

The validity of these damage-limit curves cannot be demonstrated by test, since the effects are progressive over the transformer lifetime. The curves are based principally on informed engineering judgment and favor- able historical eld experience; they provide a uniform minimum standard for all dry-type transformers. For an explanation of how the curves are derived, refer to Annex A.

The per-unit short-circuit currents shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3 are the balanced transformer winding currents. The line currents that relate to these winding currents depend upon the transformer connec- tion and the type of fault present. Application engineers shall relate the winding currents to the currents seen by the protective devices in order to protect the transformer within its capability.

5 The numbers in brackets correspond with those of the bibliography in Annex B. 6 Notes in text, tables, and gures of a standard are given for information only and do not contain requirements needed to implement this guide.

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration Figure 1—Category I transformers 4.2 Category I

Figure 1—Category I transformers

4.2 Category I transformers

The recommended duration limit is based on the curve in Figure 1. The curve reflects both thermal and me- chanical damage considerations and should be applied as a protection curve for faults that will occur frequent- ly or infrequently.

4.2.1 Faults that occur frequently

The curve in Figure 2a, reflecting both thermal and mechanical damage considerations, should be applied as a protection curve for faults that will occur frequently (typically more than 10 in a transformer lifetime). It is dependent upon the short-circuit impedance of the transformer for fault currents above the 70% of maximum possible and is keyed to the I 2 t of the worst-case mechanical duty (maximum fault current for 2 s) as shown by the dashed curve for a few impedances. The remaining portion matches the thermal protection curve for faults below the 70% level.

4.2.2 Faults that occur infrequently

The curve in Figure 2b reflects primarily thermal damage considerations. It is not dependent upon short-circuit impedance of the transformer and may be applied as a protection curve for faults that will occur only infre- quently (typically not more than 10 in a transformer lifetime). This thermal damage curve may also be used for backup protection where the transformer is exposed to frequent faults normally cleared by high-speed relaying.

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration Figure 2—Category II transformers 4.3 Category III

Figure 2—Category II transformers

4.3 Category III transformers

The recommended duration limits depend upon fault frequency and are based upon the curves in Figure 3. Fault frequency refers to the number of faults with magnitudes greater than 50% of the maximum as limited by short-circuit impedance.

4.3.1 Faults that occur frequently

The curve in Figure 3a, reflecting both thermal and mechanical damage considerations, should be applied as a protection curve for faults that will occur frequently (typically more than five in a transformer lifetime.) It is dependent upon the short-circuit impedance for fault currents above 50% of the maximum possible and is keyed to the I 2 t of the worst-case mechanical duty (maximum fault current for 2s) as shown by the dashed curve for a few impedances. The remaining portion matches thermal protection curves for faults below the 50% level.

4.3.2 Faults that occur infrequently

The curve in Figure 3b reflects primarily thermal damage considerations. It is not dependent upon short-circuit impedance of the transformer and may be applied as a protection curve for faults that will occur only infre- quently (typically not more than five in a transformer lifetime). This thermal damage curve may also be used for backup protection where the transformer is exposed to frequent faults normally cleared by high-speed relaying.

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration Figure 3—Category III transformers 15 Copyright © 2015

Figure 3—Category III transformers

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

Annex A

(informative)

Basis for through-fault protection

A.1 Through-fault protection curves (see Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3)

Symmetrical short-circuit current for the curves in Figure 1, Figure 2, and Figure 3 of Clause 4 is based upon Equation (A.1):

2

I t

=

k

where

(A.1)

I

is the symmetrical short-circuit current in times normal base

t

is time in seconds

k

is the constant determined at maximum current with t = 2 seconds

Maximum symmetrical short-circuit current magnitude for dry-type transformers per Clause 4 is 25 times base current and short-circuit current duration is limited to 2 s. At maximum short-circuit current magnitude and duration k is determined using Equation (A.1).

I

I

2

2

2

t = ( 25) × 2

t = 1250

(A.2)

(A.3)

Equation (A.3) is the basis of the through-fault protection curves for Category 1 transformers as well as Cat- egory 2 and 3 transformers for faults that occur infrequently. Table A.1 provides symmetrical short-circuit current at various overload time intervals as plotted in the curves.

Table A.1—Symmetrical short-circuit current with duration for Figure 1, Figure 2b, and Figure 3b

t (seconds)

2

5

10

20

50

100

I sym (times normal base current)

25

15.81

11.18

7.91

5

3.54

A.2 Through-fault protection curve (see Figure 2a)

For Figure 2a, the maximum symmetrical through-fault current is dependent upon short-circuit impedance. The equation for this dependency is principally based upon informed engineering judgment and favorable historical field experience.

For fault currents 70% to 100% of maximum, Equation (A.3) is rewritten to find the time that corresponds to 70% of maximum short-circuit current for Category II transformers.

t

= 1250

I

2

16

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(A.4)

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

1250

t = (

0 . 7 25

×

)

2

= 4 0 8

.

s

(A.5)

Per Clause 4, t equals 2 s at maximum through-fault current; and at 70% through-fault current, t equals 4.08 s per Equation (A.5). Symmetrical short-circuit current for fault currents 70% to 100% maximum is determined by the following equation:

2

I t =

2 (

Z
Z

100

)

2

for s

2

t

4 08

.

s

(A.6)

Equation A.6 is rewritten to find the impedance (Z) at short circuit for a given duration.

Z =

100 2 × I t
100
2
×
I
t

(A.7)

Table A.2 shows symmetrical short-circuit current and impedance for fault currents 100% and 70% of max- imum determined by Equation (A.3) and Equation (A.7) respectively, also indicated by the dotted, slanted portion of the curve in Figure 2a.

Table A.2—Symmetrical short-circuit current 70% to 100% maximum for Figure 2a

%

Transformer impedance, Z

Symmetrical short-circuit current (times normal base current)

100% I sym , t =2 s

70% I sym , t =4.08 s

 

4

25

17.5

 

6

16.67

11.67

 

8

12.5

8.75

 

10

10

7

 

12

8.33

5.83

For fault currents below 70%, the symmetrical fault current is determined from Equation (A.3); the duration is determined from Equation (A.8).

t = 0 255 Z 2

.

(A.8)

Table A.3 shows symmetrical short-circuit current and impedance for fault currents below 70% based upon Equation (A.3) and Equation (A.8), also indicated by the dotted, vertical portion of the curves in Figure 2a.

Table A.3—Symmetrical short-circuit current below 70% maximum for Figure 2

%

Transformer impedance, Z

t (seconds)

I sym (times normal base current)

 

4

4.08

17.5

 

6

9.18

11.67

 

8

16.32

8.75

 

10

25.5

7

 

12

36.72

5.83

17

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

A.3 Through-fault protection curve (see Figure 3a)

For Figure 3a, the maximum symmetrical through-fault current is dependent upon short-circuit impedance. The equation for this dependency is principally based upon informed engineering judgment and favorable historical field experience.

For fault currents 50% to 100% of maximum, Equation (A.3) is rewritten as Equation (A.9) to find the time that corresponds to 50% of maximum short-circuit current for Category III transformers.

t

= 1250

I

2

1250

t = (

0 . 5 25

×

)

2

 

(A.9)

= 8

s

(A.10)

Per Clause 4, t equals 2 s at maximum through-fault current, and at 50% through-fault current t equals 8 s per Equation (A.10). Symmetrical short-circuit current for fault currents 50% to 100% maximum is determined by the following equation:

2

I t =

2 (

Z
Z

100

)

2

for s ≤ ≤ s

2

t

8

(A.11)

Equation (A.12) is rewritten to find short-circuit impedance for a given duration.

Z =

100 2 × I t
100
2
×
I
t

(A.12)

Table A.4 shows symmetrical short-circuit current and impedance for fault currents 100% and 50% of maxi- mum determined by Equations (A.3) and Equation (A.12) respectively, also indicated by the dotted, slanted portion of the curve in Figure 3a.

Table A.4—Symmetrical short-circuit current 50% to 100% maximum for Figure 3a

% Transformer impedance, Z

4

6

8

10

12

Symmetrical short-circuit current (times normal base current)

Symmetrical short-circuit current (times normal base current)

100% I sym , t =2 s

25

16.67

12.5

10

8.33

50% I sym , t =8 s

12.5

8.33

6.25

5

4.17

For fault currents below 50%, the symmetrical fault current is determined from Equation (A.3); the duration is determined from Equation A.13.

t = 0 5 Z 2

.

(A.13)

Table A.4 shows symmetrical short-circuit current and impedance for fault currents below 50% based upon Equation (A.3) and (A.13), also indicated by the dotted, vertical portion of the curves in Figure 3a.

18

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IEEE Std C57.12.59-2015 IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current Duration

Annex B

(informative)

Bibliography

Bibliographical references are resources that provide additional or helpful material but do not need to be un- derstood or used to implement this standard. Reference to these resources is made for informational use only.

[B1] IEEE Std C57.96™, IEEE Guide for Loading Dry-Type Distribution and Power Transformers.

19

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