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• SOCIETY AND CULTURE

• SOCIOLOGIST

• Is a person with professional knowledge and skills in studying the facts of society and social behavior
through rigorous scientific inquiry in order to arrive at a certain generalizations and truths about social
life and society.

• MAIN TASK OF SOCIOLOGIST

• They undertakes sociological inquiries or sociological researches for a better understanding of human
societies.

• SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• Refers to a scientific investigation or intellectual and rigorous research on a particular issue, problem,
concern, event or situation for a better understanding of the same.

• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• DEFINING THE PROBLEM

Selecting a topic for research and defining key concepts. The topic must be one that can be investigated
by scientific methods. Broad topics must be narrowed down to specific research.

• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• REVIEWING THE LITERATURE

Familiarizing oneself with the existing theory and research on the topic. The literature must present the
gist of journal articles and books that document what research has already been done on the topic.

• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• FORMING HYPOTHESIS

Defining the relationship between measurable variables so that they can be measured and the
hypothesis tested. A hypothesis is commonly referred as an “educated guess”. It is a prediction about the
relationship between two or more variables.

• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• CHOOSING A RESEARCH DESIGN

Selecting a method for study: experiment, case study, survey, field observation, or a historical approach.
Research methods are the different ways that sociologist gather data to answer the research problems. Using
multiple methods to get at a problem is called triangulation.

• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• COLLECTING THE DATA

Collecting and recording the information that will test the hypothesis.
• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• ANALYZING THE DATA

Working with and examining the data to shed light on the hypothesis. The data must be organized and
analyzed to determine if the hypothesis was proved of disproved. Statistical analysis of the data can be done by
using computers.

• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• DRAWING CONCLUSIONS

Summarizing the outcome of the study, indicating its significance, relating the findings to existing theory
and research, and identifying problems for future research.

• FUNDAMENTAL PROCEDURES IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• COMMUNICATING THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY

Publishing the descriptions of the research study along with the findings and conclusions in technical
journals.

• METHODS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• EXPERIMENT

A research method that exposes subjects to a specially designed situation. By systematically recording
subjects’ reactions, the researcher can assess the effects of different variables. It offers the most effective
technique for establishing a cause-and-effect relationship.

• METHODS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• SURVEY

A method of research using either questionnaires or interviews, or both to learn how people think, feel,
or act. Good surveys use random samples and pre-tested questions to ensure high reliability and validity. It is a
procedure for gathering information from a large number of people. A scientifically conducted survey is a
complex undertaking; it involves choosing a sample, constructing and asking the right questions, and analyzing
the data. Survey items from an interview of questionnaire may be open-ended of close-ended.

• METHODS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• CASE STUDY

Intensive study and examination of a person or specific group, organization or institution id carried out.
It enables one to examine a particular subject in depth for it involves examination of the subject over a long
period of time. It is also known as scientific biography, case history, case work or diary of development, or
longitudinal study.

• METHODS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• FIELD OBSERVATION OR PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION


A research method in which researchers deliberately involve themselves in the activity, group, or
community they are studying in order to get an insider’s view. In non-participant observation, the researcher
enters the situation as a third party as he observes and records what he is studying.

• METHODS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• HISTORICAL APPROACH

It is a procedure where historical materials (documents, government archives, historical manuscripts,


letters, newspapers, memoirs, diaries, biographies, etc-data pertaining to acts, ideas, and events that shaped
human behavior in the past) are analyzed. The aim is to gain insight and understanding of present social realities
in the context of what took place in the past. For example, Durkheim’s study on suicide relied on data derived
from governmental archives.

• TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• QUALITATIVE TECHNIQUE

It examines data from observations, interviews and publications which are not statistical in nature. The
tools used, include: historical records, biographies, autobiographies, diaries, speeches, editorials and videotapes.

• TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• INTERVIEWING

The researcher may interview subjects face-to-face or by telephone. It can be:

1. STRUCTURED OR DIRECTIVE

It is a procedure in which carefully phased standard questions or schedule often with multiple choice
answers – are asked in a fixed order to provided systematic and comparable data hence facilitates analysis.

• TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• EXAMPLE:

“Do you think homosexuals should be permitted to join the armed forces?”

ANSWERS: YES/NO/UNCERTAIN/NO OPINION

A questionnaire can also be used for securing answers to questions written down.

• TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

2. UNSTRUCTURED OR NONDIRECTIVE

It is a procedure in which neither the questions nor the answers are predetermined, instead, the
researcher let the interviewee or respondent guide the flow of the interview. Here, the researchers do not seek
answers to specific questions but to explore a broad or subtle aspect of social life.

EXAMPLE:

“How do you cope up with retirement?”


“Are you in favor of death penalty? Why?”

• TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS USED IN SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUE

It uses statistics which deal with a mass of data and permit more precise statements of their
relationships. It involves the classification and enumeration of data, analysis of the quantitative relationships
involved, and assignment of numerical values to their relationships. The tools used include census and vital
statistics, local, national, and international reports, sampling measures of central tendency such as the mean,
median, and mode; measures of variability the negative of the positive.

• TRAITS AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED FOR SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

• Sociological inquiry is such a demanding and rigorous intellectual pursuit that it requires certain
qualitative traits and behavioral patterns to be manifested by sociologist and social researchers. They
are as follows:

➢ Ethical neutrality or value-free position

➢ Adherence to positivism and verstehen or empathetic understanding

➢ Ability to discern repetitive patterns of human behavior from a variety f social experiences

• TRAITS AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED FOR SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY

➢ Sociological imagination and sociological perspective

➢ Skeptical receptivity or “doubting attitude”

➢ A persistent critical spirit. (critical-mindedness)

➢ Skills in applying the methods, techniques, and tools, of scientific inquiry

➢ Honesty, cooperation and industry

➢ Liberalism and open-mindedness

➢ Sensitivity to social issues and problems

➢ Deep involvement and commitment in the resolution of social problems

• SUMMARY

• SOCIOLOGY

Defined as the scientific study of human society.

• SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

It is a distinct way of thinking that the social world guides our actions, thinking and life choices.

• CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

• SEEING THE GENERAL IN THE PARTICULAR


• SEEING THE STRANGE IN THE FAMILIAR

• HUMAN BEHAVIOR IS AFFECTED BY SOCIAL FORCES

• GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE OF SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

• SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION

-Analyzing social phenomena and life events “a quality of the mind”

(Wright Mills)

-Man should recognize the intricacies and interconnections of history, social structures and processes
and the kinds of people that are present in that society to fully understand

• SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS AND SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES

• SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGM

A specific set of assumptions that frame a sociologist’s theories and findings.

▪ It is a point of view or frame of reference that determines what will be considered relevant in
developing a theory.

▪ It usually refers to the broad school of thought in sociology that encompasses multiple from the
same perspective.

• Example:

knowing different dimensions of society such as rule-seeking stable system, as a changing system, as a
system of conflict, as a social interacting system

• SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES (social theories)

Are complex explanations on social actions, social process, and social structures work.

• SCIENTIFIC THEORY

Is a comprehensive explanation for some sector of existence. It consists of;

1. Definitions of the elements making up to be explained

2. A set of assumptions and axioms that will be taken as a starting point for the theory

3. A set of interrelated statements about relationships among the elements

• THEORY is a statement of how and why specific facts are related. It refers to an organized body of ideas
as to the truth of something, usually derived from the study of facts related to it, but sometimes a result
of exercising the speculative imagination.

• Ex. Durkheim: “A high risk of suicide stems from low level of social integration”
• “Obesity stems from unhealthy lifestyle”

• SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS

• EVOLUTION PARADIGM OR DARWINISM PARADIGM

Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–
1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small,
inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

What Are Darwin's Four Main Ideas on Evolution?

• Variation in Populations. In every species there is variation.

• Inherited Traits. Each species has traits determined by inheritance.

• Offspring Compete. Most species produce more offspring each year than the environment can support.

• Survival of the Fittest. Some individuals survive the struggle for resources.

• SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS

• STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL PARADIGM OR SOCIAL SYSTEM PARADIGM

This paradigm is a framework for building theory that envisions society as a complex system whose parts
work together to promote solidarity and stability. It views society as an organized network of cooperating
groups operating in an orderly manner according to generally accepted social norms.

• It recognizes that our lives are guided by social structures – a relatively stable pattern of social
behavior. It gives shape to social system

• Example: family and its social functions or consequences for the operation of the society.

• Functionalist say that we need to look at both “structure” (how the parts of a society fit together to
make the whole) and “function” (what part does, how it contributes to society).

• PROPONENTS OF SOCIAL SYSTEM PARADIGM

• AUGUSTE COMTE- he stressed social integrations

• HERBET SPENCER- “Social Darwinism” Society is a social organism with interdependent parts performing
specific functions for the systems.

• TALCOTT PARSONS- He treated society as a social system with basic tasks to perform.

• EMILE DURKHIEM- “Mechanical solidarity” and “Organic solidarity” holds society together.

• PROPONENTS OF SOCIAL SYSTEM PARADIGM


• MECHANICAL SOLIDARITY- refers to customs and beliefs of conventional traditional societies.

• ORGANIC SOLIDARITY- refers to formal laws in modern society

• PROPONENTS OF SOCIAL SYSTEM PARADIGM

• ROBERT MERTON- he explained that social functions are the consequences of any social pattern.

He classified FUNCTIONS into:

1. MANIFEST FUNCTIONS

2. LATENT FUNCTIONS

3. LATENT DYSFUNCTION

• CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS by Robert Merton

• MANIFEST FUNCTIONS- are the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.

Example: Higher education- to provide knowledge and skills for the effective performance of jobs

• LATENT FUNCTIONS- are consequences that are largely unrecognized and unintended

Example: Higher education becomes a “marriage broker”, it keeps millions of youth out of the labor market

• CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONS by Robert Merton

• LATENT DYSFUNCTION- are unintended consequences which have opposite effect and hurt the system.

Example: Raising tuition fee in college may lead to massive student drop-outs and closure of the college.

• CONFLICT PARADIGM

This is a framework for building theory that envisions society as an arena of inequality that generates
conflict and change.

Example: conflict between dominant and disadvantage people – rich vs. poor, capitalists vs. workers; whites vs.
blacks; men vs. women

• COFLICT PARADIGM emphasizes the role of coercion and power, a person’s or group’s ability to exercise
influence and control over others, in producing social orders.

PROPONENTS OF THIS APPROACH INCLUDE:

• KARL MARX-stressed class struggles between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat

• W. E. B. DU BOIS (William Edward Burghardt Du Bois)- pointed out conflict; racism

• COSER AND DAHRENDORF- advanced that prejudice and discrimination conflicts with seemingly
organized cooperative groups brought about by power relations and authority structures

• SYMBOLIC-INTERACTION PARADIGM
This paradigm is a theorical framework that envisions society as the product of the everyday interactions
of individuals.

• PROPONENTS OF SYBOLIC-INTERACTION PARADIGM

• GEORGE HERBERT MEAD (1934)- thoughts and feelings are not directly accessible to other people. They
must first be encoded into symbols- words, gestures, facial expressions, nonlinguistic sounds- which
must then be interpreted by others

• W. I. THOMAS (1937)- DEFINITION OF THE SITUATION “here and now” context, we examine the situation
and mentally contemplate various courses of actions.

• PROPONENTS OF SYBOLIC-INTERACTION PARADIGM

• ERVING GOFFMAN (1959)- he advanced DRAMATURGY, as a related theory to the symbolic-


interactionist paradigm. He view social interaction from the perspective of a theatrical performance. Life
becomes stage where people interact with one another in the course of their daily activities.

• HAROLD GARFINKEL (1967)- he focused attention on the taken-for-granted routine activities of our daily
live ands understandings that lie behind them.

• PROPONENTS OF SYBOLIC-INTERACTION PARADIGM

• He termed his (Harold Garfinkel) approach ‘ethno methodology’

• ETHNOS is a Greek word meaning “folk or people”

• METHODOLOGY refers to the procedures used in doing something

• ETHNO METHODOLOGY is a perspective that examines the procedures that people use to make sense of
their everyday experience. It studies the unspoken agreements that people use to produce and sustain
for one another a sense of social order.

• PROPONENTS OF SYBOLIC-INTERACTION PARADIGM

• PETER M. BLAU (1964) and GEORGE C. HOMANS (1947)-they advanced the social exchange approach to
portray social interaction.

• They viewed social interaction as a more-or-less straightforward and rationally calculated series of
mutually beneficial transactions.

• They assumed that human beings seek what they perceived to be rewards and avoid what they perceive
to be cost.

• NORM OF RECIPROCITY- expectations that we should give and return equivalently in our relations with
one another.

• COMPARISONS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS

• EVOLUTIONIST- look for patterns of change and focus attention on the similarities of societies as they
pass through different phases or stages of growth and development
• Evolutionist view society as social organism undergoing different stages of growth and development –
from simple to complex, homogeneity to heterogeneity, primitive to modern

• COMPARISONS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS

• STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALIST- upon structure of the social system and the functions performed by the
different parts to bring about social order and value consensus

• CONFLICT THEORIES- upon class struggles, competition, conflict, power inequality, opposition, tension,
change

• Structural-functional and social conflict paradigm are MACRO-LEVEL orientations; they focus on broad
social structures of large scales patterns that characterized society as a whole; they take in the big
picture like observing a city from high above.

• COMPARISONS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL PARADIGMS

• INTERACTIONIST- upon actual day-to-day interactions of people and groups using symbols, definitions,
and meanings in particular settings.

• The SYMBOLIC INTERACTION paradigm is MICRO-LEVEL orientation; it focuses on social interaction in


specific situations, in face-to-face interaction, and how people use symbols to create social life, as well
as urban life occurs at street level or observing how friends interact in parks

• LEVELS OF ANALYSIS: MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL ORIENTATIONS

• POVERTY and UNEMPLOYMENT – Symbolic Interactionist would focus on what poor and the jobless say
and do. They would analyze their culture of poverty, their despair and apathy, their verbal and non-
verbal interactions on the streets and their shanties.

• CONFLICT THEORIES –MACRO LEVEL

- They would study instead the structural, institutional, political, and economic changes in the society both
nationally and globally and how they relate to the problems of poverty and unemployment

• LEVELS OF ANALYSIS: MACRO AND MICRO LEVEL ORIENTATIONS

Conflict theorist – would focus on class struggles between capitalists and workers, the rich and the poor, and
how the policies and manipulation of the wealthy and the powerful push certain groups into poverty and
unemployment.

Global level – they would examine the relationships between the rich First World Countries and the poor Third
World Countries to arrive at a more comprehensive and realistic picture of poverty and unemployment in the
Third World Countries brought about by the unequal and exploitive relationships, economic, domination, and
neo-colonialism experienced by the poor countries of the world.