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WORLD TRADE LAW

TABLE OF CONTENTS
“Trade law demands a delicate balance between international rules and domestic autonomy” ..... 1
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 13
“Trade law demands a delicate balance between international rules and
domestic autonomy”

The deficiency of an effective law and regulatory is affecting the international trade unions.
However, there have been clashes between the regional governmental plan as well as
international rules which affect the commercial actions between two nations. Considering such
issues there had been an argument stating that, there must be a balance between international
rules and domestic autonomy which could be effective in managing a healthy trade relationship
between countries participating1. Similarly, World Trade Organization (WTO) has been engaged
in facilitating the fair trade practices and policies which would have benefited multiple nations to
participate in the international market.
In the present essay there would be discussion based on the initiative and entitlements of
WTO in relation with promoting the trade in developing nation along with considering the laws
and necessary regulation2. There would be ascertainment of the regulation imposed by various
trade union across the globe such as European Union that have been operating under European
countries, BRICS, NAFTA etc. the rules regulation, trade agreement as well as taxation decision
had been considered by their government will be analyzed.
WTO is responsible for maintaining the delicate balance between international laws and
domestic autonomy regarding the international trade since 1994 but here we are discussing that
WTO is failing to make this balance properly here are a few reasons which are responsible for
this, international trade laws set laws for helping countries to do business with other countries 3.
In the case of United States there is an article 2 where president have power over senate to
approve treaties with different countries in 1948 general agreement on tariffs and treaty was

1
Kirton, J. J. and Trebilcock, M. J., 2017. Hard choices, soft law: Voluntary standards in global
trade, environment and social governance. Routledge.
2
GATT/WTO CONSTRAINTS ON NATIONAL REGULATION: REQUIEM FOR AN “AIM AND
EFFECTS” TEST. 2017. [Online]. Available through :<
http://www.worldtradelaw.net/articles/hudecrequiem.pdf.download>.

3
Brutger, R. and Morse, J. C., 2015. Balancing law and politics: Judicial incentives in WTO
dispute settlement. The Review of International Organizations. 10(2). pp.179-205.

1
founded with the responsibility to prohibited few economic activities which few States had not
approved one of them was a practice of reducing the price that helped a particular area by
eliminating the competition and another one was provide some economical aid to a particular
economic area for their benefit, so WTO was founded in 1994 as a market agreement which is
right now situated in Geneva and have five principles one of them is all member country should
have same environment to do business irrespective of their geographical location, cultural and
technological aspect4. Firstly, countries must provide environment to reduce the trade barriers
and any country which having any dispute and reservation would be entertained by the judiciary
headed by WTO so that bring transparency and safety of the business and physical
environmental health of countries.
WTO maintain the intellectual property right and do dispute resolution there are few setups
that help that too comes under in WTO one of them is North American free trade agreement
which deals in the tread between Northern American countries while China as a major economy
which has maintained relationships and having a lots of economic investment in European
Union, African Union, Indo Chinese countries and overall all across the globe and to counter the
Chinese present in every peninsula and continent few countries like India, Brazil, South Africa,
Russia , Taiwan, Gulf countries, Japan, European Union also having a lot of treaties with each
other ,developing countries and third world countries5. WTO regulate and look after this treaties
and if a country's which is not working according to the international laws there are provision for
economic sanctions which determine high tariff bat prohibited the particular geographical area or
political country to do business with different countries and ceases its citizens to trade with other
countries regarding goods and services plus there would some new regulation regarding the
product packaging, standard of the product and services and freezing of assets of their particular
businessmen and country all around the globe6.
WTO has functions to maintain laws but often few countries break the laws, which make
political disputes so few countries started to work individually, and making new organisation to

4
Cottier, T., 2015. The common law of international trade and the future of the World Trade
Organization.
5
Mathiason, T. and Cabral, A., 2015. Symposium: Managing the global environment through
trade: WTO, TPP, and TTIP negotiations, and bilateral investment treaties versus regional trade
agreements: Introduction. American University International Law Review, 30(3), p.1.
6
Reid, E., 2016. EU climate law and the WTO. In Research Handbook on Climate Change and
Trade Law. Edward Elgar Publishing.
2
sort their problems and reduce their dependence on WTO judgment. for example The bay of
Bengal Initiative for multi-sectorial technical and economic cooperation, the Shanghai
cooperation organisation, European Union association agreement, new development Bank these
are the example which are countering world trade organisation, world Bank and international
monetary fund7. Right now world trade organisation is just overseeing the US China trade war
which is the need of hour to be done as soon as possible that bring uncertainty in overall the
world United States preservative approach and China's enthusiastic economically growth are
now at stake8. US claims China's practice of dumping of their claimed cheap quality product in
the US market at lower prices Which are which are not according to the international
standardization and eliminating their local counterpart in USA so USA as bring series of tariff
over Chinese product of various range thus other countries where both this big giant have
investments are facing the problem of bombarding of their particular products ,product lines and
services in comparative small market and eliminating their local counterparts so the product
quality and rates are getting downing thus further not helping the companies which are using a
lot of stakes in their respective stock exchanges are facing so much financial uncertainty. as an
example United States wants India to buy their Harley Davidson bikes at 0% tariff and
acknowledging that India is charging 100% but now they are doing it with 50% which is still so
much. WTO here need to address the problem and work efficiently to go for a deal between this
countries.
Another geographic area where WTO is failing are Gulf Nations where United States has
implemented sanctions over Iran and there was already tension between Iran and other Gulf
countries that put the price of oil and gas a bit higher and all the developing countries those need
the energy resources to get cheaper facing problem to adjust their national budget and
economical growth9. In the case of dictatorship and autonomous geographical area as an example
of North Korea, United state have need to crack the Atomic deal so dependency of North Korea

7
Lester, S., Mercurio, B. and Davies, A., 2018. World trade law: text, materials and
commentary. Bloomsbury Publishing.
8
Chaisse, J. and Matsushita, M., 2018. China’s ‘belt and road’initiative: Mapping the world trade
normative and strategic implications. Journal of World Trade, 52(1), pp.163-185.
9
Giles, N., 2018. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY:
HOW THE AGREEMENT ON GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT CAN BE
TRANSFORMED FROM A VEHICLE OF TRADE TO ONE OF HUMAN RIGHTS. Public
Contract Law Journal. 47(3). pp.399-419.
3
on China and Russia will get low and it will be open its market for rest of the world for business
that would be helpful for whole the world but world trade organisation is not helping here as well
as few countries are getting a lots of loan from China and Chinese economical and political
influence not helping them to overcome their debts10. Their GDP growth and their economical
status at stake so WTO needs to work on it for the betterment of these countries and if a loan will
become bad loan then the uncertainty rises in that particular country will have global effects.
one of the major WTO problem is its infectivity to deal with disputes even though it is
better than GATT here we find WTO has not meet deadlines frequently while giving judiciary
orders which harm and put on suspension the economic benefits for both winning party and
offender11. There should be some sort of interim benefit for the well being of economy of both
the parties.
China's enthusiastic belt and road initiative having some backslash in Malaysia when it
hold a Sri Lankan Harbantora seaport for the lease of hundred year while Sri Lanka government
estimate to fail to pay the debt12. Myanmar, Malaysia and Pakistan are coming to table with
China to renegotiate and reduce the debt on ongoing projects for the betterment of their economy
and cancel many projects already. China is not helping Philippines and other South China sea
region countries when it comes to the oil extraction and showing autocracy over the all natural
reservoir and over the entire sea treasure which is also a pending case in WTO judiciary that
regular threats and economic and political uncertainty over the geographical region. Asia Pacific
and South East countries are mostly emerging and developing countries at fast pace so world
trade organisation have to meet the deadlines and give protect irrespective of favoritism. The
Chinese influence over Eastern European countries also subjected to be correct, this countries are
also get connected with China's belt and road initiative they are comparatively poor countries

10
Is this just the beginning of ‘belt and road’ disputes between China and its partners?, 2019. [Online]. Available
through :< https://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy/article/2164105/just-beginning-belt-and-road-
disputes-between-china-and-its >.

11
Shepherd, A. and Puig, S., 2018. Book Review, Non-Discrimination and the Role of
Regulatory Purpose in International Trade and Investment Law.
12
Magraw, D. and Venkataraman, R., 2018. Virtual Water, Embodied Carbon and Trade Law:
Conflict Or Coexistence. Trade L. & Dev., 10. p.270.
4
compared to their Western neighbors13. China is world's factory which pouring a lots of their
product and product line which are destabilizing the local competitors and the economy of these
countries.
WTO is failing to provide and regulate IMF so poor countries or developing countries are
bound to look at India, China, Russia, USA ,Japan ,Brazil etc. for timely loan and FDI inflow for
their growth and job creation.
Budget to run WTO comes from members countries that made up to 98% world trade and
to apply for membership countries should match with the regulation of trade and economic
policies of the organisation.
Trade practices among Sino-Indian:
The trade regulatory authorities who have been affecting the trade balance between India
and People’s Republic of China. It forms a bilateral trade relationship between these two nations.
There have been impacts of negative elements such as border disputes as well as economic
competitions among these countries have affected the trade relationships. Therefore, due to this
bilateral trade agreements where India is largest trade partner for various products such as
electronic goods, machineries, fertilizers, cotton, gems and various precious metal and minerals.
There has been development of various trade laws such as PICFA Pondicherry India China
Friendship association, BRICS etc. which in turn emphasis on increasing the trade practices
between countries. In accordance with the trade laws stated between these nations on which
India has been monitoring the commercial activities through Foreign Trade Development and
Regulation Act, 1992 which aims at facilitating the imports and exports to the augments.
Similarly, as per China there has been development of various regulation and rules for the fair
trade practices among international market which are based on soothing the FDI’s by relaxing
restrictions. Mainly, in telecommunication and tourism services also, the authority has been
passed by central government to the delegating licensing authority such as local government.
The trade policy in China remained unchanged as the government has aimed at promoting the
foreign technology foreign trade and promote economic development which would bring mutual
benefit to the trading partners in contact with China which has recently concentrated more on
opening its service sectors to the world

Pempel, T. J., 2018. Regime shift: Japanese politics in a changing world economy. In Critical
13

Readings on the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan (pp. 999-1029). BRILL.


5
Along with this China has been approaching towards bringing a transparent trade practice
among Nations14. There has been a adoption of various trade related laws such as the enterprise
income tax law or the patent law or the anti monopoly law and provisions on disclosure of
Government information.
Therefore these are the laws and regulatory elements which has aimed at facilitating the
fair trade practices among trading partners. There are various commitment which have been
made by WTO in relation with monitoring the trade practices among China and India as these
countries how been denoted as market giant in all over the world15. Therefore it has been
analysed that the imports from China to India in 2001 was 22.4 percent for capital goods 47.4
percent for intermediate goods 19.4 percent for raw materials and 10.9 percent for consumer
goods were recorded letter which were increased to 56.4 percent for capital goods and rest of the
imports were reduced such as one person for raw material 29.4 person for intermediate goods
and 13.2% for consumer goods. It can be said that China is the measure trade partner for India in
relation with promoting the industrial operations in country16.
As per analyzing the impact of trade policies and trade agreements between India and
China it can be said that this trade practices have helped these Nations in managing economy
rising GDP employment it as well as managing the inflation rate that is economically favorable
for both the Nations however the rules and regulations were made in accordance with bringing
the fair trade restrictions like tariffs non tariff barriers non trade policies foreign exchange
reserves as well as structure of national economies17.
In relation with the import practices between India and China where China is
comparatively higher rate of import since 2007 to 2016 in 2007 1.93 percent of import practices

14
Forganni, A. and Reed, H., 2019. Circumvention of Trade Defence Measures and Business
Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 155(1), pp.29-40.
15
Amtenbrink, F., Prévost, D. and Wessel, R. A. eds., 2018. Netherlands Yearbook of
International Law 2017: Shifting Forms and Levels of Cooperation in International Economic
Law: Structural Developments in Trade, Investment and Financial Regulation (Vol. 48).
Springer.
16
Ovádek, M. and Raina, A., 2019. The Evolution of EU Trade Law Through the Prism of
Competence: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective. Journal of World Trade. 53(3). pp.489-
508.

17
Morin, J. F. and Surbeck, J., 2019. Mapping the New Frontier of International IP Law:
Introducing a TRIPs-plus Dataset. World Trade Review, pp.1-14.
6
were held in China which increases 22.56 percent 2016. Similarly in 2007 India has 0.4 % of
import practices that have become 0.11 percent in 2016 however such decline in import practices
in India denotes that India is less dependent country over the world while China has higher
import practice rate that shows the degree of domestic demand is comparatively higher that it
doesn't satisfies the internal economy18.
Moreover these are the trade practices among China and India where WTO has less
influences in trading and commercial activities. Taking the advantage of such leverage where
China has been reported as hiding the trade surplus with India does on which a strategic planning
and high level of engagement is being required to sustain and monitor the trade practices among
these Nations the manipulation of monetary terms would affect the relationship between these
two Nations on the other side the commerce minister of China said that China has 10 billion
dollar trade deficit in 2018-19 which was increases to 53 billion dollar. Why India has trade
surplus going Hong Kong which is valued at 3.9 billion dollars in 2017 turned into deficit of 2.7
billion dollar in 2018 India's trade deficit with China Hong Kong has wide INR to dollar 16.1
billion in the same here which was 55.4 billion in 2017. On the other side, it can be said that HK
is the founding member of WTO which is guaranteed less than one country 2 system principles.
to overcome with such issues is required to set strategic plan and directions to manage and
monitor the trade practices all over the world with effective laws and regulations to bring the
trade balance among Nations the regulatory framework is required to have effective monitoring
over the transactions trade surplus and deficit as well as important exports made during a
period19. It could have the world economic overcome with deficits and economical issues such as
crisis inflation and recession unemployment and poor GDP all over the world.
European Union association agreement
This association operates as a treaty between European Union and its member states such as
non-European countries as well as European countries to bring an effective framework for

18
Palmujoki, E., 2019. Competing Norms and Norm Change: Intellectual Property Rights and
Public Health in the World Trade Organization. In International Organization in the Anarchical
Society (pp. 203-230). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
19
Verma, S. K., 2018. WTO and the Regulation of International Trade Law. In Contemporary
Issues in International Law (pp. 263-272). Springer, Singapore.
7
corporate activities between Nations20. The act of this association is based on bringing political
treading economical as well as human rights reformed in a country it has been approached
towards facilitating the tariff free trade practices among EU countries. There has been formation
of various free trade agreements among member countries to establish a profitable Trade union.
It has been approaching towards facilitating all the rights best on political economical and
employment relevant issues among the member countries to protect the employment rights
human rights trade practices and less taxation during the transaction of goods and services.
However these are the rules and regulations which were created by the EU members in
accordance with protecting that trade economy politics and social elements to benefit them as per
profitability as per securing their rights and protecting them from any serious crisis.
There has been impact of this agreement on environment and national economics in the field
of agriculture and manufacturing as well as environment oriented operations. In accordance with
the role of general agreement on trade and tariffs and WTO which is designed to remove the
customs barriers as well as promoting the trade between member states that has been negotiated
as per trade agreements and WTO has defend the use interest before the dispute settlement body
on behalf of 28 member states.
African union
this formed as a continental union which has inclusion of 55 States located in Africa continent.
The objective of African union is best on achieving greater unity solidarity and cooperation
among African Nations and countries. And also emphasize on defending the sovereignty
territorial integrity political and social economic integration among members States. the
objective is set to promote sustainable development in economic social and cultural levels as
well as promoting cooperation in all fields of human activity to Cordon and harmonise the
policies as well as existing regional economic communities for graduate and mint of targeted
aims. There has been various trade laws suggest African commission on human and people’s
rights, new partnership for Africa's development it and Pan-African parliament. The group was
formed to is the terrace and territorial taxation among remembering States to promote economy
social political and commercial relationship on the continent.

Bown, C. P. and Irwin, D., 2018. What Might a Trump Withdrawal from the World Trade
20

Organization Mean for US Tariffs? (No. PB18-23).


8
As per the activities performed by African continental free trade area where 44 members of
55 states in African union has broke the agreement which was initially required members to
remove tariffs from 90 % over commodities services and relevant goods in entire continent.
Therefore on the basis of which the United Nations economic commission for Africa has
estimated that this agreement will be favourable in boosting 52% of trade practices in inter
African activities till 202221. However as per the meeting of ministers of trade of the members
state of the African union on 18 September 2017 the rises the issue that WTO has been breaching
their rules and principle in practicing the trade measures. However on the basis of which the
appellate body impasse and a new negotiation proposal by few members of this group.
It can be said that there is no balance between the regulations and rules developed by WTO
in accordance with managing the trade practices in African countries there has been multiple
difficulties and challenges faced by such countries in development as well as achievement of
their objectives22. African union specifically from the developing countries as well as poor
countries stated in Africa continent show the economic political and social reform is must to be
reframed. Welcome the dresses of which Africa's priority trade policy is objective fine to build a
single African market for trading goods and services as well as ensuring WTO outcomes do not
undermine such targets23. They have been aiming at promoting the multilateral trade practices
incontinent to improve the wealth and well-being of the society as well as bringing economic
sustainability to overcome with poverty.
As per ascertaining the WTO agreement on trade related aspects based on intellectual
property rights which attempts to bring balance between long term as well as short term
objectives24. It comprises with providing incentive for future innovation and creation as well as
allowing people to use existing innovation and creations bringing such balance would be

21
Yoshida, O., 2018. The Montreal Protocol and the International Trade Law Régime of the
wto/gatt. In The International Legal Régime for the Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone
Layer (pp. 161-208). Brill Nijhoff.
22
Chaney, T., 2018. The gravity equation in international trade: An explanation. Journal of
Political Economy. 126(1). pp.150-177.

23
HSIEH, P. L., 2018. Book Review: The China-Australia Free Trade Agreement: A 21st-
Century Model, Journal of International Economic Law, 21: 4 (2018). Journal of International
Economic Law. 21(4). pp.923-926
24
Charnovitz, S., 2018. How American Rejectionism Undermines International Economic
Law. Trade L. & Dev. 10. p.226.
9
favourable for WTO to improve world economy. As per the rights and protection provided under
intellectual property to investors and creators is because of the future benefits and creativity
which brings a favourable25. It would be beneficial in terms of raising the innovation and
creativity in technology e education as well as various social economic sectors. Bringing search
benefits and protection to investors would be effective to raise the economic level as well as
development of nations in terms of innovation hospitality medical facilities as well as to beat the
poverty. Moreover, there have been various obstacles and issues which arise where WTO is
unable to bring balance between long term as well as short term objectives of balancing the
intellectual property. It is based on the issues that, less flexibility awarded to the Government for
a domestic operation inundation which doesn't hold the complete authority to the local
government.
There has been various failures strike towards the operations held and facilitated by WTO
know to the world on which its aim to promote multilateral trade practices among countries.
Therefore it comprises with various processes and it is time consuming food the countries to
perform trade practices26. On the other side to overcome with search time-lapse and hectic
operations where countries used to perform a bilateral trade among them on which they are
directly contact with the other countries where they are interested in doing trading activities so
they just bypass that WTO and reduce the influence of such authority to manage the operational
activities. WTO has failure in managing the trade balance in law negotiation and regulations.
It has been articulated that us is bullying is neighboring countries such as Canada and
Mexico by Hike their tariff charges on products which mainly affects its financial market and
overall economy27. US implied duty charges over transaction of aluminum and steel from
Canada and Mexico. However it has been analysed that this country will receive threat from us
as per Indian exemptions awarded to us on transportation for aluminum and steel. Therefore in
this regard India has been delayed in creating labour and environmental negotiation in WTO.
Bay of Bengal initiative for multi-sectorial technical and economic cooperation

25
Lanz, R., Lee, W. and Stolzenburg, V., 2019. Distance, formal and informal institutions in
international trade (No. ERSD-2019-03). WTO Staff Working Paper.
26
Yildirim, A. B., Poletti, A., Chatagnier, J. T. and De Bièvre, D., 2018. The globalization of
production and the politics of dispute initiation at the World Trade Organization. Global
Policy. 9. pp.38-48.
27
Abbott, F. M., Cottier, T. and Gurry, F., 2019. International intellectual property in an
integrated world economy. Aspen Publishers.
10
This is an international organisation which includes 7 members such as Bengal Nepal
Bhutan Sri Lanka India Myanmar and Thailand28. This group is associated with the operations
held in Bay of Bengal and their dependency on the sea transactions among these Nations. The
group was created in relation with promoting the trade practices among the seven member
countries in relation with enhancing the technology political social economical sectors as well as
rising their wealth in living standard all over the world. the basic advantage of this organisation
is for raising the trade practices among corporations in relation with transacting various goods
and services.
The operations of this organisation is associated with 14 major objectives which is the center of
their activities such as telecommunication tourism counterterrorism actions transportation
environment and disaster management operations energy and power supplies public health
technology fisheries and climate change activities has been considered. Therefore this free trade
agreement based in BIMSTEC will be beneficial for the countries to promote national or
international development. Therefore, to overcome with disputes encouraged by WTO
authorities where many countries have created their own trading group and regulations to
improve and prompt trading activities which is quite beneficiary in terms of political social
economical as well as technical development29. Therefore these trading agreements will result in
the growth of financial market as well as improves the relationship between member countries.
To bring a prominent balance between domestic as well as international trade laws where
WTO is required to analyse the actual issues of obstacles which are being faced by countries
during trade practices30. The security and protection required the investors in creators in relation
with innovation and creations which must be considered and there must be free terrace duties
against the transportation of goods and services31. Along with his creation of separate laws
negotiations buy countries suggest us charge extra terrace to Canada and Mexico on the
transportation of goods and services which must be considered as an ethical as there should be a

28
Kirton, J. J. and Trebilcock, M. J., 2017. Hard choices, soft law: Voluntary standards in global
trade, environment and social governance. Routledge.
29
Reid, E., 2016. EU climate law and the WTO. In Research Handbook on Climate Change and
Trade Law. Edward Elgar Publishing.
30
Brutger, R. and Morse, J. C., 2015. Balancing law and politics: Judicial incentives in WTO
dispute settlement. The Review of International Organizations. 10(2). pp.179-205.
31
Cottier, T., 2015. The common law of international trade and the future of the World Trade
Organization.
11
balanced and precise rate of tariff charges which would promote the trade agreements among
participating Nations.
The main objective of countries or an economy is based on increasing the technological
sector as well as enhancing the economic development which would improve the financial
market as well as their wealth in competition with rest of the world32. Developing a financial
wealth improve GDP less inflation less reception as well as higher growth rate will bring a
sustainable growth in a country which is technically economically socially bring benefits. It
comprises with increasing the level of medical sector hospitality tourism and transportation
corporation taxation as well as liberalisation in an economy33. WTO is required monitor or the
trade practices among these Nations as well as the groups formed by particular group of nations
which would be effective in bringing balance between the laws and negotiations.

32
Chaisse, J. and Matsushita, M., 2018. China’s ‘belt and road’initiative: Mapping the world
trade normative and strategic implications. Journal of World Trade, 52(1), pp.163-185.

33
Giles, N., 2018. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY:
HOW THE AGREEMENT ON GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT CAN BE
TRANSFORMED FROM A VEHICLE OF TRADE TO ONE OF HUMAN RIGHTS. Public
Contract Law Journal. 47(3). pp.399-419.

12
REFERENCES
Books and journals
Abbott, F. M., Cottier, T. and Gurry, F., 2019. International intellectual property in an
integrated world economy. Aspen Publishers.
Amtenbrink, F., Prévost, D. and Wessel, R. A. eds., 2018. Netherlands Yearbook of International
Law 2017: Shifting Forms and Levels of Cooperation in International Economic Law:
Structural Developments in Trade, Investment and Financial Regulation (Vol. 48).
Springer.
Bown, C. P. and Irwin, D., 2018. What Might a Trump Withdrawal from the World Trade
Organization Mean for US Tariffs? (No. PB18-23).
Brutger, R. and Morse, J. C., 2015. Balancing law and politics: Judicial incentives in WTO
dispute settlement. The Review of International Organizations. 10(2). pp.179-205.
Chaisse, J. and Matsushita, M., 2018. China’s ‘belt and road’initiative: Mapping the world trade
normative and strategic implications. Journal of World Trade, 52(1), pp.163-185.
Chaney, T., 2018. The gravity equation in international trade: An explanation. Journal of
Political Economy. 126(1). pp.150-177.
Charnovitz, S., 2018. How American Rejectionism Undermines International Economic
Law. Trade L. & Dev. 10. p.226.
Cottier, T., 2015. The common law of international trade and the future of the World Trade
Organization.
Forganni, A. and Reed, H., 2019. Circumvention of Trade Defence Measures and Business
Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 155(1), pp.29-40.
Giles, N., 2018. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION'S MISSED OPPORTUNITY: HOW
THE AGREEMENT ON GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT CAN BE
TRANSFORMED FROM A VEHICLE OF TRADE TO ONE OF HUMAN
RIGHTS. Public Contract Law Journal. 47(3). pp.399-419.
HSIEH, P. L., 2018. Book Review: The China-Australia Free Trade Agreement: A 21st-Century
Model, Journal of International Economic Law, 21: 4 (2018). Journal of International
Economic Law. 21(4). pp.923-926.
Kirton, J. J. and Trebilcock, M. J., 2017. Hard choices, soft law: Voluntary standards in global
trade, environment and social governance. Routledge.

13
Lanz, R., Lee, W. and Stolzenburg, V., 2019. Distance, formal and informal institutions in
international trade (No. ERSD-2019-03). WTO Staff Working Paper.
Lester, S., Mercurio, B. and Davies, A., 2018. World trade law: text, materials and commentary.
Bloomsbury Publishing.
Magraw, D. and Venkataraman, R., 2018. Virtual Water, Embodied Carbon and Trade Law:
Conflict Or Coexistence. Trade L. & Dev., 10. p.270.
Mathiason, T. and Cabral, A., 2015. Symposium: Managing the global environment through
trade: WTO, TPP, and TTIP negotiations, and bilateral investment treaties versus
regional trade agreements: Introduction. American University International Law
Review, 30(3), p.1.
Morin, J. F. and Surbeck, J., 2019. Mapping the New Frontier of International IP Law:
Introducing a TRIPs-plus Dataset. World Trade Review, pp.1-14.
Ovádek, M. and Raina, A., 2019. The Evolution of EU Trade Law Through the Prism of
Competence: A Quantitative, Longitudinal Perspective. Journal of World Trade. 53(3).
pp.489-508.
Palmujoki, E., 2019. Competing Norms and Norm Change: Intellectual Property Rights and
Public Health in the World Trade Organization. In International Organization in the
Anarchical Society (pp. 203-230). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Pempel, T. J., 2018. Regime shift: Japanese politics in a changing world economy. In Critical
Readings on the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan (pp. 999-1029). BRILL.
Reid, E., 2016. EU climate law and the WTO. In Research Handbook on Climate Change and
Trade Law. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Shepherd, A. and Puig, S., 2018. Book Review, Non-Discrimination and the Role of Regulatory
Purpose in International Trade and Investment Law.
Verma, S. K., 2018. WTO and the Regulation of International Trade Law. In Contemporary
Issues in International Law (pp. 263-272). Springer, Singapore.
Yildirim, A. B., Poletti, A., Chatagnier, J. T. and De Bièvre, D., 2018. The globalization of
production and the politics of dispute initiation at the World Trade Organization. Global
Policy. 9. pp.38-48.

14
Yoshida, O., 2018. The Montreal Protocol and the International Trade Law Régime of the
wto/gatt. In The International Legal Régime for the Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone
Layer (pp. 161-208). Brill Nijhoff.
Online
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