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In   d  vo source forces vo e  rough he co v sdng con cs or
brushes ha are conneced o he D source. These brushes are found on he end of he co
wres and make a emporary eecrca connecon wh he voage source. In hs moor, he
brushes w make a connecon every 180 degrees and curren w hen fow hrough he co

In he 0 degrees dagram, he brushes are n conac wh he voage source and curren s
fowng. The curren ha fows hrough wre segmen D neracs wh he magnec fed
ha s presen and he resu s an upward force on he segmen. The curren ha fows
hrough segmen A- has he same neracon, bu he force s n he downward drecon.
oh forces are of equa magnude, bu n opposng drecons snce he drecon of curren
fow n he segmens s reversed wh respec o he magnec fed. In he 180 degrees
dagram, he same phenomenon occurs, bu segmen A- s forced up and -D s forced
down. In he 90 and 270-degree dagrams, he brushes are no n conac wh he voage
source and no force s produced. In hese wo posons, he roaona knec energy of he
moor keeps  spnnng un he brushes regan conac.
In he D moor,  aso has a weakness. The roaon or he energy s no consan un 
been compee n one roaon wh more magnes. I ke when he one drawback o he moor
shown n he dagram s he arge amoun of orque rppe ha  has.

The reason for hs excessve rppe s because of he fac ha he co has a force pushng on
 ony a he 90 and 270 degree posons. The res of he me he co spns on s own and
he orque drops o zero. The orque curve produced by hs snge co D moor s
represened n Fgure 3 beow. As more cos are added o he moor, he orque curve s
smoohed ou as seen n Fgure 4, he dagram of he orque curve for a wo-co D moor.



In he dagram beow, he resung orque curve never reaches he zero pon and he average
orque for he moor s greay ncreased. As more and more cos are added, he orque curve
approaches a sragh ne and has very e orque rppe and he moor runs much more
smoohy. Anoher mehod of ncreasng he orque and roaona speed of he moor s o
ncrease he curren supped o he cos. Ths s accompshed by ncreasng he voage ha
s sen o he moor, hus ncreasng he curren a he same me.

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Type of D moor
A D moor s desgned o run on D eecrc power. Two exampes of pure D desgns are
chae Faraday's homopoar moor (whch s uncommon), and he ba bearng moor, whch
s (so far) a novey. y far he mos common D moor ypes are he brushed and brushess
ypes, whch use nerna and exerna commuaon respecvey o creae an oscang A
curren from he D source, so hey are no purey D machnes n a src sense.D oors
dffer from A oors, as hey are powered by a drec curren of Eecrcy, as opposed o
an Aernang curren. There are four ypes of Drec urren moor, each wh dfferen
feaures and characerscs. These are.

1. Sepper D

2. rushess D

3. rushed D

4. Pancake D

Sepper D moor

A sepper moor (or sep moor) s a brushess, synchronous eecrc moor ha can dvde a
fu roaon no a arge number of seps. The moor's poson can be conroed precsey
whou any feedback mechansm, as ong as he moor s carefuy szed o he appcaon.
Sepper moors are smar o swched reucance moors (whch are very arge seppng
moors wh a reduced poe coun, and generay are cosed-oop commuaed.)

The characersc of hs ype.

i Sepper moors are consan power devces.

i As moor speed ncreases, orque decreases.

i The orque curve may be exended by usng curren mng drvers and ncreasng he
drvng voage.

i Seppers exhb more vbraon han oher moor ypes and  s make hs ype noser
han oher D moor.

i Ths vbraon can become very bad a some speeds and can cause he moor o ose
orque or ose drecon.

i The effec can be mgaed by acceerang qucky hrough he probem speeds range,
physcay dampng (frcona dampng) he sysem, or usng a mcro-seppng drver.

i oors wh a greaer number of phases aso exhb smooher operaon han hose
wh fewer phases.


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85-90% effcen or more (hgher effcency for a brushess eecrc moor of up o 96.5%
were repored by researchers a he Toka Unversy n Japan n 2009), whereas D moors
wh brushgear are ypcay 75-80% effcen.

Pancake D moor

A raher unusua moor desgn he pancake9prned armaure moor has he wndngs shaped
as a dsc runnng beween arrays of hgh-fux magnes, arranged n a crce, facng he roor
and formng an axa ar gap. Ths desgn s commony known he pancake moor because of
s exremey fa profe, ahough he echnoogy has had many brand names snce s
ncepon, such as ServoDsc.

The prned armaure (orgnay formed on a prned crcu board) n a prned armaure
moor s made from punched copper shees ha are amnaed ogeher usng advanced
composes o form a hn rgd dsc. The prned armaure has a unque consrucon, n he
brushed moor word, n ha  does no have a separae rng commuaor. The brushes run
drecy on he armaure surface makng he whoe desgn very compac.

An aernave manufacurng mehod s o use wound copper wre ad fa wh a cenra
convenona commuaor, n a fower and pea shape. The wndngs are ypcay sabzed
by beng mpregnaed wh eecrca epoxy pong sysems. These are fed epoxes ha
have moderae mxed vscosy and a ong ge me. They are hghghed by ow shrnkage
and ow exoherm, and are ypcay UL 1446 recognzed as a pong compound for use up o
180° ( ass H) (UL Fe No. E 210549).

The unque advanage of roness D moors s ha here s no coggng (vbraon caused by
aracon beween he ron and he magnes) and parasc eddy currens canno form n he
roor as  s oay roness. Ths can greay mprove effcency, bu varabe-speed
conroers mus use a hgher swchng rae (>40 kHz) or drec curren because of he
decreased eecromagnec nducon.

These moors were orgnay nvened o drve he capsan(s) of magnec ape drves, n he
burgeonng compuer ndusry. Pancake moors are s wdey used n hgh-performance
servo-conroed sysems, humanod roboc sysems, ndusra auomaon and medca
devces. Due o he varey of consrucons now avaabe he echnoogy s used n
appcaons from hgh emperaure mary o ow cos pump and basc servo appcaons.
i There are wo condons necessary o produce a force on a conducor.-

- The conducor mus be carryng curren.

- The conducor mus be whn a magnec fed.

i The rgh-hand rue for moors saes ha when he forefnger s poned n
hedrecon of he magnec fed nes, and he cenerfnger s poned n hedrecon
of curren fow, he humb w pon n he drecon of moon.

i The funcon of orque n a D moor s o provde he mechancaoupu odrve he

pece of equpmen ha he D moor s aached o.Torque s deveoped n a D
moor by he armaure (curren-carryng conducor)beng presen n he moor fed
(magnec fed).

i EF s deveoped n a D moor by he armaure (conducor) roang

(reavemoon) n he fed of he moor (magnec fed).

i The funcon of he voage ha s deveoped n a D moor ( EF) opposes

heapped voage and resus n he owerng of armaure curren.

i The speed of a D moor may be changed by usng ressors o vary he fedcurren
and, herefore, he fed srengh.