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6-8 Mathematics Second Draft Benchmarks with Standards

Grade 6
MA.6.NSO.1 Extend knowledge of numbers to negative numbers and develop an understanding of absolute
value.
Extend previous understanding of numbers to define rational numbers. Represent
MA.6.NSO.1.1 quantities using positive and negative rational numbers and compare them on a
number line. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Plot positive and negative rational numbers on a number line. Make comparisons of the
MA.6.NSO.1.2
two numbers using inequality symbols.
Interpret the absolute value of a number as the distance from zero on a number line
MA.6.NSO.1.3 and find the absolute value of rational numbers. Include mathematical and real-world
context.
Solve problems involving absolute value, including the comparison of absolute value.
MA.6.NSO.1.4
Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.6.NSO.2 Add, subtract, multiply and divide positive rational numbers.
Solve multi-step problems involving the addition, subtraction, multiplication or division
MA.6.NSO.2.1
of positive multi-digit decimals. Include mathematical and real-world contexts.
Extend previous understanding of multiplication and division to compute quotients of
MA.6.NSO.2.2 positive fractions by positive fractions including mixed numbers using a variety of
strategies.
Solve problems involving division of positive fractions by positive fractions, including
MA.6.NSO.2.3
mixed numbers. Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.6.NSO.3 Use properties of operations to rewrite numbers in equivalent forms.
Find the greatest common factor and least common multiple of two whole numbers.
MA.6.NSO.3.1
Include mathematical and real-world context.
Generate equivalent numerical expressions by rewriting the sum of two composite
MA.6.NSO.3.2
whole numbers as a common factor multiplied by the sum of two whole numbers.
Evaluate positive rational numbers with whole number exponents. Express composite
MA.6.NSO.3.3
numbers as a product of prime factors with whole number exponents.
MA.6.NSO.4 Develop an understanding of operations with integers.
Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with whole numbers to add
MA.6.NSO.4.1
and subtract integers. Include visual or numerical representations.
Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with whole numbers to
MA.6.NSO.4.2
multiply and divide integers. Include visual or numerical representations.
MA.6.AR.1 Apply previous understanding of arithmetic expressions to algebraic expressions.
Translate written descriptions into algebraic expressions and translate algebraic
MA.6.AR.1.1
expressions into written descriptions. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Write an algebraic inequality from graphical representations and/or represent solutions
MA.6.AR.1.2 of an inequality on a number line in the form of x > a, x < a, x > a or x < a. Include
mathematical and real-world context.
Evaluate algebraic expressions or equations, including formulas, using substitution.
MA.6.AR.1.3
Include mathematical and real-world context.
Given an equation or inequality and a specified set of values, determine which values
MA.6.AR.1.4
are solutions.
MA.6.AR.2 Write and solve one-step equations.
Write and solve one-step equations in one variable using addition and subtraction,
MA.6.AR.2.1 where all terms and solutions are integers. Include mathematical and real-world
context.
Write and solve one-step equations in one variable using multiplication and division,
MA.6.AR.2.2 where all terms and solutions are integers. Include mathematical and real-world
context.
MA.6.RP.1 Understand ratio and unit rate concepts and use them to solve problems.
Write and interpret ratios to show the relative sizes of two quantities using appropriate
MA.6.RP.1.1 notations: a/b, a to b, or a:b where b ≠ 0. Describe the relationship between two
quantities using ratios and rates. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Calculate and interpret unit rates associated with ratios of fractions or decimals,
MA.6.RP.1.2 including ratios of lengths and other quantities measured in the same measurement
system. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Given a table of values, determine the equivalent ratio between any two pairs of values
MA.6.RP.1.3
and find any missing values. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Apply ratio relationships to solve problems involving percentages using the relationship
MA.6.RP.1.4
between the two quantities. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Solve problems involving ratios and unit rates, including comparisons, mixtures, ratios
MA.6.RP.1.5 of lengths and conversions within the same measurement system. Include
mathematical and real-world context.
MA.6.SP.1 Develop an understanding of probability and find experimental and theoretical probabilities.
Determine the sample space for a given experiment using tree diagrams, tables or
MA.6.SP.1.1
pictorial representations. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Given the probability of a chance event, interpret the likelihood of it occurring. Include
MA.6.SP.1.2
mathematical and real-world context.
Determine experimental probabilities from experiments or simulations. Include
MA.6.SP.1.3
mathematical and real-world context.
Given the scenario of a simple event, find the theoretical probability. Include
MA.6.SP.1.4
mathematical and real-world context.
MA.6.SP.2 Develop an understanding of statistics and determine measures of center and measures of
variability. Summarize statistical distributions graphically and numerically.
Recognize and formulate a statistical question. Include mathematical and real-world
MA.6.SP.2.1
context.
Summarize a normal or skewed numerical or graphical data set by determining a
measure of center or a measure of variation. Measure of center limited to mean and
MA.6.SP.2.2
median. Measure of variation limited to range. Include mathematical and real-world
context.
Create a graphical representation to display a single set of numerical data. Graphs are
MA.6.SP.2.3 limited to dot plots, histograms and stem-and-leaf plots. Include mathematical and
real-world context.
Determine and describe how changes in data values impact measures of center and
MA.6.SP.2.4
variation.
MA.6.GR.1 Apply previous understanding of the coordinate plane to solve problems.
Extend previous understanding of the coordinate plane to plot ordered pairs in all four
MA.6.GR.1.1
quadrants on the coordinate plane.
Identify the x- or y-axis as the line of reflection when two ordered pairs differ by an
MA.6.GR.1.2
opposite x- or y-coordinate.
Find distances between ordered pairs, limited to the same x-coordinate or the same y-
MA.6.GR.1.3
coordinate, represented on the coordinate plane.
Solve problems by plotting points on the coordinate plane, including finding the
MA.6.GR.1.4
perimeter of a rectangle. Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.6.GR.2 Model and solve problems involving two- and three-dimensional figures.
MA.6.GR.2.1 Derive and apply a formula to find the area of a triangle.
Solve problems involving the area of triangles and quadrilaterals by decomposing them
MA.6.GR.2.2
into triangles or rectangles. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Solve problems involving the volume of right rectangular prisms with positive rational
MA.6.GR.2.3 number edge lengths using a visual model or formula. Include mathematical and real-
world context.
Find the surface area of right prisms and right pyramids, composed of rectangles and
MA.6.GR.2.4
triangles, using the figure’s net. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Grade 7
MA.7.NSO.1 Apply the Laws of Exponents and rewrite numbers in equivalent forms.
Know and apply the Laws of Exponents to evaluate and generate equivalent numerical
MA.7.NSO.1.1
expressions, limited to whole number exponents and rational number bases.
Rewrite positive and negative rational numbers in different but equivalent forms including
MA.7.NSO.1.2
fractions, mixed numbers, decimals and percentages.
Generate equivalent numerical expressions by rewriting composite positive and negative
MA.7.NSO.1.3 rational numbers as a common factor multiplied by the sum of two rational numbers.
Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.7.NSO.2 Add, subtract, multiple and divide rational numbers.
Solve problems using multi-step order of rational number operations including
MA.7.NSO.2.1
parentheses, and exponents and absolute value.
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and
MA.7.NSO.2.2
divide rational numbers. Include visual or numerical representations.
Solve problems involving the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of positive
MA.6.NSO.2.3
and negative rational numbers. Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.7.AR.1 Rewrite algebraic expressions in equivalent forms.
Generate equivalent algebraic expressions with integer coefficients using properties of
MA.7.AR.1.1
operations and equalities, including situations that involve factoring.
Determine whether two algebraic expressions are equivalent using a variety of strategies.
MA.7.AR.1.2 Show algebraically that the equivalent expressions using substitution, noticing that the
expressions simplify to the same number regardless of which value is substituted.
MA.7.AR.2 Write and solve two-step equations and inequalities.
Write and solve two-step equations in one variable, where all terms are any rational
MA.7.AR.2.1
number. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Write and solve one-step inequalities in one variable where all terms and solutions are
MA.6.AR.2.2 positive rational numbers and any inequality sign can be represented. Represent solutions
algebraically or graphically. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Write and solve two-step inequalities in one variable, where all terms are any rational
MA.7.AR.2.3 number and any inequality sign can be represented. Represent solutions algebraically or
graphically. Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.7.AR.3 Analyze and represent two-variable proportional relationships.
Determine the independent and dependent quantities described by a written description
MA.7.AR.3.1
or graph. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Determine whether two quantities have a proportional relationship by examining a table,
MA.7.AR.3.2
written description or a graph.
Determine the constant of proportionality when given a table, graph or written
MA.7.AR.3.3
description of a proportional relationship.
Graph proportional relationships from tables, equations or a written description. Include
MA.7.AR.3.4
mathematical and real-world context.
MA.7.RP.1 Represent proportional relationships and use proportional reasoning to solve problems.
Apply unit rates and scaling to solve problems about proportional relationships. Include
MA.7.RP.1.1
mathematical and real-world context.
Represent proportional relationships between quantities by writing an equation. Use the
MA.7.RP.1.2
equation to solve problems. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Apply proportional reasoning to solve percent problems, including discounts, markups,
MA.7.RP.1.3 simple interest, tax, tips, fees, percent increase and decrease and percent error. Include
mathematical and real-world context.
Apply proportional reasoning to solve problems involving scale drawings, converting
MA.7.RP.1.4 between units in the same measurement system and constant speed. Include
mathematical and real-world context.
MA.7.SP.1 Find and compare experimental and theoretical probabilities.
Compare the probabilities of chance events when the probabilities are given as rational
MA.7.SP.1.1
numbers, including percentages.
Find experimental probabilities of events through experimentation or simulation.
MA.7.SP.1.2
Compare the experimental probabilities to theoretical probabilities.
Solve problems involving experimental and theoretically probability. Include
MA.7.SP.1.3
mathematical and real-world context.
MA.7.SP.2 Determine best measures of center and variation and choose appropriate graphical
representations. Compare data sets to draw informal comparative inferences on populations.
Determine the best measure of center or measure of variation to summarize a numerical
or graphical data given the context and any extreme values. Include mathematical and
real-world context.
MA.7.SP.2.1
Given a numerical or graphical data set, identify possible outliers and describe how it may
affect the measure(s) of center or measure(s) of variation.

Choose and create an appropriate graphical representation to display a single set of


MA.7.SP.2.2 numerical data. Graphs are limited to dot plots, histograms, stem-and-leaf plots and box
plots.
Given two numerical or graphical representations of data, compare the measure(s) of
MA.7.SP.2.3 center, limited to mean, mode and median, and measure(s) of variability, limited to range
and interquartile range.
Given two numerical or graphical data sets, use measures of center, limited to mean and
MA.7.SP.2.4 median, and measures of variability, limited to range and interquartile range, to draw
informal comparative inferences about the two populations.
MA.7.GR.1 Solve problems involving two-dimensional figures.
MA.7.GR.1.1 Apply a formula to find the area of trapezoids, parallelograms and rhombi.
Solve problems involving the area of polygons by decomposing them into triangles or
MA.7.GR.1.2
quadrilaterals. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Identify and describe geometric objects and measurements related to a circle: radius,
MA.7.GR.1.3 diameter, chord and circumference. Give an approximation of Pi as the ratio of the
circumference of a circle to its diameter.
Apply formulas for the area and circumference of a circle to solve problems. Include
MA.7.GR.1.4
mathematical and real-world context.
Solve problems involving the relationships between supplementary, complementary,
MA.7.GR.1.5
vertical or adjacent angles. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Solve problems involving lengths and area of geometric figures, including scale drawings
MA.7.GR.1.6
and scale factors. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Given three sides, determine if the sides form a triangle or not. Given three angles,
determine if the angles could be the interior angles of a triangle. Identify when given
MA.7.GR.1.7
conditions create a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle using triangle
sum and triangle inequality theorem.
MA.7.GR.2 Solve problems involving three-dimensional figures.
Find the surface area of right cylinders using the figure’s net. Include mathematical and
MA.7.GR.2.1
real-world context.
Solve problems involving volume or surface area of figures limited to right pyramids, right
MA.7.GR.2.2
prisms and right cylinders. Include mathematical and real-world context.
Grade 8
MA.8.NSO.1 Extend understanding of rational numbers to irrational numbers and extend understanding of
Laws of Exponents to integers. Solve problems involving rational numbers.
Extend previous understanding of rational numbers to define irrational numbers within
MA.8.NSO.1.1 the real number system. Estimate the value of numerical expressions involving irrational
numbers, including non-perfect square roots up to 225.
Compare and plot rational and irrational numbers, each represented in a different way,
MA.8.NSO.1.2
on a number line.
Extend previous understanding of the Laws of Exponents to include integer exponents.
MA.8.NSO.1.3 Evaluate and generate equivalent numerical expressions, limited to integer exponents and
rational number bases.
Solve multi-step problems involving the operations of rational numbers including
MA.8.NSO.1.4
exponents, perfect squares up to 225 and perfect cubes up to 125.
MA.8.NSO.2 Perform operations on numbers in scientific notation.
Express numbers in scientific notation to represent and approximate very large or very
MA.8.NSO.2.1 small quantities. Determine how many times larger or smaller one is compared to the
other.
Solve problems involving operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation.
MA.8.NSO.2.2
Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.8.AR.1 Solve multi-step one-variable equations and inequalities.
Identify examples of one-variable linear equations that generate one solution, infinitely
MA.8.AR.1.1
many solutions, or no solution.
Solve one-variable multi-step linear equations, with rational number coefficients. Include
MA.8.AR.1.2
equations with variables on both sides.
Solve one-variable multi-step linear inequalities, with rational number coefficients.
MA.8.AR.1.3
Represent solutions algebraically or graphically.
Given an equation in the form of x² = p and x³ = p, where p is a positive rational number,
MA.8.AR.1.4
represent solutions as a square root or a cube root, respectively.
MA.8.AR.2 Develop an understanding of two-variable systems of equations.
Explain that a solution to a system of equations in two variables corresponds to a point of
MA.8.AR.2.1 intersection of their graphs. Show algebraically that the point of intersection satisfies both
equations simultaneously.
Determine whether there is one solution, no solution or infinitely many solutions when
MA.8.AR.2.2
given a system of two linear equations represented on a coordinate plane.
Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables by plotting them on a graph or
MA.8.AR.2.3 using a table of values, approximating when solutions are not integers. Include
mathematical and real-world context.
MA.8.AR.3 Extend understanding of proportional relationships to two-variable linear equations.
Create an equation in the form y = mx + b for a line with a slope of m and intercepting the
MA.8.AR.3.1
vertical axis at b from a table, graph or written description.
Determine and interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function from a
MA.8.AR.3.2 written description, an equation, a table or a graph. Include mathematical and real-world
context.
Graph a two-variable linear equation from a written description, an equation or a table.
MA.8.AR.3.3
Determine and interpret the slope and intercepts.
Solve problems involving two-variable linear equations, including comparisons of slopes
MA.8.AR.3.4
and intercepts. Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.8.AR.4 Define, evaluate and compare functions.
Given a set of ordered pairs, a table, a graph or mapping diagram, determine whether or
MA.8.AR.4.1
not the relationship is a function. Identify the domain and range of the relation.
Distinguish between functions and non-functions given equations, graphs, and tables by
MA.8.AR.4.2
defining a function as a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output.
Given a function defined by a table, a graph or an equation, determine whether or not it is
MA.8.AR.4.3
a linear function.
Create a graphical representation given a written description of the qualitative features
MA.8.AR.4.4
between two quantities. Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.8.SP.1 Represent and find compound probabilities.
Determine sample spaces and find probabilities for compound events using organized
MA.8.SP.1.1 lists, tables, tree diagrams, fundamental counting principle or simulation. Express the
probability as a fraction, percent or decimal.
MA.8.SP.1.2 Solve problems involving compound or simple probability.
Construct a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from
MA.8.SP.1.3
the same subjects. Express the data as relative frequencies as well as raw data.
MA.8.SP.2 Investigate patterns of associations in bivariate data.
Construct scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of
MA.8.SP.2.1
association between two quantities.
Given a scatter plot, describe patterns of association by interpreting clustering; outliers;
MA.8.SP.2.2
positive, negative or no association; linear association; and nonlinear association.
Given a scatter plot with a linear association, informally fit a straight line and informally
MA.8.SP.2.3
assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
Given the equation of a linear model, solve problems in the context of bivariate
MA.8.SP.2.4
measurement data by interpreting the slope and y-intercept.
MA.8.GR.1 Solve problems involving the Pythagorean Theorem and relationships in polygons.
Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles.
MA.8.GR.1.1
Include mathematical and real-world context.
Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate
MA.8.GR.1.2
plane.
Solve problems involving the sum of interior angles, sum of exterior angles and sum of an
MA.8.GR.1.3
interior and exterior angle pair of a triangle.
Solve problems involving the relationship between the number of sides and the sums of
MA.8.GR.1.4
the interior angle measures of polygons. Include mathematical and real-world context.
MA.8.GR.2 Understand similarity and congruence using models and transformations.
Given a preimage and image, describe a single transformation that shows the relationship
MA.8.GR.2.1
between them. Determine whether the transformation preserves congruence or not.
Describe and apply the effect of dilations about the origin, translations, rotations about
MA.8.GR.2.2 the origin, and reflections across an axis on two-dimensional figures using coordinates.
Limited to one transformation.
Given a dilated two-dimensional figure, identify the effect on linear and area
MA.8.GR.2.3
measurements.