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# MIDTERM 3 - UIUC MATH 453

Name:

## • This is a closed-book, closed-notes exam. No electronic aids are allowed.

• Read each question carefully. Proof questions should be written out with all the details.
You may use results proven in class, but you should explicitly cite the results being used.

• Answer the questions in the spaces provided on the question sheets. If you need extra paper,
make sure to write your name on it and attach it to this exam. Do not unstaple or detach
pages from this exam.

## Section Points Score

1 10
2 10
3 10
4 20
5 (bonus) 5
Grand Total 50

1
2 NOVEMBER 13TH, 2015

1. Section 1
Exercise 1.1. (5 points) Let n, k ∈ N. Prove that φ(nk ) = nk−1 φ(n)
Hint: think of the product over primes p representation of φ(n). We have
Y 1
 Y 1

k k k−1
φ(n ) = n 1− =n n 1− = nk−1 φ(n),
k
p p
p|n p|n

as desired.

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Exercise 1.2. (5 points) Let n ∈ N. The von Mangoldt function Λ(n) is defined by
(
log p, if n = pa for some p ∈ P and a ∈ N,
Λ(n) =
0, otherwise.
Using the prime factorization n = pa11 pa22 · · · par r , prove that
X
Λ(d) = log n.
d|n

Then use this, along with the Möbius inversion formula, to show that
 
X n
Λ(n) = µ(d) log .
d
d|n

## This is textbook work done during the lectures.

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MIDTERM 3 - UIUC MATH 453 3

2. Section 2
Exercise 2.1. (10 points) State and prove Gauss’ lemma for the Legendre symbol.

## This is textbook work done during the lectures.

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Exercise 2.2. (5 points - bonus) State Eisenstein’s lemma.

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4 NOVEMBER 13TH, 2015

3. Section 3
Exercise 3.1. (10 points) Solve the following.
(a) Define a perfect number.
(b) Prove that if n ∈ N, then
X1 σ(n)
= .
d n
d|n
(c) Let n be a perfect number. Use (b) to show that
X1
= 2.
d
d|n

(d) A positive integer n is said to be super perfect if σ(σ(n)) = 2n. Show that 16 is super
perfect. Prove that if 2p − 1 is a Mersenne prime, then 2p−1 is super perfect. Hint: what is
σ(2p−1 )? Insert your answer in σ(σ(2p−1 )) and make a conclusion.

## a) This is textbook work done during the lectures.

b) We have
X 1 X n/d 1Xn
= = .
d n n d
d|n d|n d|n
As d ranges over all positive divisors of n, so does n/d from which
Xn
= σ(n)
d
d|n

## and the desired result follows.

c) We now use this to write
X1 σ(n) 2n
= = =2
d n n
d|n
as claimed.
d) The proof is clear by using σ(σ(16)) = σ(31) = 32 = 2 × 16. Next, we have σ(σ(2p−1 )) =
σ(2p − 1) = 2p = 2(2p−1 ), as desired.

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MIDTERM 3 - UIUC MATH 453 5

4. Section 4
Exercise 4.1. (5 points) Use Euler’s criteria (and any other properties of the Legendre symbol,
but quadratic reciprocity is not needed) to find
 
11
23

Apply the theorem (Euler’s criteria) as stated in the course. The answer is −1.

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Exercise 4.2. (5 points) Evaluate the below Legendre symbol by using the quadratic reciprocity
law (and other properties, if necessary).  
−79
.
101
Apply the theorem (quadratic reciprocity law) as stated in the course with manipulations. The
answer is 1, left as a practice exercise.

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6 NOVEMBER 13TH, 2015

Exercise 4.3. (5 points) Let p and q be odd prime numbers with p = 4q + 1. Use the quadratic
reciprocity law to to prove that ( pq ) = 1.

## Since p ≡ 1 mod 4, the law of quadratic reciprocity gives

       
q p 4q + 1 1
= = = = 1,
p q q q
as claimed.

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Exercise 4.4. (5 points) Let p and q be odd primes with p = 4q +a for some a ∈ Z. By considering
p ≡ q ≡ 1 mod 4 (and the case other p ≡ q ≡ 4 mod 4), prove that
   
a a
= .
p q
You will need the usual properties of Legendre symbols and quadratic reciprocity.

## Since p = q + 4a, we have either p ≡ q ≡ 1 mod 4 or p ≡ q ≡ 1 mod 1. Then apply QRL.

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