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I ligher Institute of Engineering

El Shourouk Academy
Electronics and communication department
4 year
Subject: Optical fiber (

Sheet (1)

1) A step-index mullimode fiber with a numerical aperture of 0.2 supports

approximately I 000 modes al an 850 nm wavelength.
a) What is the diameter of its core?
b) How many modes does the fiber support at 1320 nm?
c) How many modes does the fiber support at 1550 nm?
2) A step-index fiber having a 25 um core radius, n 1 = 1.48, and n2 = 1.46
a) Determine the normalized frequency at 820 nm?
b) How many modes propagate in this fiber at 820 nm?
c) How many modes propagate in this fiber at 1320 nm?
d) How many modes propagate in this fiber at 1550 nm?
e) What percent of the optical power flows in the cladding in each case?
3) Consider a fiber with a 25 um core radius, a core index n 1 = 1.48, and 6 = 0.01.
a) If A. = 1320 nm, what is the value of V and how many modes propagate in the
b) What percent of the optical power flows in the cladding?
c) If the con~-cladding difference is reduced to 6. = 0.003, how many modes
does the fiber support and what fraction of the optical power !lows in the
4) Find the core radius necessary for single-mode operation at 1320 nm of a step-index
fiber with n 1 = l.48, and n2 == 1.478. Whal arc the numerical aperture and maximum
acceptance angle of this fiber?
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!\ t11an\.1factt{rer \Vtsl1cs to tnakc a silica-1;orc, step-index fiber \\•ith V = 75 and a

. .
tllttncric al aperture NA = 0.3 to be. ltsed at 't\20 t1rn. If n1 = 1.458, ,..,bat i'hou\d the

core size ar1d claddi11g iri(lcx'be?

b} Uraw a design curve of the fractional refractive-i1!·:l~x difference b.. versus Lhc core
radius a for a silica-core i1 1 = · 1.458, si11gle-111ode fiber to operate at \ 300 nrri.
Suppose the fiber we ::;elect frotn this curve l1as a Sum core radius. ls this·ftber sti ll
single-1node at 820 iu11? W\1icl1 modes exist in th.e fiber at 820 n1n?

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Problem Solutions for Sheet1




1-6. Solution:
see figure from other book:
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Sheet No (2) ..l
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Optical fiber communications
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1. A certain optical fiber has an attenuation of 1.5 dB/km

at 1300 .nm. If 0.5 mW of o·ptical power is initially
la~n~~~g into the fiber, what··Js the power level in
n1icrowatts after 8 km ?

2. Af\ optical signal has lost 55 percent of its power after

transn1itting through 3.5 km of fiber, what is the loss in
db/ktn of this fiber? .. .
3. A continuous 12km-long optlcJ1 fiber link has a loss of
1.5 dB/k.n1, (a) what is the mini.mum optical power level
that must be launched into"" the fiber to maintain an
' "'•r

optical p'ower level of 0.3 µw.. I the receiving end ? (b)

'Nhat is the required input pow~·r if the fiber has a loss of
2·.s .dB/km? 1
i .
Problem Solutions for Sheet2



Hight:r Institute of Engineering
El Shourouk Academy
Electronics and communication department
4 111 year
Subject: Optical fiber communication s

Dr. Nabil Abd Rabou

Sheet (3)
I) The input-output relationship for an LED is P = 0.1/. the maximum average power
is 1 mW and the maximum instantaneous power is 3 mW. The LED is to be
amplitude modulation (Intensity modulation) with an x (t) that has a DC component
of 0.2 and a periodic component with range of +2.28. Find the modulating
currcnti(t) = /[1 + mx(t)] .
2) A ruby laser contains a crystal length 4 cm with a refractive index of 1.78. The peak
emission wavelength from the device is 0.55 µm. Determine the number of
longitudinal modes and their frequency separation.

3) A GaAs laser emitting at 800 nm has a 400 µm long cavity with a refractive index
n = 3.6. If the gain (g) exceeds the total loss at throughout the range
750 nm <II.< 850 nm. How many modes will exit in the laser?

4) A laser emitting at il0 = 850 nm has a gain spectral width O' = 32 nm, and a peak
gain of g(O)SO cm- 1 . Plot g(ll) as a function of ii., show the region where losing
takes place. If the laser is 400 µm long and n = 3 .6, how many modes will be
excited in this laser?
Problem Solutions for Sheet3
3-1. Value given has changed


Hig her Institute of E ngin eeri ng

E l Sho urou k Aca dem y

E lectronics and com mun icat ion dep artm ent

4 111 yea r
Sub ject : Opt ical fibe r com mun icat ions

Dr. Nab il Abd Rab ou

She et (4)
1) When 3 x 1011 pho tons each with a
wav elen gth of 0.85 µm are inci den t on
pho todi ode , an ave rage 1.2 x 10 11 elec tron
s are coll ecte d at the term inal s of the
device. Det erm ine lhc qua ntum effic ienc
y and resp onsi vity of the pho todi ode at
0.85 µm..

2) A pho todi ode has a qua ntum effic

ienc y of 65 % whe n pho tons of ener
1.5 x 10-19 joul es arc inci den t upon it.

a) At wha t wav elen gth is the pho todi ode ope

ratin g?

b) Calc ulat e the inci den t opti cal pow er

requ ired to obta in a pho to curr ent of
2.5 µA whe n the pho todi ode is ope ratin g as
desc ribe d abo ve.

3) The qua ntum effi cien cy of APD is 80 %

for the tlete ctio n of radi atio n at wav elen gth
of 0.9 µm. Wh en the inci den t opti cal pow
er is 0.5 µW, the outp ut curr ent from the
dev ice is 11 µA . Det erm ine the mul tipli cati
on fact or of the APD .


l Iighcr Institute of Engineering

El Shourouk Academy
Electronics and communication department
4•h year

Subject: Optical fiber communications

Dr. Nabil Abd Rabou

Sheet (5)
I) An optical fiber transmission system uses as intensity modulated carrier having a
wavelength of 1.3 µm (as an amplitude modulated carrier) and dispersion of
20 psec/(km.nm). This system is to be used to transmit a binary PCM signal with
data rate of 500 M bits/sec. the length of the fiber is 150 km. What is the dispersion
in the propagation time?

2) An optical lini( is required between two sites 100 km a part. The link is to be used to
transmit a binary PCM signal with a data rate of 34 M bits/sec. The attenuation loss
is 0.6 dB/km :.!ta wavelength of 1.3 µm, the splice loss is O. ldB, the connector loss
is l dB, the bandwidth distance product of this link (SM optical fiber link) is
5000 Ivl, the output optical power from the optical transmitter is -3 dBm, the
minimum threshold optical power at the receiver side is -50 dBm, and the system
margin is 6 dB.

a) Estimate the optical path loss budget.

b) Draw the graphical representation of optical loss budget.

c) Cakula:c the system barn.Jwiulh.

d) What current will this produce in photodetcctor with a quantum efficiency or

60 1% of 140 M bits/sec system?

3) An optical communication system is needed o meet the follow

ing specifications:
data rate = I 00 M bits/sec, distance between terminals = 500
km. Indicate the
li\.nnbcr of repeaters that required, the following specification are
::..- Iransmittcr:

Po = -5 dBm; Peak output power into a fiber pigtail,

L\A. = 3 nm, A. = 1.3 µm.

~ Qptical fiber:

SM fiber: 11= 0.003 7, a= 0.6 dB /km at A.= 1.3 µm

D = 3.2 psec /(km . nm).

~ Qi.her lo_.s_s:

For fiber section 3 km between splices, average splice loss =

0.1 dB/3km
= 0.033 dB/km.

Connector loss= l dB, system marg in= 3 dB.

>-- PIN - PhoJQdetectqr:

9l 0 =0.8 A/W at il = 1.3 µm, 710 = 0.65 , Ri = 10 kn