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# AM5390 - ADVANCED SOLID MECHANICS

ASSIGNMENT - 1

## 1. Verify the identities:

(a) δmm = 3
(b) δmn δmn = 3
(c) um δmn = un
(d) Tmn δmn = Tkk

ax ay az

(e) a × b · c = a · b × c = bx by bz
cx cy cz

## 2. Write out the following expressions:

(a) ti = Tji nj
(b) e = ekk
(c) 2W = Tij eij
0
(d) T ij = 2Ge0ij
∂Tsr
(e) + ρbr = ρar
∂xs
3. Prove the  − δ identity
ijk irs = δjr δks − δjs δkr
4. Show that the second-order tensor aδij , where a is an arbitrary constant, retain its form
under any transformation Qij . This form is then an isotropic second - order tensor.
5. Determine the invariants, principal values, and directions of the matrix
 
−1 1 0
aij =  1 −1 0
0 0 0

Use the determined principal directions to establish a principal coordinate system, and,
following the procedures in Example 1-2 (Martin H. Sadd-Elasticity first edition), formally
transform (rotate) the given matrix into the principal system to arrive at the appropriate
diagonal form.
6. For the cartesian vector field specified by

u = x1 e1 + x1 x2 e2 + 2x1 x2 x3 e3

## calculate 5 · u , 5 × u ,52 u , 5u , tr(5u)

7. A second-order symmetric tensor field is given by
 
2x1 x1 0
 x1 −6x2 1 0 
0 0 5x1

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Using MATLAB(or similar software),investigate the nature of the variation of the principal
values and directions over the interval 1 ≤ x1 ≤ 2. Formally plot the variation of the
absolute value of each principal value over the range 1 ≤ x1 ≤ 2.

8. Determine the strain and rotation tensors eij and ωij for the following displacement field.

## 9. A two dimensional displacement field is given by u = k(x2 + y 2 ) , v = k(2x − y) , w = 0

where k is a constant Determine and plot the deformed shape of a differential rectangular
element originally located with its left bottom corner at the origin as shown. Finally,
calculate the rotation component ωz .

10. For polar coordinates defined by Figure,show that the transformation relations can be
used to determine the normal and shear strain components er ,eθ , and erθ in terms of the
corresponding Cartesian components
ex + ey ex − ey
er = + cos 2θ + exy sin 2θ
2 2
ex + ey ex − ey
eθ = − cos 2θ − exy sin 2θ
2 2
ey − ex
erθ = sin 2θ + exy cos 2θ
2

2
11. A rosette strain gage is an electromechanical device that can measure relative surface
elongations in three directions.Bonding such a device to the surface of a structure allows
determination of elongational strains in particular directions. A schematic of one such
gage is shown in the following figure, and the output of the device will provide data
on the strains along the gage arms a,b, and c.During one application, it is found that
ea = 0.001,eb = 0.002 and ec = 0.004. Using the two-dimensional strain transformation
relations, calculate the surface strain components ex , ey and exy .

12. Show that the following strain field ex = Ay 3 , ey = Ax3 ,exy = Bxy(x + y), ez = exz =
eyz = 0 gives continuous, single valued displacements in a simply connected region only
if the constants are related by A = 2B/3.

13. Consider the plane deformation of the differential element ABCD defined by polar coordinates
r,θ as shown in the following figure. Using the geometric methods outlined in Section
2.2(Martin H. Sadd-Elasticity first edition), investigate the changes in line lengths and
angles associated with the deformation to a configuration A’B’C’D’, and develop the
strain-displacement relations

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∂ur
er =
∂r
 
1 ∂uθ
eθ = ur +
r ∂θ
 
1 1 ∂ur ∂uθ uθ
erθ = + −
2 r ∂θ ∂r r