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By YF Zhang 
Q1. A line segment has two end points A and B. If this line segment is to be represented by a cubic Bezier 
curve model with 4 control points P0, P1, P2, and P3, prove that P0, P1, P2, and P3 are co‐linear.  (2002 paper) 


The parametric equations for the line segment AB is:

r(u) = A + u(B-A) with 0u1

Based on the characteristics of cubic Bezier curve, we have

P0 = r(0) = A; P3 = r(1) = B

3(P1 - P0) = B-A 3(P3 – P2) = B-A

Solving the equations, we have P1 = A + (B-A)(1/3) = r(1/3)

P2 = A + (B-A)(2/3) = r(2/3)

Therefore, P0, P1, P2, and P3 are co-linear.

Q2. Construct a quadratic Bezier curve model (equation) with three control points, V0, V1, and V2. 


The general form of a quadratic curve model is r(u) = a + bu + cu2 with 0u1

For a quadratic Bezier curve with control points V0, V1, and V2, we have the following:

r(0) = V0; r(1) = V2; r’(0) = 2(V1 – V0); r’(1) = 2(V2 – V1)

We therefore have: a = V0; a + b + c = V 2; b = 2(V1 – V0)

Solve, we have a = V0; b = 2(V1 – V0); c = V0 – 2V1 + V2

Q3. Construct a composite curve interpolating three points P0, P1, and P2, using cubic Ferguson curve model. 
The composite curve should satisfy parametric‐C2 condition. Estimate the end tangents using 
(a) Quadratic polynomial end condition 
(b) Free‐end condition 

Solution: P1
r0(u) r1(u)
Three points need two cubic Ferguson curves r0(u) and r1(u)
r0(u) = UCS0 r1(u) =UCS1
P0 P2
S0 = [P0 P1 t0 t1] S1 = [P1 P2 t1 t2]

Since the composite curve satisfies parametric C2 – condition, we have

t1 = (3P2 –3P0 – t0 – t2) / 4. To obtain t0 and t2

(a) Using quadratic polynomial end condition based on the first 3 points (for t0) and the last 3 points (for
t2). In this case, the two polynomials are the same, i.e.,

r(u) = a + bu + cu2 with 0 u 1

Therefore, we have r(0) = a = P0 (1)

r(1) = a + b + c = P2 (2)

At P1, the value of u is estimated using u1 = |P1 – P0| / (|P1 – P0| + |P2 – P1|)

Therefore, r(u1) = a + bu1 + cu12 = P1(3)

Solve equations (1), (2), and (3) for a, b, and c.

Finally, t0 = r’(0) = b; t2 = r’(1) = b + 2c

(b) Using the free-end condition, i.e., r0’’(0) = 0 and r1’’(1) = 0

We have 2t0 + t1 = 3(P1 – P0) (1)

2t2 + t1 = 3(P2 – P1) (2)

At the same time, the parametric C2 – condition gives us

t1 = (3P2 –3P0 – t0 – t2) / 4 (3)

Solve equations (1), (2), and (3) to obtain t0, t1, and t2.

Q4. The control points of two quadratic Bezier curve segments ra(u) and rb(u) are Va0, Va1, Va2 and Vb0, Vb1, Vb2, 
respectively. If another cubic Bezier curve segment r(u) (with control points V0, V1, V2, and V3) is to be 
used to link ra(u) and rb(u) to form a composite curve, obtain the equation of r(u) to ensure C0 and C1 
continuity at the two common joints Va2 and Vb0. Note that V0, V1, V2, and V3 are unknown.

Solution: V2
Refer to the figure on the right. Va0
r(u) Vb2
Since the composite curve is C continuous, we have ra(u)
V0 = Va2; V3 = Vb0 Va2(V0)
Since the composite curve is C1 continuous, we have

2(Va2 – Va1) = 3(V1 – V0); 2(Vb1 – Vb0) = 3(V3 – V2)

Solve the above two equations, we obtain V0, V1, V2, and V3.

1 0 0 0  V0 
 3 3 0  V1 
Therefore, we have 
r(u) = 1 u u2 
u3 
 3 6 3 0 V2 
  
1 3  3 1  V3 

Q5. Construct two quadratic Bezier curve segments to form a composite curve with the straight‐line segment 
(P0P1) and pass through two end points V1 and V2. At the same time, ensure that the composite curve is C0 
and C1 continuous at the two common joints (P0 and P1).

V11 P0 P1 V21
V12 V20
r1(u) r2(u)
V1(V10) V2(V22)


Refer to the above figure. The two quadratic Bezier curve segments are:

r1(u)  V10 (V1), V11, V12 r2(u)  V20, V21, V22(V2)

The parametric equation of the line segment P0P1 is r(u) = P0 + u(P1 – P0), with 0 u 1

The C0 condition gives us: V12 = P0 and V20 = P1

The C1 condition gives us:

r1’(1) = 2(V12 – V11) = r’(0) = P1 – P0 and r2’(0) = 2(V21 – V20) = r’(1) = P1 – P0

Solve the above equations for V12, V11, V20, and V21.