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FUNDAMENTALS OF RIGGING

HANDBOOK

ProservCrane
proservcrane.com Group
Table of Contents

Determine Task and Job-Site Requirements 1-6


Characterize the Load 7-8
Specify, Select, and Inspect Rigging Equipment 9
Wire Rope Slings 9-12
Synthetic Slings 13-14
Hooks 15
Shackles 16-17
Eye Bolts 18-20
Hoist Rings 21-22
Turnbuckles 23
Lifting with Hand-Operated Chain Hoists 24-27
Appendices 28-30
Carbon Steel Pipe Size Chart 29
Weight of Common Materials 30
Inspection of Slings Table 31
Determine Task and Job-Site Requirements

In order to ensure the safety of workers and the equipment involved, any
operation involving the use of a crane to lift items must be planned
thoroughly before being carried out. The purpose of this document is to
discuss the requirements for planning and performing an incidental lift using an
overhead crane and commonly available rigging components, such as slings,
shackles, eye bolts, and turnbuckles.

The “Lifting Safety” Subject Area, found in the Brookhaven National Laboratory
(BNL) Standards-Based Management System (SBMS), governs all lifts
conducted at BNL. The Subject Area contains guidance that must be used in
order to plan and perform a lift safely. This instructor handbook incorporates
the Subject Area’s requirements, as well as information from the Department
of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hoisting and Rigging Manual and ANSI B30.9.

1
Definitions
Asymmetrical load. An object with an off-center center of gravity due to the
object’s irregular shape and/or composition.

Critical lifts require confirmation of engineering, or merit additional engineering


input because of an item’s or location’s size, weight, close-tolerance
installation, or high susceptibility to damage. These lifts could be either
ordinary lifts or pre-engineered lifts, but with additional hazards that could
result in significant delays to a program, undetectable damage resulting in
future operational or safety problems, a significant release of radioactivity or
other hazardous material, present a risk of injury personnel. Critical lifts must
be made by Plant Engineering riggers or by approved contractors, and as such
are not covered in this program.

Incidental or ordinary lifts involve the use of basic hoisting equipment directly
above the load. The load must also have certified lifting points or be relatively
easy to sling.

Person-in-charge. Person appointed by the responsible manager or designee


to direct critical or pre-engineered lifts. The person-in-charge must be present
during the entire lifting operation and must have experience in handling similar
types of equipment. The designated person-in-charge may be either a
supervisor familiar with critical lift operations, or a person with special
knowledge of the equipment and handling.

Pre-engineered lifts are repetitive lifts that meet the definition of a critical lift,
defined below. If, however, the BNL Lifting Safety Committee determines that
through the use of tooling, fixtures, sketches, analyses, and written procedures,
the possibility of dropping, upset, or collision is reduced to an acceptable level,
the lift may be designated as a pre-engineered lift.

Symmetrical load. An object that, because of its uniform shape and


composition, has its center of gravity located exactly in its middle.

2
Classifying Lifts

Before a lift can be planned, it must be analyzed to determine the lift’s category.
There are three lift categories at BNL: incidental or ordinary lifts,
pre-engineered lifts, and critical lifts. The responsible manager or designee
determines the type of lift by conducting a lift assessment.

The flow chart shown, adapted from the SBMS Lifting Safety Subject Area, will
help to determine if a lift should be classified as incidental (ordinary),
pre-engineered, or critical.

If the lift has been classified as a pre-engineered lift, then additional criteria
must be met prior to operation. If determined to be a critical lift, Plant
Engineering riggers or an approved contractor must be used. Once the lift has
been classified and determined to be an ordinary or incidental lift, use the
Checklist for Lift Planning and Weather Factors exhibits, found in the Lifting
Safety Subject Area, as tools for evaluating the area of operation and potential.

3
List
Classification

Probability of High
worker injury

Low

Potential impact High


on schedule

Low

Potential impact Significant


on environment

Insignificant

Significant
Potential impact
on cost

Insignificant

Potential for Yes


unplanned release
of radiation

No

Rigging and 95% or more of rated capacity or gross weight over 50 tons
Heavy Lifting
Equipment

Routine with trained personnel

Other Cirtical (list): ________________


Factors

Negligible, minor, major (list): ________________

Ordinary/ Pre-
Incidental Engineered
Lift or Critical

4
Ordinary Lift Plan Elements
Once a lift has been planned and approved, the appropriate rigging equipment,
including slings, shackles, turnbuckles, and the crane itself, must be selected,
inspected, and connected correctly prior to beginning the lift itself.

The following items must be checked and confirmed before selecting rigging
components:

• Weight of Lift
• Center of Gravity
• Lift Points
• Crane Capacity
• Speed, Height, Width, and Length of Lift
• Wind, Temperature, and Visibility
• Crane and Load foundation Ratings
• Sharp Corners and Angles on Load
• Sling Angles
• Load Angle Factor
• Travel Route Clearance
• Floor Loading Capacity
• Work Zone Safety

5
Planning and Performing Pre-Engineered Lifts

Pre-engineered lifts are repetitive lifts that meet the definition of a critical lift,
defined below. If, however, the BNL Lifting Safety Committee determines that
through the use of tooling, fixtures, sketches, analyses, and written procedures,
the possibility of dropping, upset, or collision is reduced to an acceptable level,
the lift may be designated as a pre-engineered lift.

A Pre-Engineered Lift Plan must be completed and submitted to the Lifting


Safety Committee chair prior to any work being performed. The Plan consists
of as many drawings, specifications, and procedures as necessary to assess
all important load factors and site factors relating to the lift.

6
Characterize the Load h
Calculating The
Calculating the Center
Center of Gravity
of Gravity h/2

A.A.Symmetrical
Symmetrical loads
loads
• The center of gravity of a rectangular, symmetrical
• The center
load can beoffound
gravity of a rectangular,
by inspection.
• Measure each side of the rectangle.
• symmetrical loadincan
Divide each side halfbe found the
to locate by center
inspection.
of gravity
for that side.
• • Measure each side of the rectangle.
After, combine the results to determine the overall
centereach
• Divide of gravity.
side in half to locate the center
of gravity for that side.
• After, combine the results to determine the
overall center of gravity.

B.B.Asymmetric
Asymmetric loads
loads
5
• •TheThe easiestmethod
easiest method for
for finding
findingthe
thecenter of gravity
center of of an
asymmetrical load is to divide the object into rectangles
gravity of an asymmetrical
and determine the center of load isfor
gravity to each
divide
first, as 10
shown at right.
the object into rectangles and determine the 5
center of gravity for each first, as shown at right.
10

• For the example here, the left rectangle


measures 5 feet by 5 feet, while the right-side
• For the example here, the left rectangle measures 5 feet by 5
rectangle measures
feet, while 5 feet
the right-side by 10 measures
rectangle feet. 5 feet by 10 feet.

• Since the right-hand rectangle is twice as large as the smaller


• Since theleft,
on the right-hand
and since rectangle is twice
both are made of theas
samelarge
material, we
can tell that 1/3 of the object's weight is concentrated at the
as left
thecenter
smaller on the left, and since both are
of gravity (labeled "A"), while 2/3 is concentrated at
the right
made of the(labeled
same"B").
material, we can tell that 1/3
•of the
Drawobject’s weight isthe
a line connecting concentrated
two centers ofatgravity
the left
a shown
and measure 2/3 of the way from center of gravity A to center
center of gravity
of gravity (labeled
B, as shown “A”),
by the redwhile
line at2/3 is That is the
right.
location of the final, combined center of gravity for the block.
concentrated at the right (labeled “B”).

• Draw a line connecting the two centers- 12 - of gravity


B
a shown and measure 2/3 of the way from center
A
of gravity A to center of gravity B, as shown by
the red line at right. That is the location of the
final, combined center of gravity for the block.

7
C. Other shapes
• To find the center of gravity of a triangle, measure h
1/3 the height from the base as well as 1/3 of the
h/3
base from the steepest angle, as shown at right. b/3
b

r
• The center of gravity of a circle of uniform weight r

r
is located exactly at the center.

0.42 x
• The center of gravity of a semi-circle may be
determined as shown at right.
r

Example #4: Rectangular Load


Calculate the center of gravity of a steel plate 4 ft wide x 10 ft long x 1/2
inch thick.

A. Measure “h”
h1 = 10 feet
CG = 5 feet 1/2”

10’
B. h2 = 4 feet
CG = 2 feet 4’

h
h/2

8
Specify, Select, and Inspect Rigging Equipment
Wire Rope Slings

Pre-Use Inspection Checklist


• Inspect daily before use and frequently
during use
• Slings must be removed from service
when any of the below listed substandard
conditions exist.
• Shock loading is prohibited
• Ten (10) randomly distributed broken wires in one (1) rope lay, or five (5)
broken wires in one (1) strand in one (1) rope lay
• More than one broken wire at an end connection
• Reduction in rope diameter (1/3 or more of the original wire diameter)
• Severe localized wear, abrasion, or scraping
• Kinking, crushing, under-stranding, bird-caging, core protrusion, and any
other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure
• Evidence of heat damage
• End attachments that are cracked, deformed, or worn
• Hooks or latches deformed or damaged
• Corrosion of the rope or end attachments
• Each wire rope sling shall be marked to show:
– Name or trademark of manufacturer

9
Sling Angle Factor
The Sling Angle Factor is a multiplier used to determine the required sling size
when angle formed between sling and load is less than 90°.

Need to estimate angle to nearest 5°

Avoid rigging loads where angle is less than 45°

Load Angle
Sling Angle Factor
90o 1.000
85o 1.004
80o 1.015
75o 1.035
70o 1.064
65o 1.103
60o 1.155
Sling Angle Factor 55o 1.221
50o used to
The Sling Angle Factor is a multiplier 1.305
determine the required sling size when angle
formed between sling and load 45o
is less than 90°. 1.414
40o
Need to estimate angle to nearest 5°
1.555
35o 1.742
Avoid rigging loads where angle is less than 45°
30o 2.000
25o 2.366
20o 2.924
15o 3.864
10o 5.759
5o 11.47

10
Angle of Choke

Choker Hitch
Rated Capacity Adjustment
Angle of Choke Rated
in Degress Capacity
Over 120 100%

90 - 120 87%

60 - 89 74%

30 - 59 62%

0 - 29 49%

*Values are for I.W.R.C. and fibre core wire rope, the
percentage listed is the percentage of sling rated
capacity in a choker hitch.

11
D/d Ratio

When a wire rope sling is used in a basket hitch, the


diameter of the load where the sling contacts the
load can reduce sling capacity. The method used to
determine the loss of strength or efficiency is referred
to as the D/d Ratio.

D/d Ratio
The “D” refers to the diameter of the object being
When a wire rope sling is used in a basket hitch, the diameter
lifted, while the “d”
of the load whererefers to the
the sling diameter
contacts of can
the load thereduce
wire sling
capacity. The method used to determine the loss of strength or
rope sling, as shown in the figure at the upper right.
efficiency is referred to as the D/d Ratio.
For example, when a 1-inch wire rope sling is used to
The "D" refers to the diameter of the object being lifted, while
the "d" refers to the diameter
lift an object that measures of the wire
25 inches in rope sling, as
diameter, shown in
the
the figure at the upper right. For example, when a 1-inch wire
D/d Ratio
ropeissling
25-to-1
is used(written
to lift an 25/1).
object that measures 25 inches in
diameter, the D/d Ratio is 25-to-1 (written 25/1).

Alternatively, the "D" can refer to the cross-sectional diameter of the eye,
Alternatively,
hook, orthe “D”
other canbeing
object referused
to the cross-sectional
to hoist the load, as shown in the figure
at right.
diameter of the eye, hook, or other object being used
to hoistIn both cases, the effective strength of the sling results. The table below
the
shows load, asRatio
the D/d shown andin the figure at
corresponding right. percentage.
efficiency

In both cases, the effective strength of the sling


results. The table below shows the D/d Ratio and
corresponding efficiency percentage.

- 18 -

12
Synthetic Slings

Synthetic Web Slings - 1 Ply


(Rated Capacities in Pounds)

Type 1 Type 3
Triangle/Choker Eye/Flat Eye

Type 4
Type 2 Eye/Twisted Eye
Triangle/Choker

Synthetic Web Sling Pre-Use Inspection Checklist


Inspect slings daily before use and frequently during use. Slings must be
removed from service when any of the following substandard conditions exist.

• Knots, snags, holes, tears, or cuts


• Extensive abrasive wear
• Melting or charring of any part of the sling surface
• Visible red yarns or threads indicate excessive wear
• Broken or worn stitches
• Chemical damage including acid or caustic burns, brittle or stiff areas,
and discoloration of any kind
• Corrosive discoloration, or other damage to fittings
Code or
• Missing, illegible, or incomplete Manufacture ID Material Stock Number
sling identification
• Synthetic web slings must have
Slings- Type Nylon 1ZN5
tags marked with the information R-Us
Vertical Choker Basket
Made in USA
shown at right as well as a BNL 3,000 lbs. 2,200 lbs. 6,000 lbs.

colorcoded inspection tag


Rated Capacities for
Types of Hitches
13
Synthetic Web Slings

Synthetic Web Slings - Endless and Eye-and-Eye


Rated Capacities in Pounds

Endless and Eye-and Eye Synthetic Web Sling Pre-Use


Inspection Checklist
Inspect slings daily before use and frequently during use. Slings must be
removed from service when any of the following substandard conditions exist.

• Chemical damage including acid or caustic burns, brittle or stiff areas, and
discoloration of any kind
• Melting, charring or weld spatter on any part of the fittings
• Holes, tears, cuts, snags, broken or worn stitching, or any abrasion in the
sling cover that exposes the core yarns
• Knots in the sling
• Extensive abrasive wear

14
Hooks

Throat
Opening Throat Throat
Opening Opening Throat
Opening

ated Capacity Table Incorrect Hook Connections


d Alloy Steel)
Sorting Hook Eye Hook Clevis Grab Hook Choker Hook
Safe Working Limit
(SWL, in pounds)
Eye Hook Rated Capacity Table Side
Incorrent Hookload
Connections
600 (Forged Alloy Steel)
800 Throat Opening Safe Working Limit
1500 (SWL, in pounds)

2000 5/8
Back load
600
800
11/16
4000 1 1500
4500 1-1/16
1-1/4
2000
4000
5000 1/3/8 4500

5500 1-13/32 5000 Point load


1-1/2 5500
6000 1-17/32 6000

Hook Pre-Use Inspection Checklist


pection Checklist
before Inspect
use andhooks daily before use and frequently during use.
frequently during use. Remove from service when
Remove
conditions from service when any of the following conditions exist:
exist:
ble manufacturer
• Missing oridentification
illegible manufacturer identification
r gouges
• Cracks, nicks, or gouges 5% not to
eat exceed 1/4”
pairs • Damage from heat
ion and•locking
Unauthorized repairs
of self-locking
• Improper operation and locking of
Any
lane of unself-locking
bent hook hooks 10% Max Twist
ar – any• increase in throat
Any twist from plane of un bent hook Allowable Wear
ot to exceed ¼ inch,
• Distortion or wearor–wear
any increase in throat opening of 5% not to exceed ¼
of original dimension
inch, or wear exceeding 10% of original dimension.
ooks must be equipped with a latch or the
For added
ed-off/secured withsafety, hooks must
a mouse. be equipped
The latch orwith
a latch the
ded to support or theload.
throat opening closed-off/secured
with a mouse. The latch or mouse is not intended
to support the load.
15
Shackles

Shackle Capacity Table


(Forged with Alloy Pins)
Nominal Rated
Shackle Size Capacity (pounds)
3/16 660
1/4 1000
5/16 1500
3/8 2000
7/16 3000 Screw Pin Round Pin Safety Type
1/2 4000 Anchor Anchor Anchor
Shackle Shackle Shackle
5/8 6500
3/4 9500
7/8 13000
1 17000
1 1/8 19000 Screw Pin Round Pin Safety Type
1 1/4 24000 Chain Chain Chain
Shackle Shackle Shackle
1 3/8 27000
1 1/2 34000
2 1/2 11000

• If different from capacities listed above,


use rated capacity marked on the shackle.
• If capacity marking is absent, shackle
should be removed form service.

Packings Hook

Good Practice Poor Practice


Pack the Pin with Never Allow
Washers to Shackle to be Pulled
Centralize the at an Angle, the Legs
Shackle will Open Up

16
Shackle Pre-Use Inspection Checklist
Shackle
Inspect Pre-Use
shackles Inspection
daily before Checklist
use and frequently during use.
• Each shackle body shall have forged, cast, or die stamped markings by the
manufacture showing: name or trademark of the manufacturer, rated load/capacity
Inspect shackles daily before use and frequently during use.
(WLL or SWL), and size. This information shall not be missing and must be legible.

• Each shackle body shall have forged, cast, or die stamped


Remove from service when any of the following conditions exist:

markings by the manufacture showing: name or trademark
Indications of heat damage including weld spatter or arc strikes
• of thepitting
Excessive manufacturer,
or corrosion rated load/capacity (WLL or SWL),
Shackle Pre-Use Inspection Checklist
10%and
Inspectsize. This information
daily beforeshall notatfrequently
beanymissing andthemust
use. be legible.
• reduction of the original or catalog dimension point around body or pin
shackles use and during
• Body spread including: bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing
• Each shackle body shall have forged, cast, or die stamped markings by the
Remove
components
Shackle from service
Pre-Use
manufacture Inspection
showing:
when
name
any of the following conditions exist:
Checklist
or trademark of the manufacturer, rated load/capacity
Excessive
• Inspect
Shackle (WLLnicks
Pre-Use
shackles
or or gouges
SWL), Inspection
daily before
and size. Checklist
use
This and frequently
information shall during
not be use. orand
missing
•Shackle
Indications
Pre-Use of heat damage
Inspection including
Checklist weld spatter arcmust be legible.
strikes
• •Inspect shackles
Incomplete daily
pin engagement,before useofand
shoulder frequently
pin is during use.
Inspect shackles
Each shackle body daily before
shall have forged, andornot
usecast, flush
frequently
die with
stamped shackle
during body
use.
markings by the
• Excessive pitting or corrosion
manufacture
Each shackle
• • Excessive showing:
thread body name
shall
damage have orforged,
trademark
cast,oforthediemanufacturer, rated load/capacity
stamped markings by the
•Remove from service when any cast,
ofshall
ofthe following
missingconditions exist:
Each
(WLL orshackle
SWL), body
and shallThis
size. have forged, or die stamped markings bybe
the
manufacture showing: name orinformation
trademark thenot be
manufacturer, and must
rated legible.
load/capacity
• 10% reduction of the original or catalog dimension at any point around the
• Evidencemanufacture
of showing:welding
unauthorized name or trademark of the manufacturer, rated load/capacity
(WLL or SWL), and size. This information shall not be missing and must be legible.
Indications
• (WLL or SWL),ofand
heatsize.
damage including weld
This information shallspatter or arc strikes
not be missing and must be legible.
• body
Remove or pin
from
Excessive service
pitting when any of the following conditions exist:
or corrosion
Remove
• •
fromofservice when any ofweld
the spatter
following conditions exist:
• Body
Remove
Indicationsspread
10% from heat
reduction including:
service
damage
of thewhen bent,
any
including
original orof twisted,
the
catalog ordistorted,
following at any stretched,
arcconditions
dimension strikes around elongated,
exist:
point the body or pin
Indicationspitting
•• ••Excessive
Indications
of heat or
of heat
damage
corrosion including weld spatter or arc strikes
damagebent,including welddistorted,
spatter or stretched,
arc strikes elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing
cracked,
Body spreador broken
including: load-bearing components
twisted,
Excessive
•• • 10% components
Excessive
pitting
reduction or corrosion
of the
pitting ororiginal
corrosionor catalog dimension at any point around the body or pin
•• • Excessive
10%
••Body
10%
reduction
Excessive
spread
reduction
nicks
of
nicks
including: or
the original
orbent,
of the
gouges
gouges or catalog
twisted,
original
dimension
distorted,
or catalog
at any elongated,
stretched,
dimension
point around the body
cracked,
at any point around or or
the body
pin
broken
or pin load-bearing
• components
Body spread including: bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated, cracked, or broken load-bearing
••• components
Incomplete
Incomplete
Body pinengagement,
pin
spread including: engagement, shoulder
shoulder
bent, twisted, of pin
distorted, isof
notpin
stretched, is with
flush notshackle
elongated,flush with
body
cracked, shackle
or broken body
load-bearing
• Excessive
componentsnicks or gouges
• Excessive
• Excessive
Excessive
•• • Incomplete
thread
thread damage
damage
nicksengagement,
Excessivepin
or gouges
nicks or gouges shoulder of pin is not flush with shackle body
Evidence
• Incomplete ofengagement,
unauthorized weldingof pin is not flush with shackle body Never replace a Shackle pin
• •
• Evidence
• Excessive Side
Incomplete
pin
threadofLoading
pin unauthorized
damage
engagement, welding
shoulder
Reduction
shoulder Factors
of pin is not flush with shackle body with a Bolt
Excessive
•• • Evidence Screw
ofthreadPin andwelding
damage
unauthorized Bolt Type Shackles
Excessive thread damage
Anglewelding
• Evidence of unauthorized of Side Load Percent Rated
• Evidence of unauthorized welding
from Vertical Check
In-Line of cracks,
Load Reduction
Check wear Shackle bending and twisting
0° - 5° 0%
5°- 45° Check wear 30%
and straightness
Incorrect
46°-90° 50%
Over 90° Pin always seated
Avoid
Applications

Check opening width


The rated capacity of shackles onlyThe load will
applies Bend the Bolt
when
they are symmetrically loaded and the included angle
Side Loading Reduction between Factors
two sling legs is a maximum of 120°.
Side
Screw Loading
Pin and Reduction
Bolt Type Factors
Shackles
SideScrew
Loading PinReduction
and Bolt TypeShackle capacity must be reduced when the angle is
Factors
Shackles
Side Loading
Screw Reduction greater than 120°.
Factors
Side Pin and
Loading
Angle Bolt
Angle Type
of Load
Reduction
of Side Side Shackles
Load
Factors
from PercentPercent Rated
Rated Load
Screw Pin and
Angle
from Bolt
of SideTypeLoad Shackles Percent Rated
Screw Pin and Vertical
Vertical In-Line
Bolt Type In-Line
of Shackle of
Shackles Load
ReductionReduction
from
AngleVertical
of SideIn-Line
Load
Shackle of Load Reduction
Percent Rated
Angle of0° Side- 5°Load Percent0%Rated
Shackle
from Vertical In-Line of Load Reduction
from Vertical0° - 5° of
In-Line 0%
Load Reduction
0°5°-
- 5°45° - 23 -
Shackle 0%30% 30%
Shackle
5°- 45°
5°-
0°45°
- 5° 30%
0% Incorrect Incorrect
0°46°-90°
- 5° 0% 50% Incorrect
5°-46°-90°
46°-90°
45° 50%
30%50%
Applications
Applications
5°-Over
45° 90° 30% Avoid Incorrect
Applications
Over
46°-90°90°90°
Over Avoid
50%Avoid Incorrect
46°-90° 50% Applications
Over 90°
Over 90°
Avoid
Avoid
Applications
The capacity
The rated rated capacity of shackles
of shackles onlywhen
only applies applies when
The rated
they capacity of shackles
are symmetrically
they are onlythe
loaded and
symmetrically applies when
onlyloaded
The rated capacity included
of shackles angle and the
only applies included
when angle
The rated
they are
capacity of shackles
symmetrically loaded
applies
and
when they are
between
they two
between
are sling
twolegs
symmetrically is
sling alegs
loadedmaximum a the
isand ofincluded
maximum
the 120°.
includedofangle
120°.
angle
symmetrically
between
Shackle twoloaded
sling
capacity and
legsthe
must beismust
aincluded
maximum angleofbetween
120°. twois
sling
Shackle
between
legs than atwo
iscapacity
capacity
sling
maximum legs
of be isreduced
120°. a Shackle
maximum when
be reduced ofthe
capacity
angle
when
120°. the angle is
must be
Shackle
greater greater 120°. must
120°.be reduced when the angleisis
than must reduced when the angle
Shackle capacity
reduced
greaterwhenthanthe angle is greater than 120°.
120°.
greater than 120°.
17
Eye Bolts

Forged Eye Bolts – Shoulder Type


Rated Capacity Table in Pounds
Nominal Eye Bolt
90° 60° 30°
Size (inches)
1/4 400 75 NR
5/16 680 210 NR
3/8 1000 400 220
7/16 1380 530 330
1/2 1840 850 520
9/16 2370 1160 700
5/8 2940 1410 890
3/4 4340 2230 1310
7/8 6000 2960 1910
1 7880 3850 2630
1 1/8 9920 4790 3840
1 1/4 12600 6200 4125
1 1/2 18260 9010 6040
1 3/4 24700 12100 8250
2 32500 15970 10910

Types of Eye Bolts


Types of Eye Bolts Angle Loading Factors

It is recommended
that shoulder-type
eye bolts not be
loaded at angles
below 30o unless
approved by the
eye bolt’s
manufacturer.
Straight Shoulder

Angle Loading Factors


18
Eye Bolt Pre-Use Inspection Checklist

All eye bolts must be forged, cast, or die stamped with the name or trademark
of the manufacturer, size or capacity, and grade (alloy eye bolts only). This
information shall not be missing and must be legible.

Inspect eye bolts daily before use and frequently during use.

Remove from service if any of the following


conditions exist:
• Nicks, gouges, bent or distorted eye, or shank Wear
• Obvious wear (10% reduction of original/ Dye
Distortion
catalog dimension at any point)
Shank
• Worn, corroded and/or distorted threads Distortion
• Indications of heat damage including weld
spatter or arc strikes Thread
Damage
• Any alteration or repair to eye bolts, such as
grinding, machining, welding, notching,
stamping, etc. is not permissible.

Tapped receiving holes must be cleaned and inspected for threadwear and
deterioration.

When using machinery type eye


bolts, the minimum tap depth is
basic shank length plus one-half
the nominal eye bolt diameter.

19
Eye Bolt Installation and Applications

• Shoulder eye bolts must always be positioned to


take the load in the plane of the eye. An eye bolt that
is “turned to the side” will have less capacity and
may experience damage and failure when a load is lifted.
• Shoulder eye bolts should not be loaded at angles
below 30° unless approved by the manufacturer.
• Non-shoulder eye bolts are only designed for vertical
loads. When loaded at angles, a non-shoulder eye
bolt will bend or break.
• Eye bolts must be tightened securely, torqued to
spec if required by the manufacturer.

For angular lifts, the shoulder must be flush, making full contact with the load.
Otherwise, only vertical lifts are allowed.

20
Hoist Rings Installation
The following instructions
UNC Threads – Hoist Rings
Rated Capacity Table in Pounds must be followed when
Bolt Bolt Ring Torque Working Load installing hoist rings,
Diameter Length Diamter (ft-lbs) Limits
(inches) (inches) (inches) (pounds) including any instructions
5/16 1.50 0.38 7 800
3/8 1.50 0.38 12 1000 provided by the
1/2
1/2
2.00
2.50
0.75
0.75
28
28
2500
2500
manufacturer:
5/8
5/8
2.75
2.75
0.75
0.75
60
60
4000
4000
• Retention nuts, when used, must
3/4 2.25 0.75 100 5000 have full thread engagement. For
3/4 2.75 0.75 100 5000
3/4 2.75 1.00 100 7000 the rated capacity to apply, SAE 8
3/4 3.50 1.00 100 7000
3/4 2.25 0.75 100 5000 standard hex or equivalent must
7/8 2.75 1.00 160 8000
7/8 3.50 1.00 160 8000
be used.
1 4.00 1.00 230 10000
1 1/4 4.50 1.25 470 15000
• Spacers must not be used
1 1/2 6.50 1.75 800 24000 between the bushing flange and
2 6.50 1.75 1100 30000
the mounting surface.
• Tightening torque values shown are based
upon threads being clean, dry and free of • Contact must be flush and in full
lubrication. contact with the hoisting ring,
• Long bolts are designed for use with soft bushing mating, surface.
metal (i.e., aluminum) work pieces. While
long bolts may be used with ferrous metal • Drilled and tapped hole must be
(i.e., steel and iron) work pieces, short bolts 90° to the load surface.
are designed for ferrous metal work pieces
• Using a torque wrench, install
only.
hoist ring to the torque value
recommended and provided by
Incorrect Applications the manufacturer.

Incorrect Incorrect
• Drilled holes must
be correct diameter.
Depth must be threaded
shank length plus
one-half the
threaded shank
diameter.

21
Hoist Rings Pre-Use Inspection Checklist

Inspect daily before use and frequently during use.


External Inspection
Remove from service if any of the following
Points
conditions exist: Possible
• Missing or illegible manufacturer’s name Wear

or trademark, capacity and torque values


• Bail is bent, twisted, or elongated
• Threads on the shank and receiving holes are
unclean, damaged, or do not fit properly Free
Thread
• Corrosion, wear, or damage Damage Movement

• Tapped receiving holes must be cleaned and


inspected for tread wear and deterioration Right
• Any evidence of alteration or repair to hoist rings, 180° Pivot
such as grinding, machining, welding, notching,
stamping, etc.
• Indications of heat damage including weld
spatter or arc strikes
• Bail must move freely (it should
360° Rotation
pivot 180° and swivel 360°

Application
Unlike eye bolts, the rated capacity of hoist rings is not reduced when loaded at
angles. It is important to remember that when hoist rings are loaded at angles
(see illustration below) additional tension is created. This tension plus the actual
load weight must not exceed the rated capacity of the hoist rings.

After installation,
check the Hoist
Ring to be sure it
swivels and pivots Depending upon the sling angle,
freely in all the applied load may be more
directions. than the weight being lifted. Two
The side of the ring point lifting of a 2000 pound
Never use a hook or other lifing must not contact weight, with a sling angle of 30°,
device which will pry or tend anything! will result in an applied load of
to open the “U” shaped bar on 2000 pounds to each hoist ring!
Center-Pull Hoist Rings!

22
Turnbuckles

Turnbuckle Capacity Table / Hook-Style


(Alloy Steel or Equivalent)
Size Rated
(inches) Capacity End Fitting Types
(Pounds)
1/4 400
5/16 700
3/8 1000
1/2 1500
5/8 2250
3/4 3000
7/8 4000
1 5000 Eye Jaw Stub Hook
1 1/4 6500
(Has Reduced
Capacity)
1 1/2 7500

Turnbuckle Capacity Table /Jaw-Style and Eye-Style


(Alloy Steel or Equivalent)
Size Rated
(inches) Capacity Securing Turnbuckle End Fittings
(Pounds) End Fittings must be secured to prevent rotation
1/4 400 Do Not Use Jam Nuts
5/16 700
3/8 1000
1/2 1500
5/8 2250
3/4 3000 Instead, Use a Lock Wire
7/8 4000
1 5000
1 1/4 6500
1 1/2 7500

Application

• Turnbuckles can be used to level and distribute the load


among the sling.
• When used in hoisting and rigging applications, turnbuckles
should be made from alloy steel or the equivalent, and not
welded.
• Turnbuckles must be used in a straight or in-line pull only.

23
Lifting with Hand-Operated Chain Hoists
• Hand-operated chain hoists come in a variety of types, shapes, sizes, lifting
capacities, and diverse features/controls.
• These manually operated hoisting devices enable one person to lift heavy
loads multiple tons) by using a series of reduction gears to provide a
mechanical advantage and thereby reduce the amount of effort (muscle
energy) needed to lift a load.
• There are 3 common types of hand-operated chain hoists used in rigging,
shown below. Each operates on a different principle, and each has its own
advantages and disadvantages to consider during the selection process.

Operating Principle Differential Hoist


• Operates with multiple sheaves, each
with pockets cut out to fit chain links.
One sheave has more pockets than the
other so as it rotates of the same shaft
it take up chain faster.
Advantages
• Relatively inexpensive
• Simple to operate

Operating Principle
• The mechanism inside the block is a worm Screw-Gear Hoist
and pinion arrangement. The hand chain is an
endless loop that rotates the mechanism.
The load chain descends directly from
the block.
Advantages
• More efficient than differential hoists
• Can safely suspend a load when the hand chain is
released because the worm gear cannot be driven by
its pinion.
Disadvantages
• Less efficient than a spur-gear hoist

24
Operating Principle
• Uses a gear arrangement called a sun Spur-Gear Hoist
and planetary gear set. The hand wheel
is coupled to the sun gear. As the sun
gear turns, the entire group of planetary
gears slowly revolves. The load wheel
rotates much more slowly than the sun
gear, providing the reduction in speed
necessary for the hoist to operate.

Advantages
• Most efficient hand-operated chain hoist
• Incorporates a clutch that slips if the hoist is overload beyond its safe lifting
capacity to keep the load from being raised.

Disadvantages
• Requires a friction brake (usually an automatic feature/some have manual
brake release) to hold a load aloft when the hand chain is released because
of the reduced amount of friction.
• Less efficient than a spur-gear hoist

• If improperly used or abused, hand-operated hoists can

!
cause major production loss, and serious injury.
• Safe and sound rigging practices shall be used to
conjunction with hoisting operations.

25
Hoisting Guidance
Operation of a hand operated chain hoist involves more than pulling the hand
chain. The use of these hoists is subject to certain hazards that cannot be met
by mechanical means, but only by the exercise of intelligence, care, common
sense, and experience in anticipating the motions that will occur as a result of
operating the hoists.

Pre-Use Inspection Requirements


• Pre-use inspections are to be conducted by a designated person who shall
determine whether conditions found constitute a hazard and whether a more
detailed inspection is necessary.
• Records not required for frequent inspections
• Inspect daily before use and frequently during use Identification
• The hoist shall be marked with the manufacturer’s name, model, serial
number, and rated load capacity attached on a plate or label, or cast, forged,
or stamped on the hoist or load block

Warnings and Labels


• Warnings shall be affixed to the hoist or block with labels displaying
information concerning operating procedures
• Labels shall be in compliance with ANSI Z535.4 and include cautionary
language against:
o Lifting more than rated load capacity
o Operating hoist with twisted, kinked, or damaged chain
o Operating damaged or malfunctioning hoist
o Lifting people or lifting loads over people
o Operating hoist other than with human power
o Removing or obscuring labels

Pre-Use Inspection Checklist


The following items shall be inspected:
• Operating mechanism for proper operation, proper adjustment, and unusual
sounds
• Hoist braking system for proper operation

26
• Hook, & latches if used, for ASME B30.10 compliance
• Hoist load chain, reeving, and hoist rope for compliance with manufacturer
recommendations

Pre-Hoist Operations
The operator must:
• Be trained
• Not make adjustments or repairs unless qualified
• Report substandard conditions
• Not operate a hoist that is tagged out of-service
• Not use the chain or rope as a welding ground
• Not allow welding electrodes to contact the hoist
• Operate only manually (hand power) by one operator

Hoist Operations
• Hoist rope or chain shall not be wrapped around a load
• Before load movement, the operator shall be sure chains are not kinked or
twisted around each other
• The hoist shall not be operated unless rope or chain is seated properly on the
drum, sheaves, or sprockets
• The hoist shall not be operated unless centered over the load, except when
authorized by a qualified person
• The operator shall not pick up a load in excess of the rated load bearing
capacity on the hoist or load block, except during authorized tests or
pre-engineered lifts
• A hoist overload limiting devices shall not be used to measure the maximum
load to be lifted
• Each time a load approaching load capacity is handled, the operator shall
check hoist brake action by lifting the load just clear of supports and
continuing only after verifying the brake system is operating properly
• Unless a lower limit device is provided, the load shall not be lowered below
the point where less than two wraps of rope remain on the anchorage of the
hoist drum

27
APPENDICES

28
APPENDICES - Carbon Steel Pipe Size Chart1

1
Based on ANSI 36.10 and ANSI B 36.19

29
Weight of Common Materials2

Material lb. per Material lb. per


APPENDICES - Weight cu.
of Common
ft.
Materials2 cu. ft.
luminum 165 Lumber: Douglas fir 34
sbestos, solid 153 Lumber: Oak 62
sphalt 81 Lumber: Pine 30
rass 524 Lumber: Poplar 30
rick, soft 110 Lumber: Spruce 28
rick, common red 125 Lumber: Railroad ties 50
rick, pressed 140 Marble 98
ronze 534 Motor oil 60
oal 56 Paper 58
oncrete, slag 130 Petroleum: Crude 55
oncrete, reinforced 150 Petroleum: Gasoline 45
opper 556 Portland cement (loose) 94
iesel fuel 52 Portland cement (set) 183
rushed rock 95 River sand 120
arth, dry, loose 75 Rubber 94
arth, dry, packed 95 Sand, wet 120
arth, wet 100 Sand, dry 105
lass 160 Sand, loose 90
ranite 96 Steel 490
e, solid 56 Tar 75
on 485 Tin 460
2
Values taken from Rigging by James Headly, Crane Institute of America, 2007 edition.
ead 710 Water 63
me (Gypsum) 58 Zinc 437
mestoneAPPENDICES - Weight95 of Common Materials2

Weight ofof
Weights Steel andand
Steel Aluminum
Aluminum Plates
Plates
(pounds
(pounds perper
square foot)foot)
square

plate size
(inches) steel aluminum
1/8 5 1.75
1/4 10 3.50
1/2 20 7.00
3/4 30 10.50
1 40 14.00

30
INSPECTION OF SLINGS
INSPECTION FREQUENCY PER ASME B30.9:
A visual inspection shall be performed by the user or designated person each day or shift the sling is used.
A complete inspection for damage shall be performed periodically by a designated person, at least annually.
Written records of most recent inspection shall be maintained.
APPENDICES - Inspection of Slings Table

REJECTION CRITERIA PER ASME B30.9:


Missing or illegible sling identification: Evidence of heat damage; slings that are knotted; fittings that are pitted, corroded, cracked,
bent, twisted, gouged, or broken; other conditions, including visible damage, that cause doubt as to the continued use of the sling.

31
WIRE ROPE SLINGS CHAIN SLINGS WEB SLINGS
Excessive broken wires, for Cracks or breaks Acid or caustic burns
strand-laid and single part
slings, ten randomly distributed Excessive wear, nicks or gouges Melting or charring of any part of
broken wires in one rope lay or the sling
Stretched chain links or
five broken wires in one strand
in one rope lay components Holes, tears, cuts or snags
Severe localized abrasion or Lack of ability of chain or Broken or worn stitching in load
components to hinge freely bearing splices
scraping, kinking, crushing,
birdcaging Bent, twisted or deformed chain Excessive abrasive wear
links orcomponents
Any other damage resulting in
Discoloration and brittle or stiff
damage to the rope structure Weld splatter areas on any part of the sling,
Severe corrosion of the rope or which may mean chemical or
end attachments ultraviolet / sunlight damage
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Crane Operating Classes - 2nd and 4th Friday of the month.

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© 2019 ProservCrane Group. All rights reserved. RiggingBooklet_060192019_V2.


CORRECT USE OF BOW SHACKLES
There is a correct way to place a shackle on a hook and that is, the pin should rest freely in the hook.