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AUDIO AMPLIFIER

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase
the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).
It is a two-port electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the
amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater
amplitude signal at its output.
The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output
voltage, current, or power to input. An amplifier is a circuit that has a power gain greater than
one.
An amplifier can either be a separate piece of equipment or an electrical circuit contained
within another device. Amplification is fundamental to modern electronics, and amplifiers are
widely used in almost all electronic equipment.
An audio power amplifier (or power amp) is an electronic amplifier that amplifies low-power
electronic audio signals such as the signal from radio receiver or electric guitar pickup to a
level that is high enough for driving loudspeakers or headphones. Audio power amplifiers are
found in all manner of sound systems including sound reinforcement, public address and home
audio systems and musical instrument amplifiers like guitar amplifiers. It is the final electronic
stage in a typical audio playback chain before the signal is sent to the loudspeakers.
The preceding stages in such a chain are low power audio amplifiers which perform tasks like
pre-amplification of the signal (this is particularly associated with record turntable signals,
microphone signals and electric instrument signals from pickups, such as the electric guitar
and electric bass), equalization (e.g., adjusting the bass and treble), tone controls, mixing
different input signals or adding electronic effects such as reverb. The inputs can also be any
number of audio sources like record players, CD players, digital audio players and cassette
players. Most audio power amplifiers require these low-level inputs, which are line level.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_power_amplifier
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amplifier
MULTIMETER

Analog multimeters are instruments that are used to measure electrical quantities such as
voltage, current, resistance, frequency and signal power. Basic functionality includes
measurement of potential in volts, resistance in ohms, and current in amps. Analog
multimeters are used to find electronic and electrical problems. Advanced units come with
more features such as capacitor, diode and IC testing modes.
A digital multimeter is a test tool used to measure two or more electrical values—principally
voltage (volts), current (amps) and resistance (ohms).
It is a standard diagnostic tool for technicians in the electrical/electronic industries.
Digital multimeters long ago replaced needle-based analog meters due to their ability to
measure with greater accuracy, reliability and increased impedance.
Fluke introduced its first digital multimeter in 1977.
Digital multimeters combine the testing capabilities of single-task meters—the voltmeter (for
measuring volts), ammeter (amps) and ohmmeter (ohms).
Often, they include several additional specialized features or advanced options.
Technicians with specific needs, therefore, can seek out a model targeted to meet their needs.

https://www.globalspec.com/learnmore/labware_test_measurement/multimeters_electrical_t
est_meters/analog_multimeters
https://www.fluke.com/en-ph/learn/best-practices/measurement-basics/electricity/what-is-a-
digital-multimeter
MICROPHONE

A microphone is a device that translates sound vibrations in the air into electronic signals or
scribes them to a recording medium. Microphones enable many types of audio recording
devices for purposes including communications of many kinds, as well as music and speech
recording.
Frequently, microphones are designed for a given purpose. One of the main considerations,
aside from the type of device, is what is being recorded. Directionality of microphones is one
such consideration in microphone design. Omnidirectional microphones are suited to
recording all sounds in an area but poor for focusing on a single subject amongst background
noise. Directional, bidirectional and shotgun microphones are suitable for interviews.
However, the same effect is often achieved with two unidirectional devices, such as cardioid
microphones.
The first electronic microphone was a liquid-based mechanism that used a diaphragm
attached to a current-charged needle in a diluted sulfuric acid solution. This early microphone
was not able to reproduce intelligible speech.
Due to similarities in function, microphones can operate as speakers. Generally, microphone-
derived speakers are suited to high-frequency sounds like the STC company's microphone
derived super-tweeter. Speakers can also operate as microphones, although they are
generally suited for the capture of low frequencies.

https://techterms.com/definition/microphone
https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/microphone
SPEAKER

Speakers come in all shapes and sizes, enabling you to listen to music on your iPod, enjoy a
film at the cinema or hear a friend’s voice over the phone.
In order to translate an electrical signal into an audible sound, speakers contain an
electromagnet: a metal coil which creates a magnetic field when an electric current flow
through it. This coil behaves much like a normal (permanent) magnet, with one particularly
handy property: reversing the direction of the current in the coil flips the poles of the magnet.
Inside a speaker, an electromagnet is placed in front of a permanent magnet. The permanent
magnet is fixed firmly into position whereas the electromagnet is mobile. As pulses of
electricity pass through the coil of the electromagnet, the direction of its magnetic field is
rapidly changed. This means that it is in turn attracted to and repelled from the permanent
magnet, vibrating back and forth.
The electromagnet is attached to a cone made of a flexible material such as paper or plastic
which amplifies these vibrations, pumping sound waves into the surrounding air and towards
your ears.

http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=54