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(An Autonomous Institution)

Melathediyoor, Tirunelveli-627 152.
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Recognised by UGC Under Section 2 (f))
An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution
(Accredited by NBA and NAAC, Affiliated to Anna University)
Web Site:, E-Mail:




1. Define microphone.
1. An instrument for converting sound waves into electrical energy variations
which may then be amplified, transmitted, or recorded.
2. Mention the quality of microphone.
 Microphone covers are occasionally used to improve
sound quality by reducing noise from wind. Sound quality is
typically an assessment of the accuracy, enjoy ability, or
intelligibility of audio.
 Performance, audio quality may refer to proper placement
of microphones around a room to optimally use room acoustics.
3. What are the classification of microphone.
 Moving coil / dynamic microphone
 Condenser microphone
 Electret microphone
 Ribbon microphone
 Crystal / ceramic
 Boundary microphone
 Carbon microphone
4. What are the applications of ribbon microphone.
 Instead of using an induction coil, however, a ribbon microphone
uses a thin ribbon of metal as the sensor in the magnetic field.
 The most well-known version of the ribbon microphone is the one
used in radio production in the 1930s and 1940s.
5. Compare different types of microphone.
Unidirectional microphone
Cardioid microphone
Bi – directional microphone
Shotgun microphone
Diaphragm microphone
6. Define loudspeaker.
Loudspeaker definition is - a device that changes electrical signals into
sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance.
7. Define signal to noise ratio of loudspeaker.
 It is also expressed in decibels (dB).
 So if a speaker has 120dB of Signal-to-Noise Ratio, it means that
that the level of the audio signal is 120dB higher than the level of
the noise.
 The higher the number, the better it is.
8. What are the features of horn loudspeaker.
Another type is a woofer driver mounted in a loudspeaker enclosure
which is divided by internal partitions to form a zigzag flaring duct
which functions as ahorn; this type is called a folded horn speaker.
The horn serves to improve the coupling efficiency between
the speaker driver and the air.
An audio driver (e.g., a speaker cone or dome) is mounted at the
small, inner end.
Horn loudspeakers are very efficient, but have a sharp cutoff
frequency, depending on their size, with little sound output below.
9. Define baffle.
A device used to restrain the flow of a fluid, gas, etc. or to prevent the
spreading of sound or light in a particular direction
10. How can baffles be classified?
 Fibral Multiflex Baffle
 Opal Multiflex Baffle
 Hygienic Baffle
11. What is an electrodynamic loudspeaker?
Dynamic loudspeaker in which the magnetic field is produced by an electr
omagnet, called the field coil, to which a direct current must be furnished.

12. What is the function of enclosure.
Enclosure Components. The primary function of the enclosure is to
separate the interior environment from the exterior environment to which it
is exposed. Physically, the typical building enclosure usually consists of
the following components: the roof system(s)

13. What is meant by stereo?

Sound that is directed through two or more speakers so that it seems to
surround the listener and to come from more than one source; stereophonic
14. What is meant by mono?
 Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction (often shortened
to mono) is sound intended to be heard as if it were emanating from
one position.
 Monaural recordings, like stereo ones, typically use multiple
microphones fed into multiple channels on a recording console, but
each channel is "panned" to the center.

15. What are the types of stereo control?

 Shelving filters are used as common tone controls (bass and treble)
found in consumer audio equipment such as home stereos, and on
guitar amplifiers and bass amplifiers.
 A high shelf or "treble control" will have a frequency response.

16. Draw the block diagram of stereo tape recorder?

17. Define quad.

 A quad gate is an IC (integrated circuit or chip) containing four
logic gates.
 Within any given quad gate, all four of the individual gates are
normally of the same type.
18. What is theater sound system?
Surround sound is a technique for enriching the fidelity of sound
reproduction by using multiple audio channels from speakers that
surround the listener (surround channels). Its first application was in
movie theaters.
Prior to surround sound, theater sound systems commonly had three
"screen .
19. What is a graphic equalizer?
An electronic device or computer program that allows the separate control
of the strength and quality of frequency bands in an audio signal
20. Define amplifier.
 An electronic device for increasing the amplitude of electrical
signals, used chiefly in sound reproduction.
 A device consisting of an amplifier combined with a loudspeaker
and used to increase the volume of the sound produced by electric
guitars and other musical instruments.



1. What is television.
A system for converting visual images (with sound) into electrical
signals, transmitting them by radio or other means, and displaying
them electronically on a screen.
A device with a screen for receiving television signals.
2. Draw the block diagram of TV Transmission.

3. Define PCR.
PCR is very precise and can be used to amplify, or copy, a specific
DNA target from a mixture of DNA molecules.
The mixture is then cooled so that the primers anneal, or bind, to the
DNA template.
4. Define MCR.
 Interference-free transmission of signals plays a central role in the
field of MCR technology (measurement, control, regulation).
 However, signal transmission is affected by increasingly electrical
 This holds especially true for the weak signals emitted by the
measuring sensors.
 If the measuring signals are low voltages or electric currents that
must be securely transmitted, carefully conditioned or evaluated,
then there is an increase in the electromagnetic and high-frequency
interference they are exposed to.
5. Draw the block diagram of TV Receiver.

6. Define Antenna.
 In radio engineering, an antenna is the interface between radio
waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in
metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
 Hertz placed dipole antennas at the focal point of parabolic
reflectors for both transmitting and receiving

7. Define Yagi antenna.

 A Yagi antenna is a directional antenna consisting of a driven
element such as dipole or folded dipole and additional parasitic
elements, typically a reflector and one or more directors.
 It radiates in only one direction and is most commonly used in
point-to-point communications
8. What is the BW of TV signals.
A typical TV signal as described above requires 4 MHz
of bandwidth.
By the time you add in sound, something called a vestigial sideband
and a little buffer space, a TV signal requires 6 MHz of bandwidth

9. Define blend control.
 Potentiometers (often abbreviated as "pots") can be used to control a
variety of functions inside an electric guitar.
 Most often they function as tone and volumecontrols, but can
also blend two pickups together, attenuate one coil of a hum bucker,
and so on

10. Define Mixer.

 In electronics, a mixer, or frequency mixer, is a

nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two
signals applied to it. .
 For example, a key component of a super heterodyne receiver is
a mixer used to move received signals to a common intermediate

11. What is television receiver antenna

A television antenna, or TV aerial, is an antenna specifically designed for

the reception of over-the-air broadcast televisionsignals, which are
transmitted at frequencies from about 41 to 250 MHz in the VHF band,
and 470 to 960 MHz in the UHF band in different countries.

12. Define resonant antenna.

Resonant antenna. (electromagnetism) An antenna for which there is a

sharp peak in the power radiated or intercepted by the antenna at a certain
frequency, at which electric currents in the antenna form a standing-wave

13. Draw the block diagram of digital television.

14. Define iphone

 IPhone, a multipurpose handheld computing device combining

mobile telephone, digital camera, music player, and personal
computing technologies.
 Apple designed its first mobile “smartphone” to run the Mac OS X
operating system, made popular on the company's personal

15. Draw the block diagram of FAX machine.

16. Write short notes on resolution.

The resolution of an A/D converter is defined as the smallest change

in the value of an input signal that changes the value of the digital
output by one count.
For an ideal A/D converter, the transfer function is a staircase with a
step width equal to the resolution.

17. What is Decompression.

The personal decompression computer, or dive computer, is a small

computer designed to be worn by a diver during a dive, with a pressure
sensor and an electronic timer mounted in a waterproof and pressure
resistant housing and which has been programmed to model the inert gas
loading of the diver's tissues in real time

18. Define hand shakeprocess.

 The process by which two devices initiate communications.

 Handshaking begins when one device sends a message to another
device indicating that it wants to establish a communications
 The two devices then send several messages back and forth that
enable them to agree on a communications protocol.

19. What is the abbreviation of EPABX.

EPABX is Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange.

20. What are the applications of microwave oven?

 An application of microwave- microwave oven:Microwave Oven is

commonly used for cookingpurpose without using water.
 High energy of themicrowave rotates the polar molecules of water,
fatand sugars of the food stuff.
 This rotation causes friction that result in heat generation.

21. Draw the block diagram of microwave oven?

22. What are the types of microwave oven?

There are three types of microwave ovens are available in the market.

 Solo microwave oven. Best for Reheat, simple cooking.

 Grill microwave oven. Best for Reheat and Grill.

 Convection microwave oven. Best for Reheat, Grill and Bake.

23. What are the advantages of microwave cooking?

The advantages are as followed:

 Speedy Cooking ~ The cooking by microwave oven is faster than

that of other conventional cooking methods such as gas or electric
range cooking.
 More Nutritious ~ The food cooked by microwave oven are more
nutritious than that of other conventional cooking methods.
 Cool ~ Your kitchen room will not be hot due to microwave
cooking. Not only because we don't use physical fire but also, it has
very little heating effect on the cooking utensils.
 Safe ~ Microwave cooking without fire is safer by itself. And in
order to assure complete peace of mind, National microwave ovens
have several safety systems installed.
 Clean ~ It takes no time at all to clean up the microwave oven,
because food spatters in the oven are not permanent. All you have to
do is to wipe up spills occasionally with a damp cloth.



1. Define transit time effect.

 The observed or predicted time of the transit of a celestial body
across the meridian.
 The time required for a particle (as an electron) to traverse the
distance between two specified points (as from cathode to plate in a
vacuum tube)
2. List the inputs and outputs of a washing machine.

3. What are the different types of washing machine?

 Fully-automatic washing machines
 Semi-automatic washing machines
 Front load washing machines
 Top load washing machines
4. What are the features available with washing machine?
Such washing machines are energy-efficient.
They need to be programmed only once before each wash load,
which is why they offer more preset wash programmers.
These are of two types—top loading and front loading. The bad:
Automatic washers are more expensive.
5. Differentiate between a semi-automatic and a fully automatic

6. What are the components of an air conditioning system?
Still, the major parts of an air conditioner manage refrigerant and
move air in two directions: indoors and outside:
 Evaporator - Receives the liquid refrigerant.

 Condenser - Facilitates heat transfer.

 Expansion valve - regulates refrigerant flow into the evaporator.
 Compressor - A pump that pressurizes refrigerant.
7. What are the different types of refrigeration system?
 Vapour compression refrigeration system (VCR): uses
mechanical energy
 Vapour absorption refrigeration system (VAR): uses thermal
 Magnetic refrigeration system : remove heat and maintain low
 Industrial refrigeration system: used in cold storage
8. Differentiate between an all-air and all water air conditioning system.
Using dual duct system it is Simultaneous cooling and heating
possible to provide to provide is possible with 4 pipe system.
simultaneous cooling and heating.
It is possible to provide good room Though central system individual
air disturbance and ventilation room control is possible easily.
under all condition of load.
The system can be used in both The system used in exterior
comfort as well as industrial air building with large sensible load
condition application. and where close control of
humidity in the conditioned space
not required.
9. Write short notes on evaporative condenser.
 While these remain the least popular choice, they are used when
either water supply is inadequate to operate water cooled condenser
or condensation temperature is lower that can achieved by air cooled
 Evaporative condensers can be used inside or outside of a building
and under typical conditions, operate at a low condensing
 Typically these are used in large commercial air-conditioning units.
 Although effective, they are not necessarily the most efficient

10. Define vacuum cleaner.
1. An electrical apparatus that by means of suction collects dust and small
particles from floors and other surfaces.
11. What is electronic voting machine.
 Electronic voting is voting that uses electronic means to either aid or
take care of casting and counting votes.
 Depending on the particular implementation, e-voting may use
standalone electronic voting machines (also called EVM) .
12. What is solar lamp?
A solar lamp also known as solar light or solar lantern, is a lighting
system composed of an LED lamp, solar panels, battery, charge
controller and there may also be an inverter.
The lamp operates on electricity from batteries, charged through the
use of solar photovoltaic panel.
13. Define water purifier.
 Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals,
biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from
contaminated water.
 The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose
14. What is ATM?
 An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic banking outlet
that allows customers to complete basic transactions without the aid
of a branch representative or teller.
 Anyone with a credit card or debit card can access most ATMs.
15. Draw the basic calculator structure.

16. Define arithmetic unit.

 An arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) is the part of a computer processor
(CPU) that carries out arithmetic and logic operations on the
operands in computer instruction words.
 Some processors contain more than one AU - for example, one for
fixed-point operations and another for floating-point operations.

17. What are the advantages of solar lamp
 Renewable Energy Source. Among all the benefits of solar panels,
the most important thing is that solar energy is a truly renewable
energy source. ...
 Reduces Electricity Bills. ...
 Diverse Applications. ...
 Low Maintenance Costs. ...
 Technology Development. ...
 Cost. ...
 Weather Dependent. ...
 Solar Energy Storage Is Expensive.



1. What is printer?
 A printer is a device that accepts text and graphic output from a
computer and transfers the information to paper, usually to standard
size sheets of paper.
 Printers vary in size, speed, sophistication, and cost. In general,
more expensive printers are used for higher-resolution
color printing.
2. laser printer.
Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process.
It produces high-quality text and graphics by repeatedly passing a
laser beam back and forth over a negatively charged cylinder called
a "drum" to define a differentially charged image.
3. Define Draw the block diagram of laser printer.

4. Define inkjet printer.

 An inkjet printer is a computer peripheral that produces hard copy
by spraying ink onto paper.
 A typical inkjet printer can produce copy with a resolution of at least
300 dots per inch ( dpi ).
 Someinkjet printers can make full color hard copies at 600 dpi or
5. What are the advantages of printer.
 Convenience.
 Secure Delivery
 Ease of Reading
 Printing cost is low
 Fast for high volume printing
 Ink does not smudge
 Better text output
6. Write short notes on scanner
 A scanner is a device that copies a picture in digital form. After
capturing the image, the data is transferred to the computer.
 People use scanners to store their hand held pictures in their
computer, and one might scan a document for business, school, etc.
7. What are the disadvantages of printer?
 Higher initial cost, colour laser printers are expensive.
 Better paper quality required
 Health hazards
 Not easily portable.
8. Define CD player.
A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs,
which are a digital optical disc data storage format.
CD players were first sold to consumers in 1982.
CDs typically contain recordings of audio material such as music or
audio books
9. What is the abbreviation of DVD and explain.
 DVD is Digital Versatile Disc (formerly Digital Video Disc).
 A DVD is a disc on which a film or music is recorded.
 DVD discs are similar to compact discs
but hold a lot more information.
10. Define toner.
 Toner is a special ink used by laser printers and copiers.
 It is dry and powdered in nature, but is electrically charged in order
to adhere to the paper or drum plate, which has the opposite polarity.
11. Draw the block diagram of biometric device.

12. What are the types Of CD?
There are three main types: standard manufactured CDs (CD-DA), CD-R
recordable and CD-RW rewriteable.
 Standard manufactured CDs can be played on any CD digital audio
 CD-Rs can be played on CD-R machines and many but not
all CD digital audio players.
 CD-RWs can only be played on CD-RW compatible machines.
13. What are the CD Basic technology principles?
 CDs are made from an original "master" disc. The master is
"burned" with a laser beam that etches bumps (called pits) into its
 A bump represents the number zero, so every time the laser burns a
bump into the disc, a zero is stored there.
14. Define Error correction.
Error correction is the process of detecting errors in transmitted
messages and reconstructing the original error-free data.
Error correction ensures that correctedand error-free messages are
obtained at the receiver side.
15. How many layers in DVD?

16. Define single side, dual layer DVD.

17. Compare CD and DVD.

18. Write short notes on DVD.
DVD. Short for digital versatile disc or digital video disc, aDVD or DVD-
ROM is a disc capable of storing large amounts of data on one disc the size
of a standard Compact Disc. CD/DVD drives were first sold in 1997. They
are widely used for storing and viewing movies and other data
19. Define biometric device.
A biometric device is a security identification and authentication device.
Such devices use automated methods of verifying or recognising the
identity of a living person based on a physiological or behavioral
characteristic. These characteristics include fingerprints, facial images, iris
and voice recognition.
20. What are the different types of scanner.
This is article will have information about the two most common scanners.
The information will include; cost, and how its used The four
common scanner typesare: Flatbed, Sheet-fed, Handheld, and
Drumscanners. Flatbed scanners are some of the most commonly
used scanners as it has both home and office functions
21. Define sheet-fed scanner.
sheet-fed scanner - Computer Definition. A scanner that allows only paper
to be scanned rather than books or other thick objects. It moves the paper
across a stationary scan head. Contrast with flatbed scanner,
handheld scanner and drumscanner.
22. Define drum scanner.
Definition of: drum scanner. drum scanner. A type of scanner used to
capture the highest resolution from an image. Photographs and
transparencies are taped, clamped or fitted into a clear cylinder (drum) that
is spun at speeds exceeding 1,000 RPM during thescanning operation.
23. Define handheld scanner.
 Definition of: handheld scanner. handheld scanner. A scanner that is
moved by hand over the material being captured.
 Handheld scanners are small and less expensive than their desktop
counterparts but partially rely on the user's dexterity to move the
unit across the paper
24. What is biometric sensor?
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
It refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics
authentication is used in computer science as a form of identification and
access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are
under surveillance
25. What is face recognition?
A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or
verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video
26. Define home automation system.
 A home automation system is a technological solution that enables
automating the bulk of electronic, electrical and technology-based
tasks within a home.
 It uses a combination of hardware and software technologies that
enable control and management over appliances and devices within
a home.
27. What are they home network remote controlling issues?

28. What are the subgroups of biometric devices.

A biometric device is a security identification and authentication
Such devices use automated methods of verifying or recognising the
identity of a living person based on a physiological or behavioral
These characteristics include fingerprints, facial images, iris
and voice recognition


1. Define product safety.

Product safety is the ability of a product to be safe for intended use, as
determined when evaluated against a set of established rules
2. what are the standards related to electrical safety?
OSHA's electrical standards are based on the National Fire
Protection AssociationStandards NFPA 70 National Electric
Code, and NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety Requirements for
Employee Workplaces.
They must, however, be at least as effective as the
federal standards
3. What are the standards related to fire hazards?
 NFPA 1, Fire Code, advances fire and life safety for the public
and first responders as well as property protection by providing a
comprehensive, integrated approach to fire code regulation and
hazard management.
 It addresses all the bases with extracts from and references to
more than 130 NFPA® codes and standards including such
industry benchmarks as NFPA 101, NFPA 54, NFPA 58, NFPA
30, NFPA 13, NFPA 25, and NFPA 72

4. What is the abbreviation of ESD.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the release of static electricity when
two objects come into contact.
5. What is the abbreviation of VDE.
VDE stand for Verband der Elektrotechnik .It is the Association of
German Electrical Engineers as known now by the name of Association
for Electrical, Electronic &Information Technologies
6. Define photocopier.
 A photocopier is an electronic machine that makes copies of
images and documents.
 Most photocopiers use xerography, a duplication technology
based on electrostatic charges. The technology was developed by
 For many years, photocopying was known informally as
7. Define compliance.
The definition of compliance can also encompass efforts to ensure that
organizations are abiding by both industry regulations and government