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PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

(An Autonomous Institution)


Melathediyoor, Tirunelveli-627 152.
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Recognised by UGC Under Section 2 (f))
An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution
(Accredited by NBA and NAAC, Affiliated to Anna University)
Web Site: www.psncet.ac.in, E-Mail: hodaero@psncet.ac.in
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
EXTERNAL QUESTIONS – ANSWERS

201013 – EXPERIMENTAL AERODYNAMICS

PART – A

OCT / NOV 2016 =( 201013) Q.N -1


1. What is wind tunnel?
Wind tunnel are devices that provided airstreams flowing under controlled
conditions so that models of interest can be tested using them from an
operational point of you wind tunnels are classified as
 Low speed tunnels
 High speed tunnels
 Special purpose tunnels
2. What are the classifications of supersonic wind tunnel?
 Induction type supersonic wind tunnel
 Suction type continuous operation supersonic wind tunnel
 Blow down type supersonic wind tunnel
3. What is turbulence problems factor of a wind tunnel?
The actual Reynolds number of the test section is equivalent to a
much higher free field Reynolds number.
This increase is called the turbulence factor T.F defined as where the
subscripted stands for effective Reynolds number and Rec is the
measured critical Reynolds number in the tunnel test section
T.F = Ree
-------
Rec
Where
T.F = turbulence factor
Ree = effective Reynolds number
Rec = measured critical Reynolds number
4. Draw a span wise lift distribution for a typical wing?

5. List the problems associated with the operation of a supersonic wind


tunnel?
 No initial velocity
 Pressure uniform throughout tunnel
 Start tunnel by changing p0 / pb using compressor as raise p0 / pb start
with subsonic flow every where
 Eventually reach M = 1 at 1st throat (if At1 ≤At2)
6. (a) --------- type nozzle used in supersonic wind tunnel
ANS: Converging – diverging nozzle
(b) Liquefaction troubles start for a supersonic wind tunnel at Mach
number of -----------
ANS: 3
7. (a) Boundary layer thickness can be measured by using Pitot – static
tube (True / False)
ANS: False
(b) ----------- used measure instantaneous velocity of the flow
ANS: flow meter
8. (a) Hot wire anemometer used to measure instantaneous ------- and
-------
ANS: velocities and temperatures at a point in a flow
(b) The ratio of the resistance of the heated wire at its operating
temperature to the resistance of the sensor at the temperature of the
ambient fluid is -----------
ANS: plays a dominant role
9. Define boundary layer?
A layer of more or less stationary fluid (such as water or air) immediately
surrounding an immersed moving object.
10. What is hypersonic wind tunnel?
A hypersonic wind tunnel is designed to generate a hypersonic flow field
in the working section, thus simulating the typical flow features of this
flow regime – including compression shocks and pronounced boundary
layer and viscous interaction zones and most importantly high total
temperature of the flow.
The speed of these tunnels vary from Mach 5 to 15

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OCT / NOV 2017 =( 201013) Q.N -2
1. Define Mach number
The ratio of the sound of a body to the speed of sound in the surrounding
medium
M= V/a
Where,
M= mach number
V = sound of a body
a = speed of sound
2. Recall the essential importance of pitot static tubes in testing of wind
tunnel
 The pitot static tubes importance of wind tunnel is directly into fluid
flow.
 The measured stagnation pressure cannot itself be used to determine
the fluid flow velocity(airspeed in aviation)
 However, Bernoulli’s equation states: Stagnation pressure = static
pressure + dynamic pressure.
3. What is mean by lift coefficient and drag coefficient?
Lift coefficient:
 It is dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a
lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity
and an associated reference area.
 A lifting body is a foil or a complete foil- bearing body such as a
fixed wing aircraft.
 It is denoted as CL , CN or CZ
Drag coefficient:
 It is dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or
resistance of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water.
4. Define taper ratio
The ratio between the tip chord and root chord is called as taper ratio.
Taper ratio= Ctip
------
C root
5. Draw lift distribution over a tapered wing

6. W hat is the difficulties due flow angularities in wind tunnel test


section?
 The basic instruments for measuring the flow angle in a wind tunnel
are called yaw meters.
 They are calibrated by being pitched and yawed in an airstream and
the pressure differentials across opposite holes recorded.
 Shapes which are amenable to aerodynamic theory have some slight
advantage in that the experimental points can be compared to the
theoretical values.
7. Show how CL can be calculated using pressure distribution in an
airfoil
 In this experiment, the lift force, L, on the airfoil will be determined
by integration of the measured pressure distribution over the
airfoil’s surface.
 The pressure distribution on the airfoil is expressed in dimensionless
form by the pressure coefficient Cp
pi - p∞
Cp = ---------
1/2 ρ U∞2
8. Define Mach number and Reynolds number
 Mach number:
The ratio of the sound of a body to the speed of sound in the
surrounding medium
M= V/a
Where,
M= mach number
V = sound of a body
a = speed of sound
 Reynolds number:
A dimensionless number used in fluid mechanics to indicated
whether fluid flow past a body or in duct is steady or turbulent.
9. Describe the principal of thermocouples
The working principle of thermocouples is based on seebeck effects
The seeback effect states that when two different or unlike metals
are joined together at two junctions an electromotive force (emf) is
generated at two junctions.

10. What is hypersonic Aerodynamics?


Hypersonic Aerodynamics is a special branch of the study of
aeronautics
Hypersonic aircraft typically have very thick boundary layers along
the surface and high heat transfer to the surface.
All of these high speed flow phenomena lead to a vehicle design
unlike the typical airliner or fighter aircraft.

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APR / MAY 2017 =( 201013) Q.N -3
1. (a) pitot – static tube measures the difference between --------- and
------- pressure
(b) the maximum test section speed of a induction type tunnel is
----------
2. Define energy ratio
Energy ratio is defined as system energy output related to system energy
input.
E0
ER = --------
Ei
Where,
ER=energy ratio
E0= energy output
Ei = energy input
3. What is turbulence
The actual Reynolds number of the test section is equivalent to a
much higher free field Reynolds number.
This increase is called the turbulence factor T.F defined as where the
subscripted stands for effective Reynolds number and Rec is the
measured critical Reynolds number in the tunnel test section
T.F = Ree
-------
Rec
Where
T.F = turbulence factor
Ree = effective Reynolds number
Rec = measured critical Reynolds number
4. Define coefficient of drag
It is dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance
of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water
5. Define Mach number
The ratio of the sound of a body to the speed of sound in the surrounding
medium
M= V/a
Where,
M= mach number
V = sound of a body
a = speed of sound
6. Differentiate running and blowing pressure
RUNNING PRESSURE BLOWING PRESSURE
Specific ratio up to 1.11 Specific ratio up to 1.11 to 1.20
Pressure rise up to 1136 (mm/wg) Pressure rise up to 1136 – 2066
(mm/wg)
7. What is Rota meter?
 A rota meter is a devices that measures the volumetric flow rate of
fluid in a closed tube.
 It belongs to a class of meter called variable area meters, which
measure flow rate by allowing the cross sectional area the fluid
travels through to vary, causing a measurable effect.

8. Write short notes on ultrasonic flow meter?


Sound generated above the human hearing range ( typically 20 –
20KHz) is called ultrasound.
The ultrasonic flow meter operates on the principle that the velocity
of the sound in a fluid in motion is the resultant of the velocity of
sound in the fluid at rest plus or minus the velocity of the fluid.
The ultrasonic flow meter has two types there is
 Transit – time flow meter
 Doppler flow meter
9. Define boundary layer
A layer of more or less stationary fluid (such as water or air) immediately
surrounding an immersed moving object.
10. Why correction required for pitot static tube?
 With any instrument the pitot static tube also has its limitations
especially in the measurement of small differential pressures
experienced at low speeds.
 For measuring small pressure differences the requirement of ultra –
high sensitive manometers imposes severe limitations on the use of
pitot static probes for such measurements.

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