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PSN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

(An Autonomous Institution)


Melathediyoor, Tirunelveli-627 152.
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi and Recognised by UGC under Section 2 (f))
An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institution
(Accredited by NBA and NAAC, Affiliated to Anna University)
Web Site: www.psncet.ac.in, E-Mail: hodaero@psncet.ac.in
DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING
EXTERNAL QUESTIONS – ANSWERS

201017 – PROPULSION – II

PART – A

APR/ MAY -2017 Q.N - 1


1. What are the limiting factors in gas turbine design?
 Stress considerations
 Operating temperatures
 Blade fixing
 Degree of reaction
 Mach number
 Outlet flow and Vibrations are some of the limiting factors.
2. What are the methods for blade cooling?
 Internal air cooling
Hollow blade, with or without inserts
Solid blade with radial holes, with or without inserts
 External air cooling
Film cooling
Transpiration or effusion cooling
Root cooling
 Internal Liquid cooling
Forced convection cooling
Free convection cooling
Evaporative cooling
 External liquid cooling
Sweat cooling using porous blades
Spray cooling
3. What is surging in compressor?
 Surge is defined as the operating point at which centrifugal
compressor peak head capability and minimum flow limits are
reached.
 Actually the working principle of a centrifugal compressor ins
increasing the kinetic energy of the fluid wth a rotating impeller.
4. Define slip factor?
The ratio of the actual and perfectly guided values of the whirl components
at the exit is known as slip factor.
µ= ct2 /ct2!
5. Classify rocket nozzle?
Rocket nozzle are classified into two types
 CONVENTIONAL NOZZLES
Conical nozzles
Bell nozzles or contoured nozzles
 ADVANCED CONCEPT NOZZLES
Aero spike nozzles
Expansion deflection (E- D) nozzles
6. What are the safety considerations during static testing of rockets?
 Safety goggles are to be used by entire team while loading and
removing motors and during the actual test.
 Make certain that there are no flammable objects inside the safety
zone.
 If the motor doesn’t ignite or the igniter burns through wait afull
minute before entering the safety zones
7. Write short notes on nozzle less propulsion
A nozzle – less rocket motor is basically a glorified solid rocket
booster.
It uses quick – burning solid fuel to accelerate a payload really
quickly.
Example: Turbojet Engine.
8. What is chemical rocket?
Chemical propulsion is propulsion in which the thrust is provided by
the product of a chemical reaction, usually burning (or oxidizing) a
fuel.
The heats produced by the chemical reaction heats up the product,
making it expand.
As it expands, it gets too big for the reaction chamber and pushes out
the back of the rocket. This provides thrust for the rocket
9. Write short notes on electric propulsion techniques
 An electrically – powered spacecraft propulsion system uses electrical
energy to change the velocity of a spacecraft.
 Electric thrusters typically use much less propellant than chemical
rockets because they have a higher exhaust speed than chemical
rockets.
10. What is solar sail?
 Solar sail is a big photon reflection surface.
 The power source for the sail is the sun and it is external to the
vehicle.
 Approaches using nuclear explosions and pulsed nuclear fusion, has
been analyzed.
 Concepts for transmitting radiation energy from earth stations to
satellites have been proposed, but are not yet developed.

OCT / NOV - 2018 Q.N - 2


1. What is the difference between impulse and reaction turbine?
IMPULSE TURBINE REACTION TURBINE
Energy transformation take place In both nozzle and rotor
only in the nozzle
Degree of reaction is zero Degree of reaction less than unity
Power output is more Power output is less
Efficiency is less Efficiency is more
Impulse blading is used at the blade Reaction blading is used at blade tip
root
2. What is the difference between energy transformation and energy
conversion justify with turbine working
ENERGY TRANSFORMATION ENERGY CONVERSION
Energy transfer in a turbomachine When turbine working that convert
stage is possible only in the rotor, in Kinetic energy into Mechanical
whereas energy transformation can energy that transform is called
occurs both in moving and fixed energy conversion
blades
3. Write thrust equation for jet engine and also for rocket engine
THRUST EQUATION FOR JET ENGINE:
.
𝑇(𝐹) =m eve – m0v0 + (pe – pa) pe
THRUST EQUATION FOR ROCKET ENGINE:
.
F = m ve + (pe-pa) A0
4. What is the difference between actual exhaust velocity and effective
exhaust velocity?
ACTUAL EXHAUST EFFECTIVE EXHAUST
VELOCITY VELOCITY
C= F/m
.
F = m ve + (pe-pa) Ae
The velocity of an exhaust stream The effective exhaust velocity ‘c’ is
after reduction by effects such as the average equivalent velocity at
friction, non axially directed flow which propellant is ejected from the
and pressure difference between the vehicle
inside of the rocket and surrounding
5. What is meant by sub critical mode of ramjet inlet operation?
If the heat released due to combustion is such that it causes the static pressure
at the exit section of the subsonic diffuser to exceed the static pressure which
can be accomplished by the diffusion system, then the flow becomes choked
and the normal shock wave is expelled from the diffuser and moves upstream
toward the vertex of the conical centre body.
6. What is integral ram rocket?
A ducted rocket, some times called as an air-augmented rocket,
combines the principles of rocket and ramjet engines, it gives higher
performance (specific impulse) than a chemical rocket engine, while
operating within the earth’s atmosphere.
Usually the term air-augmented rocket denotes mixing of air with the
rocket exhaust (full-rich for after burning) in proportions that enabled
the propulsion device to retain the characteristics of the rocket engine,
for example, high static thrust and high thrust to weight ratio.
7. Differentiate between Monopropellant and Bipropellant?
MONOPROPELLANT BIPROPELLANT
A liquid propellant which contains A liquid propellant which contain
both the fuel and oxidizer in a single both the fuel oxidizer in a singal
chemical is known as “mono chemical.
propellant”
Examples Examples
Gas oline, Hydrazine Hydrogen peroxide
8. What is hyperbolic propellant and give examples?
 A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one
where the propellants spontaneously ignite when they come into
contact with each other.
 The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an
oxidizer.

EXAMPLES:
 The most common hypergolic fuels, hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine
and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, and oxidizer, nitrogen
tetroxide.
9. What is homogeneous and heterogeneous propellant?
HOMOGENEOUS HETEROGENEOUS
PROPELLANT PROPELLANT
A mixture in which different A mixture in which different
constituents are mixed uniformly constituents are not mixed
uniformly
They cannot have physically distint They have physically distint parts
parts
The constituents cannot be easily The constituents can be easily
separation separation
Ex: sugar solution Ex: sugar and sand mixture
10. Write some advance propulsion techniques?
Electric propulsion
Chemical propulsion
Precision propulsion
Power system
Energy storage

OCT / NOV - 2018 Q.N - 3


1. Differentiate between axial and radial turbines
RADIAL TURBINES AXIAL TURBINES
The flow will be perpendicular to The flow will be parallel to the
the turbine axis turbine axis
The number of stages is limited to Stage based on the power
maximum of 3 stage requirements
Higher losses and low efficiency Low losses and efficiency can be
improved
Power output of single stage is Power output of single stage is less
higher
Maintenance requires replacement Only affected parts or tail blades are
of entire stage replaced
Total power output is less so cannot Majorly used in aircraft gas turbine
used for high power aircraft
2. Write the degree of reaction for a turbine and also for compressor
DEGREE OF REACTION COMPRESSOR:
It is the ratio of enthalpy increase in a rotor to enthalpy increase of stage.
DEGREE OF REACTION TURBINE:
It is the ratio of enthalpy drop in a rotor to enthalpy drop in a stage.
3. What are the main differences between ramjet and scramjet engine?
RAMJET ENGINE SCRAMJET ENGINE
Flow inside the ramjet is subsonic Flow inside the scramjet is
supersonic
Low specific impulse High specific impulse
Mach at theoretically 1 to 6 Mach at theoretically 12 to 24
4. What is specific impulse/ Give its significance
 The thrust per kg of air flow is known as specific thrust or specific
impulse.
 This specific impulse is a criterion of the size of engine required for
producing a given total thrust.
5. What is meant by sub critical mode of ramjet inlet operation?
If the heat released due to combustion is such that it causes the static pressure
at the exit section of the subsonic diffuser to exceed the static pressure which
can be accomplished by the diffusion system, then the flow becomes choked
and the normal shock wave is expelled from the diffuser and moves upstream
toward the vertex of the conical centre body.
6. What is integral ram rocket?
A ducted rocket, some times called as an air-augmented rocket,
combines the principles of rocket and ramjet engines, it gives higher
performance (specific impulse) than a chemical rocket engine, while
operating within the earth’s atmosphere.
Usually the term air-augmented rocket denotes mixing of air with the
rocket exhaust (full-rich for after burning) in proportions that enabled
the propulsion device to retain the characteristics of the rocket engine,
for example, high static thrust and high thrust to weight ratio.
7. Differentiate between Monopropellant and Bipropellant?
MONOPROPELLANT BIPROPELLANT
A liquid propellant which contains A liquid propellant which contain
both the fuel and oxidizer in a single both the fuel oxidizer in a singal
chemical is known as “mono chemical.
propellant”
Examples Examples
Gas oline, Hydrazine Hydrogen peroxide
8. What is hyperbolic propellant and give examples?
 A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one
where the propellants spontaneously ignite when they come into
contact with each other.
 The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an
oxidizer.
EXAMPLES:
 The most common hypergolic fuels, hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine
and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, and oxidizer, nitrogen
tetroxide.
9. What is homogeneous and heterogeneous propellant?
HOMOGENEOUS HETEROGENEOUS
PROPELLANT PROPELLANT
A mixture in which different A mixture in which different
constituents are mixed uniformly constituents are not mixed
uniformly
They cannot have physically distint They have physically distint parts
parts
The constituents cannot be easily The constituents can be easily
separation separation
Ex: sugar solution Ex: sugar and sand mixture
10. Write some advance propulsion techniques?
Electric propulsion
Chemical propulsion
Precision propulsion
Power system
Energy storage

OCT / NOV - 2016 Q.N - 4


1. What is turbine?
Turbine is a rotary engine which converts fluid flow into a useful work.
Classification of turbines
 Based on the fluid flow
 Based on the Energy at inlet
2. Define degree of reaction?
Degree of reaction [R] is usually defined as the rate of energy transfer by
virtue of change of static pressure to the total energy transfer.
Pressure drop in the rotor
R= --------------------------------
Pressure drop in the stage
3. What are the assumptions made for calculate the ideal efficiency of the
ramjet engine?
Ideal Assumptions:
 Inlet or Diffuser: Πd =1, 𝜏 d = 1 ( adiabatic, isentropic)
 Combustor or burner and After burner: Πb = 1 , Πa =1
 Nozzle: Πn = 1 , τn = 1
4. What are the factors affecting combustion process in a ramjet?
 The burner geometry or configuration;
 The physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel
 The fuel air ratio
 The velocity of the working fluid (air and fuel) entering the burner
section
5. Define and write the equation for specific impulse and specific thrust?
SPECIFIC IMPULSE:
The thrust per kg of air flow is known as specific thrust or specific
impulse. This specific impulse is a criterion of the size of engine
required for producing a given total thrust.
.
ISp = F/ m a
= (cj – ci)
SPECIFIC THRUST:
The specific thrust is a criterion of the size of engine required for
producing a given total thrust.
(ISp) st = cj
6. What is internal ballistics?
 Internal ballistics a subfield of ballistics is the study of the propulsion
of a projectile.
 In guns internal ballistics covers he time from the propellant’s ignition
until the projectile exits the gun barrel.
7. What are the factors involved in selection of liquid propellants?
 Heat of combustion
 Reaction rate
 Average propellant density
 Stability
 Vapor pressure
 Freezing point
 Ignitability
 Viscosity.
 Specific Heat
 Thermal Conductivity
8. Write notes note on hybrid rockets?
 A modification of solid- propellant engine is the hybrid engine, which
incorporates one solid propellant and one liquid – propellant.
 Normally the solid propellant is the fuel because of its higher energy
potential, while the liquid propellant is the oxidizer.
 The hybrid rockets engine tends to combine the advantage of both
solid and liquid propellant engines.
9. Why electrical rockets are called essentially power limited?
In all electrical propulsion the source of electric power ( nuclear, solar
radiation receiver, or batteries) is physically separated from the
mechanism that produces the thrust.
This type of propulsion has been handicapped by heavy and inefficient
power sources.
The thrust usually is low typically 0.005 to 1 N
In order to allow a significant increase in vehicles velocity it is
necessary apply the loe thrust and thus a small acceleration for a long
times so that is called as essentially power limited electric rocket
10. What is solar sail?
 Solar sail is a big photon reflection surface.
 The power source for the sail is the sun and it is external to the
vehicle.
 Approaches using nuclear explosions and pulsed nuclear fusion, has
been analyzed.
 Concepts for transmitting radiation energy from earth stations to
satellites have been proposed, but are not yet developed.

OCT / NOV - 2017 Q.N - 5


1. What is blade to gas speed ratio and its significance?
A blade can be defined as the medium of transfer of energy from the gases to
the turbine rotor.
Significance:
The rotor driving force along the radial direction
The axial forces caused by the gas flow
The forces acting normal to the turbine shaft due to the centrifugal
forces
2. What is called the blade loading coefficient?
the freq
3. What are the assumptions made for calculate the ideal efficiency of the
ramjet engine?
Ideal Assumptions:
 Inlet or Diffuser: Πd =1, 𝜏 d = 1 ( adiabatic, isentropic)

 Combustor or burner and After burner: Πb = 1 , Πa =1

 Nozzle: Πn = 1 , τn = 1

4. What are the factors affecting combustion process in a ramjet?


 The burner geometry or configuration;
 The physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel
 The fuel air ratio
 The velocity of the working fluid (air and fuel) entering the burner
section
5.
6.
7.
8. Write short notes on nozzle less propulsion
A nozzle – less rocket motor is basically a glorified solid rocket
booster.

It uses quick – burning solid fuel to accelerate a payload really


quickly.

Example: Turbojet Engine.


9. Describe the principle of Electric rocket propulsion system with neat
sketch/

10. Why electrical rockets are called essentially power limited?


In all electrical propulsion the source of electric power ( nuclear, solar
radiation receiver, or batteries) is physically separated from the
mechanism that produces the thrust.

This type of propulsion has been handicapped by heavy and inefficient


power sources.

The thrust usually is low typically 0.005 to 1 N

In order to allow a significant increase in vehicles velocity it is


necessary apply the loe thrust and thus a small acceleration for a long
times so that is called as essentially power limited electric rocket