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MODERN HISTORY:

Syllabus
Core study: power and authority in the modern world
National Socialism: the political doctrine of the Nazi Party of Germany.
Nationalism: an extreme form of patriotism marked by a feeling of superiority over other
countries.
Authoritarianism: the enforcement or advocacy of strict obedience to authority at the expense
of personal freedom
Anti-semetic: Antisemitism is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

Survey:
 An overview of the peace treaties which ended world war 1 and their consequences

The treaties of Versailles:


- Drafted In 1919 when world war 1 came to an end
- Basically blamed everything on the Germans
- Germans had to pay reparations,
- Had to become a democracy or at least the americans thought they should get rid of
the kiaser.
Territorial;
- land taken away from Germany including Alsace-Lorraine (given to France), eupen
and malmedy (given to beligum), northern schleswif (given to denamrk), hultschin
(given to czechoslovkia) and west Prussia, posen and upper silesia (given to Poland),
gemrnay also had to give other land they had from Russia back.
Military;
- army reduced to 100,000 men, primarily infantry divisions, they were not allowed to
experiment with new army technologies such as tanks, no air forced allowed, allowed
up to 6 naval ships due to the traditional connection they have to the navy and no
submarines.
- Zone in between France and Germany the river Rhine was made into a demilitarised
zone, no Germany soldier or weapon was allowed. The allies were to keep an army of
occupation on the west bank of the Rhine for 15 years.
Financial
- Germany had to admit to all responsibility for the war and thus pay for it
- Repayments were termed reparations and were to be payed to former enemies
- Loss and confiscation of vital industrial territory was also designed to be a severe
blow to any future attempts to rebuild their economy
- Other ways of paying for the war was coal from the saar and upper Silesia was taken
as compensation.
- To Germany the allies were trying to bankrupt them
- Also forbidden to unite with Austria to form one superstates, in an attempt to keep her
economic potential to a minimum
- Had to pay for all the infrastructure and broken land in France and Belgium as their
land had most damages due to war
War guilt clause: meaning they had to take responsibility for everything
Germans reaction to the treaty and consequences:
- They thought they would be consulted about the treaty but they were not.
- Had to sign the peace treaty fast before the allies concurred their land to stop full
“defeat” of the allies stepping onto their land
- Treaty was known as diktat to Germans as it was being forced on them
- Civilians didn’t want to sign it and created a mood of anger in Germany- leads to
resentment a key cause of ww2 (Hitler used this)
- The German representatives that signed the treaty were considered “November
criminals” and blamed along side other minorities (eg. Jews)
- Civilians felt they were being punished for the mistakes of the German government in
august 1914 as it was them who declared war not them

Other peace treaties:


Austral-hungry;
- Austria signed the treaty of saint Germaine
- Hungary signed the treaty of trianon
- Treated as 2 completely new countries as they had been forced separated
- Both lost land to neighbouring countries
- Had to reduce military capability and both had to pay reparations for war damages
Bulgaria;
- Signed treaty of Neuilly
- Lost land
- Had to reduce military capability and pay reparations
Turkey;
- Ottoman empire had to sign the particularly harsh treaty of Sevres

Focus of study

The rise of dictatorships after world war 1


 The conditions that enabled dictators to rise to power in the interwar period

Overall conditions:
- Death of leaders- transition of powers
- Political unrest and instability – end of empires – establishing new countries
- Rising ideologies
- Economic hardships- the great depression 1929
- Outcomes of the world war

 An overview of the features of dictatorship that emerged in Russia, Italy and japan
- Between the 2 wars

Germany:
Views of dictator:
- anti-sematic- believed Jews were to blame for the stab in the back theory, race
problem
- anti-bolsivisom (communist Russia), anti-Marxist
- pan- Germanic – only wanted true Germans
Conditions enabled your dictator to come to power:
- economic hardship
- the great depression (treaty of Versailles) – unemployment began to trust Hitler
-

Position they held in society:


- 1932 ran against someone for
- Became chancellor as they thought he could easily be controlled
-
What did your dictatorship aspire to for the future of their country:
- ultimate goal was to gain world domination
- lebensraum- living space (expand Germany out)3
- wanted whole of central Europe

Russia: stalin
Views of dictator:
- communist,
- Stalinism- means of governing and policy’s, extreme totalitarianism, state terror, rapid
industrialisation
-
Conditions enabled your dictator to come to power:
- Lenin’s death, made everyone believe he wasn’t trying to go into a high area
-
Position they held in society:
- Dictator of Soviet Union
-
What did your dictatorship aspire to for the future of their country:
- Russian youth communist league
- “man of steel”
- 5-year plan program
- Get rid of higher landlords

Japan: Tojo
What are the views of dictator:
- Tojo supported extreme right-wing views, being a strong supporter of the Tripartite
Pact (also known as the Berlin Pact, which was an agreement between Germany Italy
and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940, that provided mutual assistance
from the signatories, should any of them suffer an attack by any nation not already
involved in the war. - formation of alliances
- He advocated an aggressive foreign policy, and as army minister, he continued to
expand the war between China in WW2, hoping to overtake
- Tojo believed the parliamentary system had been corrupted by materialism and
western values and should be replaced by a system that would return traditional
Japanese values and imperial authority and bring world order
- "the embodiment of national determination, hardline nationalism and militarism".
- Hisorian.
Conditions enabling dictator to rise:
- Political, economic and civil unrest:
- The Great Depression (economic hardships); 1929
- Strong opposition to western values; “dreadfully wrong”
- Peace treaty not involving Japan, and the lack of help and connections from the
League of Nations; the search for security
- Japan experiencing severe political unrest; he was a very stern, consistent and
appointed parliament leader
- Despair and disillusionment of Japanese society
- Racial equality clause

Position they held in society:


- First assigned to the War Ministry, then appointed to Major General in 1933, then
appointed head of the Kwantung Army Military Police in 1935, and then promoted to
Lieutenant General in 1936;
held an extensively successful military history
- As chief staff of the Kwantung Army in Manchuria, Tojo worked to mobilise Japan’s
economy and strengthen its readiness for possible war with the Soviet Union
- In 1938, Tojo was recalled from field service to become Vice-Minister of war, where
he was determined to prepare Japan to wage a two-front war against China and the
Soviet Union.
- He earned a reputation for sternness and discipline due to his extensive successful
militaristic views, and was given authoritative command of the 1st Infantry Regiment
upon returning to Japan.
- Tojo became Prime Minister of Japan in 1941 until 1944
- He held authoritative position during most of the Pacific portion of WW2
- He was after subsequently tried and executed for militaristic war crimes

Dictatorship aspiration for the future of their country:

- Tojo aspired to bring a future governing system that followed the traditional values of
Japan and imperial authority, and create world order
- He wanted stability of Greater East Asia, and desired major territorial gains in
Indochina and the South Pacific
- Tojo demanded decision for war unless the US backed away from its official ban on
all exports to Japan
- He quickly promised a “New Order In Asia”, and against advice from several of his
generals, Tojo supported the bombing of the United States, Pearl Harbour.
- Tojo quickly promised a “New Order in Asia,” and toward this end supported the
bombing of Pearl Harbor despite the misgivings of several of his generals
- He held mutual respect for other countries independence and autonomy

Italy: Mussolini
Views of dictator:
- Ideologies: fascism
- Make Italy great again: wanted to be an empire, unhappy with peace treaty
negotiation
- Capitalised on discontent of his people
- Made black shirts- military
- Wasn’t always anti Semitic, ended up agreeing with Hitler forcefully

Conditions enabled your dictator to come to power:


- Terrorised political

Position they held in society:


- Became prime minister of Italy in national fascist party 1922-43
- 29th of October king Emanuel made Mussolini prime minister, gave up on fighting
- Dismantled democratic institutions
- Made himself dictator by 1925

Dictatorship aspire to for the future of their country:


- believed women should stay at home, and make baby so they could have bigger
population
- promoted combat, army and military to the youth, indoctrination - Nazis are
influenced by this

The Nazi regime to 1939


 The rise of the Nazi party and Hitler in Germany and the collapse of the Weimar
republic

What Happens In Germany At the End of the War?

- In October, Ludendorff calls “to abandon the war as


hopeless”
- The Kaiser refuses to, leading to the coordination of
military against him. Mutinies occur throughout the
army and the Kaiser abdicates and flees by 10
November.
- Ebert, the leader of the Social Democrats, takes
leadership

Stage 1: Early Years of Crisis: Weimar republic


The Weimar Republic refers to Germany’s government from 1919 to 1933. It was named
after the town of Weimar where the first meeting of the National assembly was held.
- President still holds most power, controls army
President: elected by the people every 7 years. Appointed the chancellor (usually the head of
the strongest party). Was supreme commander of the armed forces. Capacity to rule by
decree at a time of national emergency.

Parliament: there were 2 houses, the Reichstag was the main law making body. Deputies
were elected every 4 years. The Reichstag was less important. It represented the states and
could only initiate or delay proposals

The putsch’s:
Kapp putsch -1920
- The freikorps had become unsettled due to calls to reduce the size of the army.
- They attempted to overthrow of power
- Weakness of Weimar Republic was evident
- Weimar republic was forced to flee the capital, however it eventually failed after the
SPD called for a general strike which shut down berlin

Beer Hall putsch – 1923


- A coup made by Hitler
- He ended up going to jail for treason, would usually be executed for this crime but
only got a few months
- Attempted to take Munich
- Lacked support
- 16 people died
- In prison he wrote his book “mein kampf”

Stage 2: Continuing Political Strain:

The Problems with Democracy:


- Sharp decline in 1920in representation of original 3 largest parties
- Republic faced criticism from both extremes and from democratic supporters
- In the four years from 1919-1923, the Weimar Republic had 6 governments.

In 1923: The great inflation:

Stresemann Era...
Stresemann was appointed Chancellor in August 1923. He:
- Called off ‘passive resistance’ in the Ruhr
- Government expenditure was cut
- The Rentenmark replaced the mark
- Negotiated the Dawes Plan to enable Germany to repay reparations based on their
ability.
- The extremists on the left and right were defeated

Stage 3: The Collapse of Democracy:

The Great Depression:


Germany was already struggling the depression led to:
- Unemployment reaching 3 million by 1930, by 1932 ⅓ were unemployed
- Increasing lack of confidence in the newly established democracy
- Discontent within the Republic saw a swelling of nationalism, eventually reflected in
the 1930 elections
- In 1930 Hitler was gaining more power had 18.3% second in federal state.

Hindenburg and Article 48:


- The Depression encouraged President
Hindenburg to impose his powers under
Article 48 more frequently.
- Evident in his appointment of Chancellors
during this time, he aimed towards a more
authoritarian rule.
- Table shows how unemployment number
rose over the years and so did the
emergency decrees issued while the number of times Reichstag sat declined
- Indicates Hitler coming to power and political instability and lack of communication

Rise of Hitler and Nazi party:

The Origins of the Nazi Party:


By 1919, Hitler had developed several ideas that were to be
the core of National Socialism:
- Fervent German nationalism
- Support of authoritarianism and opposition to democracy and socialism
- A racially inspired view of society which exhibited itself most obviously in anti-
Semitism and a veneration of the German volk as a master race.

These Attitudes Lead to...

- Post WWI, Hitler became a spy for the political department of the Bavarian section of
the German army. Like most soldiers of the defeated Imperial German Army, the
transition back to civilian life would not be easy. Most obviously, the economy was
shattered and work was scarce. Hitler Wanted to remain in the army as it was a source
of Stable employment.
- It was through this surveillance role that he came in contact with the DAP - German
Worker’s Party.
- Intrigued by its message and the realm of politics Hitler joined the party immediately
and became a member of its committee.

25 Point Programme, Feb 1920:


- A list of all the rules
- was the party program of the National Socialist German Workers' Party

Developing the Nazi Party:


After being appointed leader, Hitler tried to bring other right-wing groups in Bavaria under
his party’s leadership:
- Key Development: armed squads were organised and set up as the SA in 1921 as a
military unit led by Ernst Röhm*. It was used to organised planned thuggery and
violence
- Key Development: They established their own newspaper in 1921, titled the
Völkischer Beobachter, and won the backing of Julius Streicher, who had previously
run a rival right-wing Bavarian party.
- Key Development: Hitler won the support of the influential Hermann Göring , who
joined the party in 1922.

What is the SA?

The SA, or Sturmabteilung, became known as the Brownshirts after the colour of their
uniform. They were a paramilitary group which supported the radical socialist aspects of
Nazism. They are the army of nazi germnay.
- Stormtroupers
- a paramilitary organization whose methods of violent intimidation played a key role
in Adolf Hitler's rise to power.

Who is Ernest Röhm?


He fought in WW1 and provided Hitler with important army contacts. He had joined the
Freikorps and was one of the early followers of Hitler. He was put in charge of the SA, but
was murdered in the purge of the SA in 1934.

Who is Hermann Göring?


- Was a respected pilot in WW1,but was without purpose after the war. Joined the Nazi
party in 1922.
- He was severely wounded in the Munich Putsch.
- In 1933 he was appointment PM, where he established the Gestapo.
- In 1935 he became Commander in Chief of the air force.

Hitler being appointed chancellor:


- Biggest party in the Reichstag – in democracy the leader of the biggest party (even
though it did not have majority) is meant to be the chancellor
- After his imprisonment he realised he needed to gain power through legal means
- The industrial workers were more interested in communism where as the wealthier
Germans were fearful so they supported Hitler and his party financially.
- Politics became completely polar -2 different extremes
- Von papen was bice chancoler – meant to control and look after hitler (they thought
they could keep him on a leash)
- Hindenburg died sudden

 The initial consolidation of Nazi power

The legal revolution:


The enabling act:
- Hitler preposed to the new Reichstag an enabling law that would effectively do way
with parliamentary procedure and legislation and instead transfer full power to the
chancellor and his government for 4 years.
- Needed 2 thirds od the Reichstag parliaments support
- The SA was making Hitler look bad as he was trying to take his power legitimately
- Hitler gets the parliament together for a vote, with the SA intimating and surrounding
them
- The non-Nazi politicians were harassed at the voting
- Hitler used the catholic church as a way of gaining support from the ZP a religious
political party.
- The enabling act was passed 444 to 94
The Reichstag fire:
- Fire in Reichstag allowed hitler to use the emergency powers where he could bend the
rules legally
- Used as propaganda against communists

The death of hindernburg:


- hitler could manipulate his way in after this

Gleichschaltung (coordination):
- Attempts to incorporate Nazi ideologies and national socialism into the Weimar
Republic and german life
- Nazifying German society and structures and specifically the establishment of the
dictatorship 1933-4.
- SA was a revolution from below
- Nazi leadership was revolution from above
- The two political forces attempted to co-ordinate as many aspects of German life
- Allowed them to control Germany
- Hitler and the Nazi party’s try to abolish regional parliaments,
- In January 1934 they were abolished
- The trade unions were weakened by the great depression although they did pose a
threat to Nazis, they were later abolished on 1st may, leaders were sent to Dachau
- Other political parties were abolished
- Some even dissolved themselves – in fear or belief of the Nazi ideologies

Night of the long knives:


- Hitler had to choose between the SA and the army
- The SA was getting too out of hand, hitlers oldest friend rohms had different plans to
Hitler, tried to create peoples militia
- The SA and the military didn’t see eye to eye, major power struggle
- SA was causing major issues for Hitler as he was trying to legitimise his power but it
was hard when there was brawls going on, the SA was very thuggish
- The army deired their elimination and an end to the talk of a second revolution and a
peoples army
- By agreeing to this hitler could gain the favour of the army generals, secure his
personal position and remove an increasingly embarresing milestone from his neck
- On 30th of june 1934 hitler eliminated the SA.
- Rohm and the main leaders of the SA were shot by memebers of the SS(bodyguard
units), the weapons were provided by the army
- Around 200 SA died
- The significants of this was that hitler now had the army behind him, which would
later help him gain “living space” if and wehen ww2 started
The SS helped get rid of the SA

 The nature of Nazi ideology

Origins of Nazi ideology:


- Pre world war 1 europena intectual and political movements.
- A response to and rejection of modernity – which was seen to incorporate
enlightenment ideals of rationality

Social Darwinism:
- Natural selection in a sense
- Hitler believed in social darwinsm, germans were the superior race so they must
eradicate all other races and take their place on the top, gain new land

Anti-Semitism:
- Believed in the idea that jews were evil, cause of all their problems, tooted from
history in christainity,
- nazi party had these ideologies before hitler came

Volkisch ideas:

 The role of prominent individuals in the Nazi state


Heinrich Himmler:
- Overhead leader of ss
- Assiesnet chief of the gestapo in Prussia
- Part of the night of long knives
- German Nazi politician, police administrator, and military commander
who became the second most powerful man in the Third Reich.
- leading member of the Nazi Party of Germany. Himmler was one of the most
powerful men in Nazi Germany and one of the people most directly
responsible for the Holocaust
- Himmler joined the Nazi Party in 1925,
- Himmler became head of the Munich police and soon afterward
became commander of all German police units outside Prussia. As
such, he established the Third Reich’s first concentration camp,
at Dachau.
-

Goebbels:
What problems did Goebbels face?
Radio: Radios were locally controlled, particularly in Bavaria and Prussia. Also, radios were
expensive and few people owned one.
Newspapers: Germany had no national newspapers, political parties had their own, and many
were owned by Jewish companies
Culture: The Nazi’s believed that Weimar culture undermined German cultural values.
Festivals and
Celebrations: Marches, rallies and festivals were a key feature of gaining power, but now
Goebbels had to adapt this to make people remain loyal.
Films: German films were of high quality and entertaining.
- minister of propaganda
- responsible for presenting a favourable image of the Nazi regime to
the German people
- create the Führer myth around the person of Hitler and to institute the
ritual of party celebrations and demonstrations that played a decisive
role in converting the masses to Nazism
- was instrumental in the burning of “unGerman” books at the Opera
House in Berlin.
-

Reinhard Heydrich:
Heydrich was too young to fight in WW1 but joined the navy in 1922. He joined the Nazi
Party and the SS in 1931 after involvement with the Freikorps. He became Himmler’s deputy
in 1933 and in 1939 was appointed head of the Reich Central Office for Jewish Emigration.
He was responsible for the mass murder of the Jews. He was assassinated by a member of the
Czech resistance in 1942.

 The various methods used by the Nazi regime to exercise control, including laws,
censorship, repression, terror, propaganda, cult of personality
Laws:
The government and dualism:
- A government system in ehihc two forces coexist,
- The nazi party was geared towards gaining power, struggled to transition to hold
power
- The exact relationship between the structure of the party on the one hand and the
apparatus of the German state on the other was never clarified and tension would
remain until the end of the third Reich
The People’s Court:
In 1934 the people’s court was established to try cases of high treason (betraying one’s
country) with a jury composed specifically of Nazi Party members.

Repression:
- The action or process of repressing (to put down by force): the state of being
repressed repression of unpopular opinions

Propaganda:
ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to further one's cause or to damage an opposing
cause
Features of Nazi Propaganda:

- Keep it simple
- Use slogans and repetition
- Never allow for alternative beliefs
- Establish scapegoats, create fear
- Use stereotypes to demonstrate enemies
- Include lies and exaggeration
- Organise mass meetings
- Make people feel, play on emotions
Newspapers:
Editors were summoned each day to receive their instructions on what to write for main news
stories, the line to take in their editorials and even what pictures to use
Radio
Radio was used extensively as propaganda. All Hitler’s speeches were broadcast in full,
loudspeakers were placed in public places and radio sets were sold at a low price to increase
listeners.
Goebbels ensure a blend of music, drama and comedy mixed with the propaganda messages.
Music was strictly controlled to ensure that it reflected German values
Cinema and Theatre
Many propaganda works were produced such as Riefenstahl’s ‘Triumph of the Will’ or the
anti-Semitic ‘The Eternal Jew’. Censorship was used to exclude culturally undesirable things.
As with radio, masses were also given access to comedy and light entertainment.

Nazi state terror:


SA (Sturmabteiling): Brownshirts
The paramilitary force which fought Nazi street battles in the Nazi rise to power. They ran
the concentration camps from 1933-1934, but their power was limited after 30 June 1934
following the Night of the Long Knives.
SS (Schutzstaffel): Blackshirts
Began in 1925 as Hitler’s personal bodyguard and was originally party of the SA. Under
Himmler, the SS became an elitist force, disciplined, loyal, and totally devoted to Hitler and
philosophy of National Socialism. Unlike the SA, the admission to the SS was highly
controlled; they had to meet strict high education and physical standards, as well as having
pure racial backgrounds.

Role of the SS:


- Police functions, dealt with internal opponents
- Deportations of peole from conquered territory
- The ss were responsible for the eliminatins of the SA
- Implementation of racial policies conquering territory
- Ran the concentration camps
- Later involved in racial policys across Europe

SD (Sicherheitsdienst): Secret Service


Set up by Himmler in 1931, the SD was the internal security service for the SS. It was
increasingly given the job of intelligence. The SD collected information on the popularity of
the Party or the situation of the Church etc. The SD was run by Himmler’s deputy, Reinhard
Heydrich.

Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei): Secret State Police

The Gestapo was set up by a decree on 30 November 1933. Himmler took over leadership in
November 1934. The Gestapo was responsible for the internal security of the Reich, made up
of political police forces who were charged to ‘investigate and suppress all anti-state
activities’.
Role of gestapo:
- Gainig a reputation for ruthlessness and efficiency
- Carrier out surveillance and sought to identity enemies of the state
- Would summon to police headquarters, mistreat and sent to concentration camps
- Had power to impression people without jurisdiction
- Had a role in running of initial concentration camps
Concentration Camps:
A concentration camp is a place where people who were seen as opponents of the regime
were confined, usually under harsh conditions and without recourse to the law.
The first concentration camp came into being within days of Hitler coming to power in 1933.
To administer the camps, a new unit in the SS was established, the Order of the Death’s Head

Cult of personality:

Censorship:
The Role of Censorship
Goebbels propaganda machine aimed to:
- Glorify the regime
- Spread Nazi ideology and values (and to censor the unacceptable)
- To win over the people and to integrate the nation’s diverse elements into the
Volksgemeinschaft
- All means of public communication were brought under state control.
Censorship and The Press
- Germany had over 4700 daily newspapers in 1933, a result of the strong regional
identities that still existed throughout the state. All papers were owned privately and
had no loyalty to central government.
Measures taken by Goebbels:
- Nazi publishing house, Eher Verlag, bought up numerous newspapers, so by 1939 it
controlled ⅔ of German press
- The state controlled Deutsches Nachrichtenburo vetted news material before it got to
journalists
- Goebbels introduced a daily press conference at the Propaganda Ministry to provide
guidance on editorial policy
- The Editors’ Law of October 1933 made newspaper content the sole responsibility of
the editor, who had to satisfy the requirements of the Propaganda Ministry or face
consequences
Any media that conveyed anti-Nazi ideas or even other ways of life, were censored.
Censorship of newspapers, radio, cinema and the theatre was enforced. Only books which
agreed with the Nazi point of view were allowed. All other books were banned and many
were publically burned from May, 1933.
Control of the Church
 Hitler believed that religion was a threat to the Nazis control over people's minds.
 The Catholic Youth League was broken up, Catholic priests were arrested and
religious teaching was banned.
 A Protestant Reich Church, with Nazi bishops, was established.
 Non-Nazi Catholic priests and Protestant pastors such as Martin Niemöller and
Dietrich Bonhöffer were sent to concentration camps.

 The impact of the Nazi regime on life on Germany, including cultural expression,
religion, workers, youth, women, minorities including jews

 Opposition to the Nazi regime

The search for peace and security in the world


 An overview of the search for peace and security 1919-1946
- The ambitions of Germany in Europe and japan in the Asian pacific
- The intentions and authority of the league of nations and the UN