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# DOÑA, PATRICK LOREN A.

Direction: Answer briefly and concisely the following. It should be encoded except for the
problem solving. Compile it in a pink folder. This will be your final exam. Deadline of submission
is on May 14, 2019.

1. What are the two general types of solids? What features can be used to distinguish a
crystalline solid from an amorphous solid?
 Crystalline Solid-usually consist of a large number of small crystals, each them
having a definite characteristic geometrical shape. Its also have sharp melting
point, anisotropic in nature, this is, some of their physical properties like electrical
resistance or refractive index show different values when measured along different
directions in the same crystal. Crystalline solids can be cleaved along a definite
plane, hence we get clean cleavage in case of crystalline solids.
 Amorphous Solid- arrangement of constituent particles (atoms, molecules or ions)
in such a solid has only short-range order. The melting point is not sharp, they melt
over a range of temperature and can be moulded and blown into various shapes.
Amorphous solids are isotropic liquids, the heat fusion is not definite. These are
pseudo solids or supercooled liquids. The cooling curves of amorphous solids are
smooth, without any break.
2. What is the distinguish feature of crystalline solids? How are the structures of crystals
determined?
 The Crystal Lattice
Crystalline solids are characterized by a regular repeating structure called the
crystal lattice.
 X-ray Diffraction is a technique used to determine the atomic and molecular
structure of a crystal, wherein atoms cause a beams of incident X-rays to diffract
into many specific directions.
A stream of X-rays directed at a crystal diffracts and scatters as it encounters
atoms. The scattered rays interfere with each other and produce a pattern of spots
of different intensities that can be recorded on film, such as that shown in the figure
below. X-ray diffraction has provided much of our knowledge about crystal
structure. Below is an image of a diffraction pattern produced by an 8 keV electron
beam incident on a graphite crystal.
3-4. What are the four types of crystals? What form of unit particles makes up each type of
crystal? What forces bind the unit particles of each type of crystal? What are the
properties of each type of crystal?
electrons to form positive ions (cations), but no atoms in the crystal would readily
gain electrons. The metal atoms give up their electrons to the whole crystal,
creating a structure made up of an orderly arrangement of cations surrounded by
delocalized electrons that move around the crystal. The crystal is held together by
electrostatic interactions between the cations and delocalized electron. These
interactions are called metallic bonds. This model of metallic bonding is called the
“sea of electrons” model.
Explanation of properties:
• High melting point – a large amount of energy is needed to melt the crystal
since the forces of attraction to be broken are numerous and extend
throughout the crystal.
• Dense – atoms are packed closely together. Metals exhibit close-packing
structures, a most economical way by which atoms utilize space.
• Electrical conductivity – then delocalized electrons move throughout the
crystal.
• Thermal or heat conductor – the delocalized electrons collide with each
other as they move through the crystal, and it is through these collisions
that kinetic energy is transferred.
• Malleability/ductility – when stress is applied to the metal, the metal
cations shift in position, but the mobile electrons simply follow the
movement of the cations. The attractive forces between cations and mobile
electrons are not broken.
• Luster – the motion and collisions of electrons allow it to gain and lose
energy, some of these in the form of emitted light that is observed as luster.

 IONIC CRYSTALS-Ionic crystals are made of ions (cations and anions). These
ions form strong electrostatic interactions that hold the crystal lattice together. The
electrostatic attractions are numerous and extend throughout the crystal since each
ion is surrounded by several ions of opposite charge, making ionic crystals hard
and of high melting points. The figure below shows a model of NaCl crystal, where
one Na+ ion is surrounded by six Cl- ions, and a Cl- ion is likewise surrounded by
six Na+ ions.

## Observed property Inference about the structure

Hard Strong attractive forces hold the crystal
together.
High melting point Strong attractive forces have to be
broken to melt the crystal
Poor electrical conductor in the solid No charged particles move through the
state crystal
Good electrical conductor in the Mobile charged particles are present in
molten state the molten stat

## Brittle Deformation or shift of particles cause

attractive forces to be broken.

##  MOLECULAR CRYSTALS-Molecular crystals are made of atoms, such as in

noble gases, or molecules, such as in sugar, C12H22O11, iodine, I2, and
naphthalene, C10H8. The atoms or molecules are held together by a mix of
hydrogen bonding/ dipole-dipole and dispersion forces, and these are the attractive
forces that are broken when the crystal melts. Hence, most molecular crystals have
relatively low melting points.
Observed property Inference about the structure
Soft Weak attractive forces hold the crystal
together.
Low melting point Weak attractive forces are broken when
crystals melt
Poor electrical conductor in the solid No charged particles move through the
and molten states crystal
Poor heat conductor No particles can move easily
throughout the crystal.
Brittle Deformation or shift of particles cause
attractive forces to be broken.

##  COVALENT NETWORK CRYSTALS-Covalent network crystals are made of

atoms in which each atom is covalently bonded to its nearest neighbors. The atoms
can be made of one type of atom (e.g. Cdiamond and Cgraphite) or can be made of
different atoms (e.g. SiO2 and BN). In a network solid, there are no
individual molecules and the entire crystal may be considered one very large
molecule. Formulas for network solids, like those for ionic compounds, are simple
ratios of the component atoms represented by a formula unit.
The valence electrons of the atoms in the crystal are all used to form
covalent bonds. Because there are no delocalized electrons, covalent network
solids do not conduct electricity. Covalent bonds are the only type of attractive
force between atoms in the network solid. Rearranging or breaking
of covalent bonds requires large amounts of energy; therefore, covalent network
solids have high melting points. Covalent bonds are extremely strong, so covalent
network solids are very hard. Generally, these solids are insoluble in water due to
the difficulty of solvating very large molecules. Diamond is the hardest material
known, while cubic boron nitride (BN) is the second-hardest. Silicon carbide (SiC)
is very structurally complex and has at least 70 crystalline forms.
Observed property Inference about the structure
Hard Strong attractive forces hold the crystal
together.
Very high melting point Strong attractive forces have to be
broken in order to melt crystals
Poor electrical conductor in the solid No charged particles move through the
and molten states crystal
Poor heat conductor No particles can move easily
throughout the crystal.
Brittle Deformation or shift of particles cause
attractive forces to be broken.

5. Indicate the strongest force holding the crystals together in the following substances by
putting a check on the appropriate box.

TYPES OF CRYSTAL
MOLECULAR METALLIC IONIC COVELANT
Substances NETWORK
Dispersion Dipole- Hydrogen Metallic Ionic Covalent
Forces Dipole Bonds Bonds Bonds Bonds
Attraction
Kr 
HF 
NO 
Al 
K2 s 
NH3 
HCl 
KMnO4 
SO2 
CO2 
Si 
SiO2 
Cgraphite 
CH3OH 
Ag 
Ba(OH)2 
CaO 
Pb 
I2 
Cu 
6. Define the following:
a. Phase Change
-a change from one state (solid, liquid or gas) to another without a change
in chemical composition.
b. Melting
-the substance changes back from the solid to the liquid.
c. Vaporization
-the substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
d. Sublimation
-the substance changes directly from a solid to a gas without going through
the liquid phase.
e. Condensation
-the substance changes back from a gas to a liquid.
f. Freezing
-the substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
g. Deposition
-the substance changes directly from a gas to a solid without going through
the liquid phase.
h. Exothermic process
-process that release energy in the form of heat.
i. Endothermic process
-process which requires or absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually
in the form of heat.
j. Specific heat of a substance
-The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a
substance by 1 °C.
7. What causes the phase change in matter?
 Phase changes are transformations of matter from one physical state to another.
They occur when energy (usually in the form of heat) is added or removed from a
substance. They are characterized by changes in molecular order; molecules in
the solid phase have the greatest order, while those in the gas phase have the
greatest randomness or disorder.
8. What changes in molecular order occur during phase change?
 The change from solid to liquid is melting, liquid to gas is vaporization, and solid
to gas is sublimation. These changes take place when heat is absorbed (heat
gained). They are endothermic processes.
 The reverse change from gas to liquid is condensation, gas to solid is deposition,
and liquid to solid is freezing. These changes give off heat (heat lost) and are
exothermic processes.
9. How does a change in energy affect phase change?
 Phase changes occur when heat is added or removed from a substance. When a
substance is heated, the added energy is used by the substance in either of two
ways: The added heat increases the kinetic energy of the particles and the particles
move faster. The increase in kinetic energy is accompanied by an increase in
temperature. The added heat is used to break attractive forces between particles.
There is no observed increase in temperature when this happens. Often a change
in the physical appearance of the substance is observed, such as a phase change.
Conversely, the removal or release of heat results in two ways: A decrease in kinetic
energy of the particles. The motion of the particles slow down. A decrease in
temperature is observed. Forces of attraction are formed, and a phase change may
occur. No change in temperature is observed.

## 10. What is the result of the removal or release of heat?

 A decrease in kinetic energy of the particles. The motion of the particles slow down.
A decrease in temperature is observed. The forces of attraction are formed, and a
phase change may occur. No change in temperature is observed.
11. Differentiate heating curve and cooling curve. Present with illustration.

##  The heating curve is a

plot of temperature and heat
Often, time is used instead of
because it is assumed that
unit time.

##  the cooling curves for water is

like a mirror image of the heating
curve, especially if the same amount
of sample is used to construct the
curves.

12. Solve the following problems involving changes of state. Identify the given and show your
solutions.
a. How much energy is required to change 2600 gram of ice at 0°C into water at the
same temperature?
b. How much energy is required to change 2600 gram of water at 100°C into steam at
the same temperature?

c. Calculate the amount of energy (in kJ) needed to heat 346 grams of liquid water
from 0°C to 182°C. Assume that the specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g °C over the
entire liquid range and the specific heat of steam is 1.99 J/g °C.

d. Calculate the heat released when 68.0 grams of steam at 124°C is converted to water
at 45°C.
e. Calculate the amount of heat that must be absorbed by 10.0 gram of ice at 20C to
convert it to liquid water at 60.0C.

f. What mass of water would need to evaporate from your skin in order to dissipate
1.7105J of heat from your body?

g. How much energy (heat) is required to convert 52.0 gram of ice at 10.0C to steam
at 100C?
h. Acetic acid has a heat of fusion of 10.8kJ/mol and a heat of vaporization of 24.3
kJ/mol. What is the expected value for the heat of sublimation of acetic acid?

## 13. What is phase diagram?

 phase diagram is a graphical way to summarize the conditions under which
equilibria exist between the different states of matter.
14. What are features of a phase diagram?
 Phase boundaries, or line equilibrium, are boundaries that indicate the conditions
under which two phases of matter can coexist at equilibrium.
 The triple point is the point on the phase diagram where the lines of the equilibrium
intersect- the point at which all three distinct phases of the matter (solid, liquid,
gas) coexist.
15. Differentiate the three lines (curves) in phase diagram. Present illustration.
 The lines that serve as
boundaries between physical
states represent the
combinations of pressures and
temperatures at which two
phases can exist in
equilibrium. In other words,
these lines define phase
change points.

## 1. The green line divides the

solid and liquid phases, and
represents melting (solid to
liquid) and freezing (liquid to
solid) points.

 Melting (or freezing) curve – the curve on a phase diagram which represents the
transition between liquid and solid states. It shows the effect of pressure on the
melting point of the solid. Anywhere on this line, there is equilibrium between the
solid and the liquid.

2. The blue line divides the liquid and gas phases, and represents
vaporization (liquid to gas) and condensation (gas to liquid) points.

##  Vaporization (or condensation) curve – the curve on a phase diagram which

represents the transition between gaseous and liquid states. It shows the effect of
pressure on the boiling point of the liquid. Anywhere along this line, there will be
equilibrium between the liquid and the vapor.

3. The red line divides the solid and gas phases, and represents sublimation
(solid to gas) and deposition (gas to solid) points.

 Sublimation (or deposition) curve – the curve on a phase diagram which represents
the transition between gaseous and solid states. It represents the effect of increased
temperature on a solid at a very low constant pressure, lower than the triple point.

16. Differentiate the two important points in phase diagram. Present illustration.

 The triple point is the combination of pressure and temperature at which all three
phases of matter are at equilibrium. It is the point on a phase diagram at which the
three states of matter coexist. The lines that represent the conditions of solid-
liquid, liquid-vapor, and solid-vapor equilibrium meet at the triple point. It is a
unique combination of
temperature and pressure
where all three phases are
in equilibrium together.
 The critical point
terminates the liquid/gas
phase line. It is the set of
temperature and pressure
on a phase diagram where
the liquid and gaseous
phases of a substance
merge together into a
single phase. Beyond the
temperature of the critical
point, the merged single
phase is known as
a supercritical ﬂuid. The
temperature and pressure
corresponding to this are
known as the critical temperature and critical pressure. If the pressure on a gas
(vapor) is increased at a temperature lower than the critical temperature, the liquid
vapor equilibrium line will eventually be crossed and the vapor will condense to
give a liquid.
17. How is the normal melting pint and boiling point determined in a phase diagram?
 The normal melting and boiling points are those when the pressure is 1 atmosphere.
These can be found from the phase diagram by drawing a line across pressure at 1
atm.
18. Refer to the following phase diagram of a certain substance to answer the following
questions.
a. In what phase is the substance at 50°C and 1 atm pressure?
-liquid
b. At what pressure and temperature conditions will all three phases of the substance
be present?
-≈ 0.5 atm and ≈28 °C
c. What is the normal melting point of the substance?
- ≈ 32 °C
d. What phase(s) will exist at 1 atm and 70°C?
- liquid and vapor (gas)
19. Solve the following problems. Identify the given and show your solution.
I. Mole Fraction
a. A 40.0 gram-sample of methanol, CH4O is mixed with 60.0 grams of
ethanol, C2H6O. what is the mole fraction of the methanol?

## b. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is used by some water treatment systems to

remove the disagreeable odor of sulphides in drinking water. An aqueous
solution of H2O2 prepared in the laboratory was found to have a
consecration of 20.0% by mass. What is the mole fraction H2O2?

II. Molality
a. What is the molality of a solution containing 0.75 moles of sodium
hydroxide in 500 milliliters of water at 25°C? The density of water at 25°C
is 1.0gram per milliliter.
b. How may grams of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are needed to prepare a 0.700
molal solution using 700.0 grams water?

## c. Calculate the mole fraction of the solute in the following solutions:

a. 100.0 grams C2H6O in 100.0 grams H2O
b. 30% HCl solution by mass

III. Molarity
a. What is the molarity of a sodium hydroxide solution if 9.0 mL of the
solution is titrated to the end point with 10.0 mL of strand 0.20M
hydrochloric acid?

## b. What is molarity of sodium hydroxide solution if 4. 50mL of the solution is

titrated to the end point, with 5.00 mL of acetic acid with 0.0830M?
20. Fill the missing words:
a. Titration involves the gradual addition of a solution (Titrant) of known
concentration to a known volume of a second solution (analyte) until the
(Equivalence point) is attained.

## c. Based on the number of moles of acetic acid=number of moles of sodium

hydroxide, the (Equivalence point) is attained.