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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

GEC- BHUJ

Engineering Graphics (3110013)


(Academic Year: 2018-2019)

NAME:

EN. No.:

Batch:

Branch:
Work to be carried out by the student during Practical Hours:

A. To prepare a sketch book covering the topics of BIS - SP 46 such as Scales, Lines,
Lettering & Numbering, general principles of dimensioning on technical drawings.
B. To solve the problems in the sketch book on the following topics of the syllabus and to
carry out the same work on the A2 size Drawing Sheet.
1. Practice sheet (which includes dimensioning methods, different types of line,
construction of different polygon, divide the line and angle in parts, use of
stencil)
2. Plane scale and diagonal scale
3. Engineering curves
4. Projection of line and Projection of plane (3 problems on each)
5. Projection and section of solid
6. Orthographic projection
7. Isometric projection

Suggested Text Books:

1. A Text Book of Engineering Graphics By P.J.Shah


S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi
2. A Text Book of Machine Drawing By P.J.Shah
S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi
3. Elementary Engineering Drawing By N.D.Bhatt
Charotar Publishing House, Anand
4. Geometrical and Machine Drawing By N.D.Bhatt
Charotar Publishing House, Anand

Suggested Reference Books:

1. Engineering Graphics – I and II By Arunoday Kumar


Tech – Max Publication, Pune
2. Engineering Drawing & Graphics using Auto CAD 2000
By T. Jeyapoovan, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
3. A text book of Engineering Drawing By R.K.Dhawan
S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi
4. A text book of Engineering Drawing By P.S.Gill, S.K.Kataria & sons.
5. Engineering Drawing with an Introduction to AutoCAD By D.A.Jolhe
Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi
6. Computer Aided Engineering Drawing, S. Trymbaka Murthy
I.K.International Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi
Drawing Equipments & Materials (for Laboratory Work)
 Mini Drafter √ 0.5 mm Clutch pencil (with H & 2H lead)
 Set squares: 45° and 30°- 60° √ Eraser
 Engineering compass box √ Drawing clips / pins
 Protractor √ Sketch book
 Scales √ Drawing Sheet (A2 size)
 Stencils & Circle master (Stencil 5,6 & 8 mm)

How to begin your drawing?


 Clean the drawing board and all the drawing instruments using handkerchief/napkin
 Fix the drawing sheet on the drawing board (table).
 Fix the mini-drafter in convenient position
 Draw borderlines on sheet
 Spacing of drawing between two problems/views is to be planned before the
commencement of the drawing.
 Print the problem number on the left top and then commence the drawing work.
 If possibleAlways keep handkerchief at hand to clean any dirt on the drawing sheet

Important Guidelines for students:


 Before starting each sheet, signature of concerned batch teacher should be taken on
the sheet without fail; else no credit would be given to that practical sheet.
 Students should bring the drawing sheet ready for the practical i.e. the borderlines
 and Title block should be drawn on the drawing sheet before coming for the practical.
 Before starting each sheet in the college, it should be checked that work in the sketch
Book related to that sheet is completed in all respect; else it is advised that not to start
his/her work in the sheet.
 Batch wise problems should be drawn on the sheet in the scheduled lab. hours within
drawing hall .
 Any data written on the sheets should be in the block letters only.
 All problems of all sheets should be drawn by first angle projection method if not
 specified.
 Name and Enrollment No. Should be written on sheet in the title block with the ball
pen.

Conversion of units for reference:


1 mm (1 millimeter) = 0.001 m (10-3 m)
1 cm (1 centimeter) = 0.01 m (10 - 2 m)
1 dm (1 decimeter) = 0.1 m (10 - 1 m)
1 dam (1 decameter) = 10 m (10 m)
1 hm (1 hectometer) = 100 m (10 2 m)
1 km (1 kilometer) = 1000 m (10 3 m)
LIST OF LABORATORY EXERCISES

SR.NO. TITLE

IN SKETCH-BOOK ONLY
1 Title block

DRAWING SHEET & SKETCH-BOOK WORK

1 Introduction and Geometrical Constructions

2 Plane scale and Diagonal scale

3 Engineering Curves

4 Loci of points

5 Projections of Straight Line and Planes

6 Projections and Sections of Solids

7 Development of surfaces

8 Orthographic projections

9 Isometric Projections / Views / Drawing

NOTE : Practice problems are given at the end of laboratory exercise


problems. these problems should not be drawn in sheet.
PRACTICE WORK (IN SKETCH BOOK ONLY)

1. SHEET LAYOUT AND TITLE BLOCK

(Preferred drawing sheet sizes (First choice) ISO-A Series)

(1)

Government Engineering College,Bhuj


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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DRAWING NO. 1 Introduction and Geometrical Constructions

1. TYPES OF LINES

SR.
LINE TYPE ILLUSTRATION APPLICATION
NO.

CONTINUOUS
1 VISIBLE OUTLINES
THICK (0.5mm)

DIMENSION, LEADER,
EXTENSION,
CONTINUOUS
CONSTRUCTION LINES,
2 THIN
OUTLINES OF ADJACENT
(0.2 mm)
PARTS, HATCHING,
REVOLVED SECTIONS

3 DASHED THIN HIDDEN LINES

CENTRE LINES, LINES OF


4 CHAIN THIN SYMMETRY, LOCUS LINES,
PITCH CIRCLES

CHAIN THIN
5 WITH THCIK CUTTING PLANES
ENDS

INDICATION OF SURFACE TO
6 CHAIN THICK WHICH A SPECIAL
REQUIREMENT APPLIES

CONTINOUS IRREGULAR BOUNDARY


7 THIN – FREE LINES, SHORT BREAK LINE
HAND

CONTINUOUS
8 THIN WITH LONG BREAK LINES
ZIGZAGS
(Conventional representation of materials)

-8-
2. DIMENSIONING SYSTEM
General Rules for dimensioning:
1. As far as possible, dimensions should be placed outside the view.
2. Dimensions should be taken from visible outlines rather than from hidden lines.
3. Dimensioning to a centre line should be avoided except when the centre line
passes through the centre of a hole.
4. Each feature should be dimensioned once only on a drawing.
5. Dimensions should be placed on the view or section that relates most clearly to the
corresponding features.
6. Each drawing should use the same unit for all dimensions, but without showing the
unit symbol.
7. No more dimensions than are necessary to define a part should be shown on a
drawing.
8. No features of a part should be defined by more than one dimension in any one
direction.
9. Projection and dimension lines should be drawn as thin continuous lines.
10. Projection lines should extend slightly beyond the respective dimension lines.
11. Projection lines should be drawn perpendicular to the feature being dimensioned.
12. Where necessary, they may be drawn obliquely, but parallel to each other
.However they must be in contact with the feature.
13. Projection lines and dimension lines should not cross each other, unless it is
unavoidable.
14. A dimension line should be shown unbroken, even where the feature to which it
refers, is shown broken.
15. A centre line or the outline of a part should not be used as a dimension line, but
may be used in place of projection line.

Elements of dimensioning
 Students should identify and know the correct drawing of the following
dimensioning elements: Dimension lines, Extension lines, Leader lines and Arrowheads.
 Dimensions in a series may be placed in two ways: (i) Continuous or chain
dimensioning (ii) Progressive or parallel dimensioning.
Chain Parallel Combined
dimensioning Dimensioning Dimensioning

3. GEOMETRICAL CONSTRUCTION
1.Divide a line 100 mm long into 7 equal parts.
2. Bisect and trisect a right angle.
3. Construct a regular polygon, given the length of its side AB = 35 mm. Construct
Square, Pentagon, Hexagon and Octagon.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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SCALES

1. What is R.F.? Construct a plain scale to show kilometers and hectometers when 25 mm
is equal to 1 km and long enough to measure up to 6 km. Find RF and show a distance
of 3 km and 4 hectometer on the scale.
2. Construct a Plain scale of R.F = 1:10 showing the feet and inches and long enough to
read the distance of 5 feet. Show on it the distance of 4 feet and 10 inches.
3. The length of the Khandala tunnel on the Mumbai-Pune expressway is 330 m. On
the road map, it is shown by a 16.5 cm long line. Construct a scale to show metres and
to measure up to 400 m. Show the length of a 289 metre long on the expressway.
4. Construct a diagonal scale of R.F 1:20 showing divisions of 0.01 metres and
capable of measuring 3 metre. Mark a distance of 2.37 metres on it.
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E
ENGINEERING CURVES

EXERCISE FOR LABWORK

1 The foci of an ellipse are 120 mm apart and the minor axis is 70 mm long. Construct
half ellipse by oblong method and another half by concentric circle method.

2 Construct the parabola if the base is 105 mm and the axis length is 98 mm using
rectangle method. Locate focus, vertex and directrix of the parabola.

3 A circus man rides a motorcycle inside a globe of diameter 4 meters. The motorcycle
rear wheel is 0.8 meters in diameter. Draw the locus of a point spot on the circumference
of motorcycle rear wheel for it’s one complete turn in globe. Name the locus.

4. Draw an Archimedean spiral of 1.5 convolutions, the greatest and least radii being 125 mm
and 35 mm respectively. Draw tangent and normal to the spiral at any point on the curve.
LOCI OF POINTS

1. A rectangular door ABCD has its vertical edge AB 2 m long and a horizontal edge BC
0.8 m long. It is rotated about the hinged vertical edge AB as the axis and at the
same time, a fly x moves from point C towards D and another fly Y move from A
towards D. By the time, the door rotates through 180°, both the flies reach point D.
Using suitable scale, trace the paths of the flies in elevation and plan if the motions
of the flies and the door are uniform. Name the curve traced out by the fl ies.
Assume the door to be parallel to V. P. in initial position and the thickness of the
door equal to that of your line.

2. Link OC, hinged at O, is 100 mm long. It carries a circular disc at C of radius 25 mm


capable of rotating about the centre point C. Link, OC initially vertical, turns
uniformly towards the right side by an angle of 45° and then towards the left side
by the total angle 90° and then to the initial vertical position and during the same
time the disc revolves uniformly in the clockwise sense through one complete
revolution. Draw the locus of the point P on the disc, initially at the lowest position.

3. In an offset slider crank chain OBA, the crank OB is 300 mm long and the
connecting rod BA is 1000 mm long. Slider 'A' slides in a horizontal guide 150 mm
below the horizontal from O. Draw the loci of points P and Q where the point P is a
point on the connecting rod BA, 250 mm from B and the point Q is the end point of
PQ, a rod attached at right angle to connecting rod AB at P. (See Fig. 1)

Fig.1
4. In the mechanism shown in Fig. 2, the crank O1A rotates about O1 and link PAB slides
(in the same plane) on the curved surface of the cylinder (O2, 250). Draw the loci of
points P and B for one revolution of O1A. Take O1A= 400 mm, PA=250 m m, AB= 1200
mm and horizontal distance O1O2=850 mm.

Fig. 2
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL
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PROJECTIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES AND PLANES

EXERCISE FOR LAB-WORK

1. A line AB has its end A 15 mm above HP and 10 mm in front of VP. The end point B is
60 mm above HP. The distance between the end projectors is 55 mm. The line is inclined
to HP by 250. Draw the projections and find its inclination with VP and the true length of
line AB.

2. Plan & Elevation of 60mm long line AB, measures 54 mm and 45mm respectively. End A
is 15 mm above HP & 10 mm in front of VP. Draw its projections & determine its
inclinations to the reference planes when the point B lies in (a) First quadrant (b) Third
quadrant.

3. An isosceles triangular plate ABC has its base 45 mm and altitude 60 mm. It is so placed
that the front view is seen as an equilateral triangle of 45 mm side and (i) base is
inclined at 450 to HP, (ii) side is inclined at 300 to HP. Draw its plan when its corner A is
on HP.

4. A pentagonal plate of side 50 mm has a central equilateral triangular hole of 40 mm sides,


with the side of a plate and that of triangular hole parallel to each other. The plate is
kept on the HP on this side, the side being inclined at 30o to the VP. Determine the angle
of a plate with the HP. If the highest point of a plate is 40 mm from the HP and draw its
projection.

PROBLEM FOR PRACTICE

o
1. A line AB is 90 mm long and makes an angle of 45 with the HP. The front view of the line
measures 65 mm and the end point A is in the VP and 20 mm above HP. Draw the
projection of AB and find its inclinations with both planes.

2. The front view of a line AB is 500 inclined to XY line & measure 55 mm long while its
top view is 600 inclined to xy line. If end A is 10 mm above HP & 15 mm in front of VP.
Draw the projections and Find the true length of the line & its true inclination with HP &
VP.

3. Font view of 80mm long line PQ measures 60mm. The line is inclined at 30 o to VP and
Front view is inclined at 40o. Draw the projection of line when point P is located 25mm
above HP and 15mm in front of VP and point Q is in 3rd quadrant.
4. A line AB, 80 mm long is inclined at 45º to HP and 30º to VP. Its midpoint C is in VP
and 15 mm above HP. The end A is in the third quadrant and B in the first quadrant. Draw
the projection of the line.

5. The top view and front view of a line AB measures 70 mm and 58 mm respectively.
The line AB is inclined at an angle of 350 to HP. The end A is 15 mm above HP and 12 mm
in front of VP. The other end B is also in the first quadrant. Draw the projections of the
line AB. Find its true length and inclination with the VP.

6. A square plate of side 60 mm is held on a corner of its base on the HP. Plate is
inclined to the HP such that the plan of it is rhombuses with a diagonal of 30 mm.
determine the angle it makes with HP. The other diagonal is inclined at 45º VP. Draw the
projection of plate.

7. A semicircular plate of 80 mm diameter has its straight edge in the VP and inclined at 450

to the HP. The surface of the plate makes an angle of 30 0 to VP. Draw its
projections.

8. A 300 – 600 set square has its shortest side 50 mm long and is in the HP. The top view of
Set Square is an isosceles triangle and the hypotenuse of the setsquare is inclined at an

angle of 400 with the VP. Draw the projections of the setsquare and find its inclinations
with the HP.
9. ABCD is a rhombus of diagonals AC = 110 mm and BD =70 mm. Its corner A is in the H.P.
and the plane is inclined to H.P. such that the plan appears to be a square. The plan of
diagonal AC makes an angle of 20 degree to the V.P. Draw the projections of the plane
and find its inclination with H.P.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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PROJECTION AND SECTION OF SOLIDS

EXERCISE FOR LAB-WORK

1. A frustum of a square pyramid with side of base 60 mm, side of top 30 mm and
height 50 mm is resting on the HP on one of its trapezoidal faces. Draw the projections of

the frustum when axis is contained by a vertical plane making an angle of 450 with VP.
1. A hexagonal prism is resting on one of its side of base (30mm), such that axis

(60mm) is inclined at 45o to H.P and the side on which it is resting is inclined at 30o to
V.P. Draw the projections.
2. A hexagonal pyramid of the base side 30 mm and axis 70 mm long is resting on HP with its
base on it and one of the sides of the base parallel to VP. The axis of the pyramid is 40 mm
away from the VP. It is cut by a plane inclined at 300 to HP. The plane is 15 mm away from
axis and nearer to the observer. Draw the top view, sectional front view and true shape of
the section.
3. A cone of base diameter 80 mm and 90 mm height is resting on the HP on its base. It is
cut by an AIP in such a way that the true shape of the cut surface is a parabola of 55 mm
axis length. Draw the front view, sectional top view and the true shape of the Section.
PROBLEM FOR PRACTICE

1. A Cube of 50 mm long edges is resting on HP on one of its corners, with one of its body

diagonals parallel to HP and inclined at 45 0 to VP. Draw the projections of the cube.
2. A Tetrahedron of 60 mm long edge stands on one of its edges in the HP with its base making an
angle of 350 with the HP. the edge of the tetrahedron in the HP makes an angle of 350 to the VP. Draw
the projections of the tetrahedron.
3. A cylinder, base diameter 30 mm and axis length 50 mm resting on HP on its base. It is cut by
an A.I.P inclined at 450 to HP. Cutting plane passing through a point on the axis 12 mm below top
face. Draw front view, sectional top view, sectional side view and true shape of the section.
4. A cylinder of 50 mm diameter of base 75 mm length of axis, has one of its ends on the HP. it is
cut by an A.I.P. in such a way that the true shape of the section is an ellipse of largest possible major
axis. Draw the sectional plan, true shape of the section and find inclination of the section plane with the
HP.
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DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACES
1. A square prism, side of base 50 mm and height 75 mm, is resting on H.P. on its base
with all vertical faces equally inclined to V.P. Hole of 60 mm diame ter is drilled
centrally through the prism. Axis of the hole is perpendicular to V.P. Draw the
development of only the lateral surfaces of the prism.

2. A cylinder is resting on H. P. on its base. It is cut by flat cutting planes 1, 2, 4 and 5,


as shown in the Fig. 1. A central hole is drilled inside the cylinder. It is shown as
cutting no. 3. Draw the development of the cut cylinder.

3. A pentagonal pyramid (40X70) is resting on H.P. on its base with one of the edges of
base away from V.P. It is cut by two A.I.P.s. No.1 and No.2 both inclined at 45 o to the
H.P. and passing through point 30mm and 35 mm from apex on axis respectively.
Draw the development of cut pyramid. Show also effect in plan.
4. Elevation of a cone, with cuttings 1 and 2, is given in Fig. 2. Draw development of
the cut portion of the cone.

Fig.1 Fig. 2
PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE:

1. The development of a cone is a semicircle of 80mm radius having a circular hole of


80mm diameter. Draw the plan and elevation of the cone along with periphery of a
circular hole shown on them.

2. A regular hexagonal pyramid (30X70) is resting on H.P. on its base with two edges of
base parallel to V. P. It is cut by A.I.P. making 60 o with H.P. and passing through one
of the corners of the base. Draw the development of the truncated pyramid.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

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ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS

Problem – 1.
Draw the following Third angle projection views: (a) Front view (b) Top view (c)
RHSV
Problem - 2
Draw the following views using First angle projection method.
(a) Front view (b) Top view (c) RHSV

Problem - 3
Draw the following views:
(a) Full sectional front view (b) Top view (c) LHSV
PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE:

1. Figure 1 shows an object. Draw sectional front view along section P-Q looking in the
direction of arrow X, top view and sectional left hand side view along section R-S using
first angle projection method. [GTU, 17/06/2014, 14 marks]

2 Draw (a) Sectional front view (b) Top view (c) RHSV of the object shown below:
[GTU, 25/06/2010, 14 marks]
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ISOMETRIC PROJECTION / VIEW

Pre requisites:
1. Students should have preliminary knowledge of projection systems.
2. Students should know the basic concept of orthographic projections and missing
views.

EXERCISE FOR LAB-WORK


Problem – 1
The figure1 shows orthographic view of an object. Draw isometric drawing of
the object and give dimensions.

Figure 1
Problem - 2
The figure 2 shows orthographic view of an object. Draw isometric view of the object and
give dimensions.

Figure 2

Problem - 3
The figure 3 shows orthographic view of an object. Draw isometric drawing of the object and
give dimensions.

20

Figure 3
PROBLEM FOR PRACTICE
Problem -1
The figure 1 shows orthographic view of an object. Draw isometric projections of the
object and give dimensions.

Figure 1

Problem - 2
The figure 2 shows orthographic view of an object. Draw isometric view of the object and
give dimensions.

Figure 2