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Computer System Servicing 2.

Philips head screwdriver – used to TOOL AND EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE

Bin - a container or enclosed space for storage. loosen or tighten crosshead screws. Preventive maintenance is the systematic care and protection of
Computer chassis - the enclosure that contains most of the 3. Torx screwdriver – tools, equipment and machines in order to keep them in a safe,
components of a computer. used to loosen or tighten screws that have a star- usable condition limit downtime and extend productivity.
Diagnostic tools - used to test the integrity of circuits and the like depression on the top, a feature that is mainly A successful maintenance program is:
quality of electricity in computer components and to test the found on laptop.  well organized and scheduled,
functionality of computer ports. 4. Hex driver – sometimes called a nut driver,  controls hazards,
Insulation - a material that reduces or prevents the transmission is used to tighten nuts in the same way that  defines operational procedures, and
of heat or sound or electricity. a screwdriver tightens screws.  trains key personnel.
Nozzle - a projecting part with an opening, as at the end of a hose,
for regulating and directing a flow of fluid. 5. Needle-nose plier – used to hold small parts. General requirements for tools and equipment maintenance
Preventive - intended or used to prevent or hinder. include:
Static electricity - an accumulation of electric charge on an 6. Wire cutter – used to strip and cut wires.  Obtaining a copy of the maintenance schedule recommended
insulated body. by the manufacturer
Tool - a handheld device that aids in accomplishing a task. 7. Tweezers – used to manipulate small parts.  Ensuring that maintenance is performed as required
Toolkit - a set of tools designed to be used together or for a  Ensuring that the person(s) performing the maintenance are
particular purpose. 8. Part retriever – used to competent (e.g. licensed mechanic)
retrieve parts from location that are to  Retaining records of maintenance/service conducted
HARDWARE TOOLS small for your hand to fit.  Specifying who is responsible for overseeing equipment
1. Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) tools 9. Flashlight – used to light up areas that you cannot see clearly. maintenance and where the records are kept
2. Hand tools  Set up a system for removal and tagging of damaged or
3. Cleaning tools Cleaning tools defective tools and equipment
1. Lint-free cloth – used to clean different Good practices include:
Electro-Static Discharge (ESD) tools computer components without scratching or  Parts should be properly stored and labeled (Figure 1).
leaving debris.  Tools should be properly placed on the board, and labeled
1. Anti-static wrist strap – used to 2. Compressed air – used to blow away dust (Figure 2). Consider drawing the shapes of the tools on the
prevent ESD damage to computer and debris from different computer parts board so that they always get put back in the same position.
equipment. without touching the components.  Use bins for storing small parts (Figure 3).
3. Cable ties – used to bundle cables neatly inside and  Consider making an individual (or individuals) responsible
2. Anti-static mat – used to stand on or outside of a computer. for the good maintenance of tools and parts.
place hardware on to prevent static
electricity from building up. 4. Parts organizer – used to hold screw,
jumpers, fasteners and other small parts and
prevents them from getting mixed together.
Hand tools Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3.
- is a device for performing work on a material or a Benefits:
physical system using only Diagnostic tools  Tools and parts are kept in good condition and are easy to
1. Multimeter – used to test the integrity of circuits find
1. Flat head screwdriver – used to and the quality of electricity in computer components.  Costs are reduced.
loosen or tighten slotted screws. 2. Loopback Adapter – used to test  Productivity is increased because time is not wasted looking
the functionality of computer ports. for tools, parts and equipment.
 Workshop staff develop a sense of responsibility and pride in
their work.

MAJOR HARDWARE COMPONENTS 5. Expansion Bus – A bus is a data B. Input Devices – Accepts data and instructions from the user
Hardware – the physical, touchable, electronic and mechanical pathway between several hardware or from another computer system.
parts of a computer system. components inside or outside a
computer. It does not only connect Two (2) Types of Input Devices
A. Major hardware components of a computer system the parts of the CPU to each other, 1. Keyboard Entry – Data is inputted to the computer through a
The following list represents a basic set of hardware found in but also links the CPU with other keyboard.
most PCs. important hardware. Keyboard – The first input device developed for the PC. Data is
1. System Unit – The main 6. Adapters – Printed- transferred to the PC over a short cable with a circular 6-pin
part of a microcomputer, circuit boards (also called interface cards) Mini-din connector that plugs into the back of the
sometimes called the that enable the computer to use a motherboard.
chassis. It includes the peripheral device for which it does not 2. Direct Entry – A form of input that does not require data to be
following parts: have the necessary connections or circuit keyed by someone sitting at a keyboard. Direct-entry devices
Motherboard, boards. They are often used to permit create machine-readable data on paper, or magnetic media, or
Microprocessor, Memory upgrading to a new different hardware. feed it directly into the computer’s CPU.
Chips, Buses, Ports,
Expansion Slots and Cards. 7. Power Supply Unit (PSU) – Three Categories of Direct Entry Devices
Installed in the back corner of the 1. Pointing Devices – An input device used to move the pointer
2. Motherboard / Mainboard / PC case, next to the motherboard. (cursor) on screen.
System Board – The main circuit It converts 120vac (standard • Mouse – The most common 'pointing device' used in PCs.
board of a computer. It contains all the house power) into DC voltages Every mouse has two buttons and most have one or two scroll
circuits and components that run the that are used by other wheels.
computer. components in the PC. • Touch screen – A display screen that is sensitive to the touch
of a finger or stylus. Used in myriad applications, including
3. CPU (Central Processing Unit) – 8. Hard Disk Drive (HDD) – Also known ATM machines, retail point-of-sale terminals, car navigation
The processor is the main “brain” as hard drive, is a magnetic storage device and industrial controls. The touch screen became wildly
or “heart” of a computer system. that is installed inside the computer. The popular for smart phones and tablets.
It performs all of the instructions hard drive is used as permanent storage for
and calculations that are needed data. In a Windows computer, the hard
and manages the flow of drive is usually configured as the C: drive
information through a computer. and contains the operating system and
4. Primary storage – (internal storage, main memory or applications.
memory) is the computer's working storage space that holds 9. Optical Drive – An optical drive
data, instructions for processing and processed data is a storage device that uses lasers • Light Pen – A light-sensitive stylus wired to a video terminal
(information) waiting to be sent to secondary storage. to read data on the optical media. used to draw pictures or select menu options. The user brings
Physically, primary storage is a collection of RAM chips. There are three types of optical the pen to the desired point on screen and presses the pen
Two (2) Types of Memory drives: Compact Disc (CD), button to make contact.
a. ROM – (Read Only Memory) ROM is non- Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) and
volatile, meaning it holds data even when Blu-ray Disc (BD).
the power is ON or OFF. 10. Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) – Designed
b. RAM – (Random Access Memory) RAM is to optically access data stored on a DVD. A
volatile, meaning it holds data only when laser moves back and forth near the disk
the power is on. When the power is off, surface and accesses data at a very fast rate.
RAM's contents are lost.
a. CRT Monitors – Cathode Ray • LCD and LED Printer – Similar to a
Tubes (CRT) laser printer, but uses liquid crystals or
were the only light-emitting diodes rather than a laser to
• Digitizer Tablet – A graphics drawing tablet used for type of displays produce an image on the drum.
sketching new images or tracing old ones. Also called a for use with • Line Printer – Contains a
"graphics tablet," the user contacts the surface of the device desktop PCs. chain of characters or pins that print an entire line at
with a wired or wireless pen or puck. Often mistakenly called They are relatively big (14" to 16" deep) and heavy (over 15 one time. Line printers are very fast, but produce
a mouse, the puck is officially the "tablet cursor." lbs). low-quality print.
b. LCD Monitors – Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology • Thermal Printer – An inexpensive printer that works by
has been used in laptops for some time. It has recently been pushing heated pins against heat-sensitive paper. Thermal
made commercially available as monitors for desktop PCs. printers are widely used in calculators and fax machines.
c. LED Monitors (Light Emitting
Diode) – A display and lighting 5. Speakers – Used to play sound. They may be built into the
2. Scanning Devices – A device that can read text or illustrations technology used in almost every system unit or connected with cables. Speakers allow you to
printed on paper and translates the information into a form the electrical and electronic product listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer.
computer can use. on the market,
from a tiny D. Ports – External connecting sockets on the outside of the
on/off light to computer. This is a pathway into and out of the computer. A
digital port lets users plug in outside peripherals, such as monitors,
readouts, flashlights, traffic lights and scanners and printers.
perimeter lighting. 1. Serial Port – Intended for serial type mouse
3. Voice- Input Devices – Audio input devices also known as and older camera
speech or voice recognition systems that allow a user to send 2. LCD Projectors – utilize two sheets of 2. Parallel Port – Also called as printer port. This is only for old
audio signals to a computer for processing, recording, or polarizing material with a liquid crystal solution between model printer. It has 25 pins. It is a female port.
carrying out commands. Audio input devices such as them. An electric current passed through the liquid causes the 3. VGA (Video Graphic Array) Port - Used
microphones allow users to speak to the computer in order to crystals to align so that light cannot pass to connect monitors. It has 15 pins and it is
record a voice message or navigate software. through them. Each crystal, therefore, is a female port.
like a shutter, either allowing light to pass
through or blocking the light.
3. Smart Board – A type of
display screen that has a touch
sensitive transparent panel
C. Output Devices – Any piece of computer hardware that covering the screen, which is
displays results after the computer has processed the input similar to a touch screen
data that has been entered.
1. Computer Display Monitor – It displays information in 4. Printer – A device that prints text or illustrations on paper.
visual form, using text and graphics. The portion of the
monitor that displays the information is called the screen or Types of printer
video display terminal. • Ink-Jet or Bubble-Jet
Types of Monitor Printer – Sprays ink at a sheet of
paper. Ink-jet printers produce high-
quality text and graphics.
• Laser Printer – Uses the same technology as copy machines.
Laser printers produce very high quality text and graphics.