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GPS did not fulfill its promise and did not because of some simple lack of computing capacity. In the


j) Neural Network

4. AI is the field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes.


Automatic construction of compiler code generators from a description of a CPU's instruction set.

J Moore and colleagues proved correctness of the floating-point division algorithm on AMD CPU chip.

Problem Spaces and Search Building a system to solve a problem requires the following steps

To understand what exactly artificial intelligence is, we illustrate some common problems. Problems dealt with in artificial intelligence generally use a common term called 'state'. A state represents a status of the solution at a given step of the problem solving procedure. The solution of a problem, thus, is a collection of the problem states. The problem solving procedure applies an operator to a state to get the next state. Then it applies another operator to the resulting state to derive a new state. The process of applying an operator to a state and its subsequent transition to the next state, thus, is continued until the goal (desired) state is derived. Such a method of solving a problem is generally referred to as state space approach For example, in order to solve the problem play a game, which is restricted to two person table or board games, we require the rules of the game and the targets for winning as well as a means of representing positions in the game. The opening position can be defined as the initial state and a winning position as a goal state, there can be more than one. legal moves allow for transfer from initial state to other states leading to the goal state. However the rules are far too copious in most games especially chess where they exceed the number of particles in the universe 10. Thus the rules cannot in general be supplied accurately and computer programs cannot easily handle them. The storage also presents another problem but searching can be achieved by hashing. The number of rules that are used must be minimised and the set can be produced by expressing each rule in as general a form as possible. The representation of games in this way leads to a state space representation and it is natural for well organised games with some structure. This representation allows for the formal definition of a problem which necessitates the movement from a set of initial positions to one of a set of target positions. It means that the solution involves using known techniques and a systematic search. This is quite a common method in AI.

- Define some of these states as possible initial states;

- Specify one or more as acceptable solutions, these are goal states;

1.increased applicability to real domains,

non-monotonic, partially commutative an d commutative. Figure Architecture of Production System Features of

Expressiveness and intuitiveness: In real world, many times situation comes like “if this happen-you will do that”, “if this is so-then this should happen” and many more. The production rules essentially tell us what to do in a given situation.

Step 1:

Suppose that you are given 3 jugs A,B,C with capacities 8,5 and 3 liters respectively but are not calibrated (i.e. no measuring mark will be there). Jug A is filled with 8 liters of water. By a series of pouring back and forth among the 3 jugs, divide the 8 liters into 2 equal parts i.e. 4 liters in jug A and 4 liters in jug B. How?

C represents the 3 liter s jug respectively. Figure The production rules are formulated as follows:
B and 3 liters to jug C and jug C and jug A will be empty.

In this step, start with the first current state of step-1 i.e. (5, 0, 3). This state can only be implemented by pouring the 3 liters water of jug C into jug B. so the state will be (5, 3, 0). Next, come to the second

1, 4, 3

4, 4, 0 Goal

of water. The tree of the water jug problem can be like: Figure Comments: This problem

This process of searching in this problem is very lengthy.

At each step of the problem the user have to strictly follow the production rules. Otherwise the problem may go to infinity step.

and the Carnivals are a t one side of the bank of the river. Different states

It requires a lot of searching to reach at the goal state.

The time factor for each queen’s move is very lengthy.

each step of the problem a function f(x) will be define d which is the combination


The user has to be very careful about the shifting of tiles in the trays.

Very complex puzzle games can be solved by this technique.

The solution of the problem in different steps can be of followings.

One of the specialized purposes of the problem is to raise the question: Are monkeys intelligent?

This problem is very useful in logic programming and planning.


The tower of Hanoi is frequently used in psychological research on problem solving.

algorithms is quite common technique. In the coming age of AI it will have big impact on the technologies of the robotics and path finding. It is also widely used in travel planning. This chapter contains the different search algorithms of AI used in various applications. Let us look the concepts for visualizing the algorithms.

searching and informed searching. Also some other classifications of these searches are give n below in




makes never makes a lateral move .It uses minimal estimated cost h (n) to the goal state as measure which decreases the search time but the algorithm is neither complete nor optimal. The main advantage of this search is that it is simple and finds solution quickly. The disadvantages are that it is not optimal, susceptible to false start.

are that it is not optima l, susceptible to false start. Figure Greedy Search INFORMED SEARCH