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Tropical Design

ARCH 214-18

31 August 2019

L. Arch. Jamille Vanessa E. Saplagio, EnP.


Climate vs Weather

Climatic Controls

Climate of the Philippines

Climate Types
of the Philippines
Quezon City’s climate is…

Type I. During most months of the year, there is significant

rainfall in Quezon City. Dry from November to April and
wet during the rest of the year (short dry season). Max
rain period is from June to September.
Type I - There are two pronounced seasons: dry, from November to April; wet, during
the rest of the year. The localities of this type are protected from the Northwest (NW)
monsoon; some are protected from the trade winds by mountain ranges. However,
the controlling factor is topography in those areas open only to the Southwest (SW)
monsoon and cyclonic storms.
Average temperature : 27.0°C
Average rainfall : 100.58 in.
Geographic coverage Exposure to Typhoons
(per cent)
Ilocos Norte 32
Ilocos Sur 32
Mt. Province (Western part) 32
Abra 32
La Union 32
Pangasinan 32
Tarlac 16
Nueva Ecija 16
Zambales 16
Pampanga 16
Bulacan 16
Bataan 16
Manila 16
Rizal 16
Laguna 16
Cavite 16
Batangas 16
Mindoro Occidental 19
a - per cent of typhoons to which province is exposed Antique 19 b; 7 c
b - northern part
c - southwestern part
Iloilo 19 b; 7 c
d - southern part Negros Occidental (western, central and
e - small portion of eastern part 7
southern parts)
Type II - There is no dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain period
from November to January. These regions are along or very near the eastern
coast which are sheltered neither from the NE monsoon and the trade winds nor
from cyclonic storms.

Average temperature : 26.8°C

Average rainfall : 129.08 in.
Geographic Coverage Exposure to Typhoons
(per cent)
Quezon (a great portion of eastern part) 16
Camarines Norte (eastern and northern parts) 16
Camarines Sur (eastern and northern parts) 19
Albay (eastern part) 19
Catanduanes 16
Sorsogon 19
Samar 19
Leyte del Norte (eastern part) 19
Leyte del Sur (eastern part) 7
Surigao del Norte 7
Surigao del Sur 7
Agusan del Sur 7
Davao (eastern part) 1

a - per cent of typhoons to which province is exposed
b - northern part
c - southwestern part
d - southern part
e - small portion of eastern part
Type III - Seasons are not very pronounced; relatively dry from November to
April and wet during the rest of the year. The maximum rain periods are not very
pronounced, with the short dry season lasting only from one to three months.
These localities are only partly sheltered from the northeast monsoon and trade
winds and open to the Southwest monsoon or at least to frequent cyclonic
Average temperature : 27.2°C
Average rainfall : 77.26 in.
Geographic Coverage Exposure to Typhoons
(per cent)
Cagayan (western part) 32
Isabela (western part) 32
Mt. Province (eastern part) 32
Nueva Vizcaya (western part) 32
Quezon (small portions of southern part) 16
Romblon 18
Masbate 19
Aklan 19
Capiz 19
Negros Occidental (northern part) 7
Negros Oriental 7
Cebu (central and southern parts) 7
Bohol (northern parts) 7
Palawan (eastern part) 7
Legend: Misamis Oriental 7
a - per cent of typhoons to which province is exposed
b - northern part Bukidnon (northern part) 7
c - southwestern part Zamboanga del Norte (southern part) 1
d - southern part
e - small portion of eastern part Zamboanga del Sur (southern part) 1
Type IV - Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year

Average temperature : 26.8°C

Average rainfall : 101.84 in.
Exposure to Typhoons
Geographic Coverage
(per cent)
Batanes 25
Cagayan (eastern part) 33
Isabela (eastern part) 32
Nueva Vizcaya (eastern part) 32
Quezon (northern part, a small portion
of eastern part, and southwestern part) 32 b; 16 d
Camarines Norte (southern & western parts) 16 ; 19 e
Camarines Sur (southern & western parts) 16
Albay (western part) 16
Marinduque 19
Mindoro Oriental 19
Leyte del Norte (western part) 19
Leyte del Sur (western part) 7
Cebu (northern part) 7
Zamboanga del Norte (northern part) 7
Zamboanga del Sur (northern part) 1
Misamis Occidental 7
Bukidnon (southern part) 1
Lanao del Norte 7
Lanao del Sur 1
Cotabato 1
Legend: Davao (western part) 1
a - per cent of typhoons to which province is exposed Basilan 1
b - northern part
c - southwestern part Sulu 1
d - southern part
e - small portion of eastern part
Climatic Factors

01 • UV radiation
• Visible light
• Short infrared radiation (radiant Heat)


01 World Climate

02 Tropical Climate

03 Subdivision of Tropical Climate

04 Climatic Design

Elements of Climate
05 Needed in the Design
World Climate
Global Climatic Zones
World Climate
General Types of World Climates

01 • characterized by long, cold winters and short, cool summers
• nearly all parts of the Arctic experience long periods with some form
of ice on the surface

02 • lie between the tropics and the polar regions.
• changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally
relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold.

03 • tropical temperature remains relatively constant throughout the year
• seasonal variations are dominated by precipitation.

04 • is a tropical climate usually (but not always) found along the equator
• climate typically feature tropical rainforests
Tropical Climate
What is the meaning of
Coron, Palawan
Philippines (Tropical)
Calusa BeachFlorida
North America (Temperate)
Mercure, Kuta Beach
Bali, Indonesia (Tropical)
Saint Petersburg Resort
Russia (Arctic/Cold)

An area with tropical climate is one with an average

temperature of above 18 degrees Celsius (64 degrees
Fahrenheit) and considerable precipitation during at
least part of the year. These areas are non-arid and
are generally consistent with equatorial climate
conditions around the world.
• those regions where heat is the
dominant problem, where the annual
mean temperature is not less than 20
Characteristics of Tropical Climates

Climate conditions breed insects (flies, mosquitoes)
TROPICAL CLIMATE Damp Ground Condition
• those regions where heat is the
dominant problem, where the 06
annual mean temperature is PRECIPITATION
High during the year 05
not less than 20 degrees Average of 1000mm/yr

04 Overcast sky most of the time
A lot of reflected heat/solar gain

Slow wind flow
TEMPERATURE Average of 2 m/s
Ave. mean temp. 20-30 deg C NE,SW monsoons
Small diurnal temp. 2-5 deg C HUMMIDITY LEVELS
02 50%-1005 Relative humidity
Tropical Countries
• Tropical countries are nations that are found in the tropics, a region
that is located along the Earth’s Equator.

• More specifically, it is the countries that are located between the Tropic
of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The tropics make up about
40% of the surface area of the planet and is home to approximately
40% of the world’s population.

• Tropical countries typically have a tropical climate, which means that it

is warm all year long. Most nations have a dry season and a wet
season when most of the annual rainfall occurs. However, not all
nations located in the tropics have a tropical climate.

• Ecosystems in tropical countries may be very diverse, including

tropical rainforests, dry forests, and deserts.
Tropical Countries
Tropical Countries
Problems in Areas with
Tropical Climates

04 Abundance of
insects and rodents

02 Slow wind
Damp ground
High precipitation conditions

03 levels during
rainy days and
High temperature level
and high humidity level 01 high incidence of
Subdivision of
Tropical Climate
Subdivision of Tropical Climate


§ Overheating is not as great § (Arid/Maritime Desert) main
as in hot-dry areas, but it is § Tropical uplands,
problem is overheating, but
aggravated by very high where heavy rains
the air is dry, so the
humidity, restricting the alternate with dryer
evaporative cooling
evaporation potential. periods
mechanism of the body is
§ The diurnal temperature not restricted. There is
variation is small. usually a large diurnal (day -
§ Tropical Islands, one where night) temperature variation.
the air is very moist- lot of § Maritime Desert
water in the air. Usually § Minimal rain all year
hot and steamy.
Warm Humid Hot Dry Composite

DBT High temp during the Very high temp during the day; Mixture of
day, low diurnal large diurnal range; can be warm/humid
change quite low in winter and
RH Relatively high Low and very low humidity; hot/dry.
fairly constant throughout the
Precipitation Heavy rains Often low or very low 1/3 to 2/3
especially during ratio of
monsoon season monsoon
Sky Cloudy and glaring Little or no cloud. Cold and
non-glaring sky.

Ground Lesser vegetation Sparse and often bare. Very

high glare from ground. Rich
soil which only requires water
Climatic Design
Climatic Design
• Climate Design is the part of design that is concerned with the creation of healthy
and comfortable
indoor environments.

• Climate design starts with the right design requirements set by the principal. But they often fail to
state clear and verifiable demands for the indoor climate to be achieved in the design.

• In general, a design process is a highly complex practice in which

the architect plays an important role. Architectural design has to
meet a variety of design objectives that heavily interrelate with
each other and in many cases are in conflict.

• The challenge to create comfortable and healthy

indoor environments and to reduce energy demand
of buildings calls for creative solutions that elaborate
on existing knowledge and good practice.
Importance of Climatic Design

Climate has a major effect on building performance and

energy consumption.

The process of identifying, understanding and

controlling climatic influences at the building site is
perhaps the most critical part of building design.

The key objectives of climatic design include:

ü To reduce energy cost of a building
ü To use "natural energy" instead of mechanical system and power
ü To provide comfortable and healthy environment for people

Concerned with countries where discomfort due to

heat and humidity are the dominant problems

Tropical Design is applicable to Tropical, Sub-

tropical and Equatorial Climates covering the
Southeast Asian Countries
Elements of Climate
Needed in the Design
Elements of Climates Needed in Design

DBT (Dry-Bulb Temperature)


Relative Humidity


Sky Condition

Solar Radiation
Elements of Climates Needed in Design

DBT (Dry-Bulb Temperature)

• measurement of the temperature of the air and

01 as far as possible excludes any radiant
temperature; measured in the shade.

• instrument – silvered thermometer (in 0F or 0C)

- monthly mean of daily maxima (deg C)
- monthly mean of daily minima (deg C)
- standard deviation of distribution
Contour map of DBT
Factors affecting DBT
Elements of Climates Needed in Design


• direction, frequency and force of the wind throughout the

02 year.

• instrument – vane anemometer for high speeds

kata thermometer for low speeds
Factors affecting wind
Elements of Climates Needed in Design


• amount of water in the air.

• instrument – hygrometer (in %) or sling psychrometer
measured in 0F or 0C if WBT (wet-bulb temperature)
- early morning relative humidity (in %)
- early afternoon relative humidity (in %)
Contour map of relative humidity
Effects of RH
Elements of Climates Needed in Design


• data in the form of total monthly rainfall of maximum

04 rainfall during the 24 hour period.

• mainly rainfall but could also be dew.

• instrument – rain gauge measured in inches or centimeters

- monthly total (in mm)
Elements of Climates Needed in Design


• either cloud cover, measured in 1/8 or 1/10 or % of the sky

05 covered, or it could be measured in hours of sunshine

Cloud cover - based on visual observation and expressed as a fraction of

the sky hemisphere (tenths, or 'octas' = eights) covered by clouds.

Sunshine duration - the period of clear sunshine (when a sharp shadow

is cast), measured by a sunshine recorder which burns a trace on a
paper strip, expressed as hours per day or month.
Effect of sky condition
Elements of Climates Needed in Design


• Radiant energy received from the sun

• Absorbs direct scattered source of almost all earth’s energy
occurs in short wavelength.

• measured by a pyranometer, on an unobstructed horizontal

surface and recorded either as the continuously varying
irradiance (W/m2), or through an electronic integrator as
irradiance over the hour or day.
Contour map of global solar radiation
Factors affecting solar radiation
Factors affecting solar radiation
Factors affecting solar radiation
Factors affecting solar radiation