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- Gives people insights into their - The “Now”

personal behaviour and positive - Current century
experiences beyond the personal - Began on January 1, 2001 and will
environment. end on December 31, 2100.
- Is rich in different works which is
continuously evolving. LITERATURE
- Written works that are considered to
- Writings
be very good and to have lasting
- SHE – Significant Human
- It started with folklores, fables,
- A body of written works
songs passed through generation
- From latin “litera” – an
both oral and written tradition.
acquaintance with letters
LITERARY – scholarly article or classical - Refers to all the written works
writing that is extremely well written and is produced during the 21st century
very informative. (2001-present)

 PERMANENCE Four reasons why you should read:

 An important feature of great (John Green)
literature is that it endures.
 ARTISTRY 1. Stories are about communication.
 The literature should be well 2. Reading is an act of empathy.
written and appeal to our 3. Reading helps in better explanations
creative sides with and better communications.
beautifully crafted phrases 4. Reading helps in learning the
and sentences. present and past (even the future).

 UNIVERSAL APPEAL (we even learn more about ourselves)

Literature must appeal to a
range of people across diff.
Age groups, nationalities,
cultures, and beliefs. TEXT – are any written words on a page.
 INTELLECTUALLY VALUABLE  According to Antero Garcia,
 Literary work will unusually “TEXTS should include more than
inform us about our past, JUST words on a page”.
present, or the world around  Words on a computer screen:
us. o Audio&Visual: text
 STYLE messages, movies, blogs,
o The writer of literature will
podcasts, instant
unusually have a unique
messaging, youtube
view of the world and will
videos, pictures
put thoughts to us in a way
we have never considered. o Audio: spoken word poetry,
audio books, podcasts
o Literature should carry o Written: screenplays, scripts
many associations that What literature should students be
lead beyond the surface reading in the 21st century?
 SPIRITUAL VALUE 1. It is difficult to make a selection.
o Great works of literature are 2. Everything that they can get their
often thought to have an hands on.
underlying moral message 3. Anything that challenges the mind
that can potentially make us to think.
a better person.
THEME – is a message , meaning, or the 5. CREATIVE NONFICTION
writer about a subject or topic. - A genre of writing that uses literary
styles and techniques to create
THEMES IN LITERATURE IN THE factually accurate narratives
21ST CENTURY: - Journals or self-expression, letters,
magazine articles and other
1. IDENTITY expressions of imagination.
- Is defined as the set of personal and
behavioural characteristics which LITERATURE –A group of works of art
define an individual as a member of made up of words.
a certain group.
2. HISTORY AND MEMORY  PROSE – is ordinary language that
- A look-back on History but follows regular grammatical
depicting the audiences differently. conventions / essay form.
3. TECHNOLOGY o Fiction – literature created
- Integration of technology is more from imagination.
perceived in the 21st century
 Legend – traditional/
historical story or
4. INTERTEXTUALITY group of stories told
- Interconnection of one text to about a particular
another/ other texts taken as basic to person or place.
the creation or interpretation of the
 Short Story – fully
developed story
GENRE – a category of artistic which is shorter than
composition characterized by similarities in a novel and longer
form, style, or subject matter. than a fable.
 Novel – long,
GENRES OF LITERATURE: fictional narrative
which describes
intimate human
- Imaginary story
- Uses natural/ everyday language
 Fable – a concise and
- Has a wide range in terms of length
brief story that is
- Usually focused on one (or a few)
usually about animals
major character and deals with
providing a moral
lesson at the end.
- Uses aesthetic / evocative qualities  Parable – a simple
of language. story with a moral.
3. DRAMA  Novella – shorter
- A literary work that is designed to than a full-length
be acted out on stage performed by novel but longer than
actors for an audience. a short story.
- Presents imaginary events acted out o Nonfiction – literature
as if it were happening in the based in fact.
present, to be witnessed by the
 Biography – the life
history of an
4. NONFICTION PROSE individual written by
- any kind of prose writing that is someone else.
based on facts.
 History – branch of
- Deals with REAL people, things,
knowledge dealing
events, and places.
with past events.
- Must conform to what is true and
 News – information
must not be manipulated.
or reports about
recent events.
 Diary – a book which o Dramatic – an emotional
one keeps a daily piece of lit.
record of events and  Tragedy – literary
experiences. work in which the
 Anecdote – short, main character suffers
sometimes amusing, extreme sorrow.
story that is told to  Comedy – amusing in
make a point. its tone, mostly
 Essay – a short piece having a cheerful
of writing on a ending.
particular subject in  Melodrama – an
an organized manner. exaggerated form of
 POETRY – literature based on the this genre.
interplay of word and rhythm.  Farce – only aims at
o Narrative – form of poetry making the audience
that tells a story, often laugh.
making the voices of a  Social Play – any play
narrator and characters as in which children of
well. the same age interact
 Epic – a long, with each other.
narrative poem that is
usually about heroic
deeds and events that
are significant to the
culture of the poet.
 Ballad – originally
was set to music.
 Metrical Tale – form
of poetry that relays a
story in a number of
o Lyric – poem expresses
personal emotions through
 Song – lyrical poem
which is sung with
the playing f some
musical instrument.
 Ode – lyrical in
nature, but not very
 Sonnet – a poetic
form that has
fourteen lines.
 Elegy – sad poem,
usually written to
praise and express
sorrow for someone
who is dead.
 Idyll – a picture of
everyday life while
making things that at
first seem simple
much more