You are on page 1of 70

cccccccccccccccccccccccA Project Report on

³Remote Control for Home Appliances´


c
c
 c  c c
c cc
cccccccccccccccc 
c c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
cccccccccMs. Khushboo Singh
(0416131028)
c
c
c

c
cccccccc c c ccccccccc
cc
Prof. P. K. Srivastavac c c c Mrs. Arpita Guptac
c c c c c c c c 

c !c
c
c
c c c ccHead Of the Department
c c c Prof. K. K. Dangda

ccccccccc 
"cc   c
c
c c c ccccccccccc#$$%&#$$'!c c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c
Krishna Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.)
cccccccccccccccccccccccA Project Report on

³Remote Control for Home Appliances´


c
c
 c  c c
c cc
cccccccccccccccc 
c c c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
ccccccccMs. Archana Sharma
(0416131011)
c
c
c

c
cccccccc c c ccccccccc
cc
Prof. P. K. Srivastavac c c c Mrs. Arpita Gupta


c !c
c
c
c c c ccHead Of the Department
c c c Prof. K. K. Dangda

ccccccccc 
"cc   c
c
c c c ccccccccccc#$$%&#$$'!c c
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c

Krishna Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.)


A Project Report on

³Remote Control for Home Appliances´

ccccccccc c
c
 c  c c
c c
cccccccccc 
c c c
ccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
ccccccccccccMs. Nidhi Sharma
(0416131037)
c
c
c

c
cccccccc c c ccccccccc
cc
Prof. P. K. Srivastava Mrs. Arpita Gupta
c 

c !c
c
c
c c c ccHead Of the Department
c c c Prof. K. K. Dangda

ccccccccc 
"cc   c
c
c c c ccccccccccc#$$%&#$$'!c c
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
Krishna Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.)
A Project Report on

³Remote Control for Home Appliances´

c
c
 c  c c
c c
cccccccc 
c c c
ccc c cccccc
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
ccccccccccccMs. Neetika Mehta
(0416131035)
c
c

c
cccccccc c c ccccccccc
cc
Prof. P. K. Srivastavac c c c Mrs. Arpita Guptac
c c c c c c c c 

c !c
c
c
c c c ccHead Of the Department
c c c Prof. K. K. Dangda

ccccccccc 
"cc   c
c
c c c ccccccccccc#$$%&#$$'!c c
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
Krishna Engineering College, Ghaziabad (U.P.)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ccccccccccccc

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c   c (c  c  (c "c ))
c  c *)
""c c 
c  c 
c
)
c 
c
+c P. K. Srivastavac c )
c "c Mrs.c
Arpita Guptac 
c 
c  ""c ")
c ," -c ,   c  c
c 
c c
cc)
)
 c c"c)
+c
c c " c cc c cc  c
"c c") c
c
Mr.c K.K. Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication)c 
c
)
,c c ,
c   c  ")
c  c ,  c  c c ,
c
))
+c
c "c c  c  "c c  c  c  ("c c )
"-c   "c c
 
"c 
c  )c c c ,c ,   c "" c c 
c
"))
+c
cccccccccc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c

Khushboo Singh
c c c c c c 0416131028)
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 
"cc   !c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
cccccc
ccccc
cccccACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ccccccccccccc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c   c (c  c  (c "c ))
c  c *)
""c c 
c  c 
c
)
c 
c
+c P. K. Srivastavac c )
c "c Mrs.c
Arpita Guptac 
c 
c  ""c ")
c ," -c ,   c  c
c 
c c
cc)
)
 c c"c)
+c
c c " c cc c cc  c
"c c") c
c
Mr.c K.K. Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication)c 
c
)
,c c ,
c   c  ")
c  c ,  c  c c ,
c
))
+c
c "c c  c  "c c  c  c  ("c c )
"-c   "c c
 
"c 
c  )c c c ,c ,   c "" c c 
c
"))
+c
cccccccccc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccc c c c c c Archana Sharma
c c c c c c 0416131011)
 
"cc   !c
c
c
c
c
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ccccccccccccc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c   c (c  c  (c "c ))
c  c *)
""c c 
c  c 
c
)
c 
c
+c P. K. Srivastavac c )
c "c Mrs.c
Arpita Guptac 
c 
c  ""c ")
c ," -c ,   c  c
c 
c c
cc)
)
 c c"c)
+c
c c " c cc c cc  c
"c c") c
c
Mr.c K.K. Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication)c 
c
)
,c c ,
c   c  ")
c  c ,  c  c c ,
c
))
+c
c "c c  c  "c c  c  c  ("c c )
"-c   "c c
 
"c 
c  )c c c ,c ,   c "" c c 
c
"))
+c
cccccccccc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccc c c c c c Nidhi Sharma
c c c c c c (0416131037)
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 
"cc   !ccc
c
c
c
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTc
ccccccccccccc

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c   c (c  c  (c "c ))
c  c *)
""c c 
c  c 
c
)
c 
c
+c P. K. Srivastavac c )
c "c Mrs.c
Arpita Guptac 
c 
c  ""c ")
c ," -c ,   c  c
c 
c c
cc)
)
 c c"c)
+c
c c " c cc c cc  c
"c c") c
c
Mr.c K.K. Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication)c 
c
)
,c c ,
c   c  ")
c  c ,  c  c c ,
c
))
+c
c "c c  c  "c c  c  c  ("c c )
"-c   "c c
 
"c 
c  )c c c ,c ,   c "" c c 
c
"))
+c
cccccccccc
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccc c c c c c Neetika Mehta
c c c c c c 0416131028!
 
"cc   !c
c
c
c
c
CERTIFICATE
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c
"c c "c  c 
c  c c c )
c c  c c ³REMOTE CONTROL
FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ "c c c c c Khushboo Singhc
. c / +c $012131$#'!-c c "c c c c Final-Year Electronics and
Communication engineering, "c c c c

c c c 
(c c 

c c c

ccc cc cc")
," +c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Project Guide Project Incharge
4
"+c
) c) c c c c c
+c +c5+c
, " , c
c
c
c
c
c
CERTIFICATE
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c
"c c "c  c 
c c  c c )
c  c c ³REMOTE CONTROL
FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ "c c c c Archana Sharmac
. c / +c $012131$11!-c "c c c c Final-Year Electronics and
Communication engineering, "c c c c

c c c 
(c c 

c c

ccc cc cc")
," +c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Project Guide Project Incharge
4
"+c
) c) c c c c c
+c +c5+c
, " , c
c
c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
CERTIFICATE
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c
"c "c c  c 
c  c c )
c  c c ³REMOTE CONTROL
FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ "c c c c c c Nidhi Sharma
. c / +c $012131$3%!-c "c c c Final-Year Electronics and
Communication engineering, "c c c c

c c c 
(c 

c c

ccc cc cc")
," +c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Project Guide Project Incharge
4
"+c
) c) c c c c c
+c +c5+c
, " , c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
CERTIFICATE
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c
"c c "c  c 
c  c c )
c  c c ³REMOTE CONTROL
FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ "c c c c c c c Neetika Mehtaccccc
. c / +c $012131$36!-c "c c Final-Year Electronics and
Communication engineering, "c c c

c c c 
(c 

c c

ccc cc cc")
," +c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Project Guide Project Incharge
4
"+c
) c) c c c c c
+c +c5+c
, " , c
c
c
c
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
ccccCONTENTS

1+c /.78 7/c


c
#+c 7 5c.4c
c
3+c 74 7// c . 7/c
åcc
åc.""
cc
åc ) 
c
åc9  c. 
c
åc
" c " 
c
åc 
 c   c, c. #3#c)
c
åc:*c,

c
åc c
åc4
 

c
ëc '; 61c
ëc '; #$61c
c
0+c 4/c . 8c
åc 
c"
) c
c
6+c 7<.c
åc c

c
åc:*c c
c
2+c 7/ 8 7/c
c
%+c 88.c .7   c
c
'+c ../  c
CERTIFICATE
c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c
"cc"cc cc
c cc)
cc cc³REMOTE CONTROL
FOR HOME APPLIANCES´ "c cc c c Archana Sharma,
Khushboo Singh, Neetika Mehtac ccNidhi Sharmacc""c
cFinal-Year Electronics and Communication engineering, "cc
c

c c
(c

c cc
cc cc cc")
," +c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Project Guide Project Incharge
4
"+c
) c) c c c c c
+c +c5+c
, " , c
c
c
c
c
c
c
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
ccccccccccccc

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
<c  c (c c (c"c ))
c c*)
""c 
c
c c 
c
)
c 
c
+c P. K. Srivastavac c )
c "c Mrs.c
Arpita Guptac 
c 
c  ""c ")
c ," -c ,   c  c
c 
c c
cc)
)
 c c"c)
+c
<c
c " c cc c cc  c
"c c") c

c Mr.c K.K. Dangda (HOD of Electronics and Communication)c

c )
,c c ,
c   c  ")
c  c ,  c  c c ,
c
))
+c
c "c c  c  "c c  c  c  ("c 
c )
"-c 
"c c
 
"c 
c  )c "c c ,c ,   c "" c c 
c
"))
+c
cccccccccc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
Archana Sharma (0416131011)
Khushboo Singhc0416131028)
Neetika Mehta (0416131035)
Nidhi Sharma (0416131037)c c
c c c c c c 0c=
!c
c c c c c cccccc 
"cc   !
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

c
c
c
c
c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c
c
cc c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc1
c
INTRODUCTION
c
 &c    c  )  "-c    "c c  c  c
))  "-c
c c   
c c c ,
c c c  
"-c "
,"c
c *c " c   "+c "c  )  "c
" c c 
c
> c c -c  "c " ,-c 
 "c  ,c c c "c  c
  c 
ccc
c+cc
c
"c )"c c cc
c c"
,"-c c
  c c
 
c  c  c "
"-c   

"c c "
,c )
,
"c
(+c ))  c  c c  "c c ) c )
c "c  c   -c
" ,c" 
"ccc c")c c
 , cc c) +cc
c
))  c  

"c ,c c
cc
"c-c c
c (c c
c c "
-c c c  c )
,c
 c "
,c c   c
  ""c c   c c "
,"-c  (c ,  c c 
c

 "c" 
c "+cc
c
cc )"ccc cc cc
  cc 
cc cc,ccc c," c

c"c, c
&.c +cc  "c c  cc cc, cc>)c
 cccc 
cc"cc cc   "+ccc cc"cccc")
 cc
"cccc
>
cc ) "ccc
cc>cc )-cc"cc (cccc
 cc
cc"c c"cc.cc 
cc
cc 
cc c)
-c 
cccc
 cc ))  "cccccccc )cc ccc
 cc 
-ccc "ccc c


+c
c
c
 c  
c "c c  
c ,c "c 
c c
 c
)
 c c c +c
2
cc
cc
 cc 
cc cccc " cc


c c "c?
 ?c
c
? 

?cc 
, +cc"c( cc c 
c "c "c
 +cc   -cc
 cc 
"cc
c"cc cc""cc  "c

cc cc" c cc ," "c
c 
c "
c 
"c"c
"cc"
 cc"""cc cc9cc) 
"+c. cc 
"c
c"c
,"c
c" c" c
 ""c  c "cccc c

c
c "c
c "c,
 "c""c"c "c ," c  -c

(cc
-cc cc, +ccc -cc
cccc 
cc cc 
c
,"cccc"ccc(cc cc 
-cccc
 cc  "ccc ccc
 cc 
"cc cccc 
cc,cc" cc  cc "cccc c
  cc ccc"" ccc)

cc 
"+cc4 "cc cc"ccc
 "c
  cc cc
c
"),c,"cc, cc

c.!c" "c
c cc, c
 c" "+c
c


c .!c
  c "c  
 c
  c c c  , c

c c c c," c -cc"

c c c c
 ,"+c
cc c "cc? c
?cc
cc cu -c? ?!-cc
c
cc
c c," c ccc "c , +c

cc

  cc "ccc , "ccccc  cc%6$ccc cc1c+c


: "cc cc
 c c)

c c
 c c c , c
c 1$c 
"+

c  c "c "c *", c 
c  c  
c
c,  c)
) ""+c
c
c

&.cc  cc"cc
 cc cccc ccc)

cc
+ccc<c
 "cc @cc"cc"cc 
cc "cc"c ,c c"c c
cc," cc")
+cc @"c c cc
 " "cc.c"c "c

cc
 cc 
c)
) ""+c 
c
 " c"c "c.c"c

c>c "c c (-c c

c cc,
c )+

3cc
c
c

c
c c  c c " 
"c c c c c
&.c c +c c c c"c c "c cc

"c c " 
c c c +c 7
"c c
Ac c  "-c   "-c 
c
 cc""-cc cc,cc 
cc cc
 "cc
&.cc +cc
c c  c c ,
c c  c c
 "c c  -c c  "c c
 c 
&.c
+c
cc


cccc ,cc ccc (cc" cc)
  "cc cc
c
c cc 
c.c"" cc"c 
""ccc
,
c c


"+cc
c
c
4   c "c c  c c  c c  (c c 
c c " c c " c c c c  ,c c
 "+c c <c    c c c c  (c c .c c " 
c c  (c c c
)

c c 
>+c c c .c c
,
c c  c c c c c c c  c c c c  c

>-c" cc c
c,
c "+cc
c
c
c

c
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
c

c
c
c
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc ccc

5
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
ccccc
c
c c
c IR TX WITH IR RX WITH LED1
c MICRO MICRO LED2
c CONTROLL CONTROLLER
c ER
c
c
c
c
c
c POWER
c Key Pad SUPPLY
c
c
c
c
c
c
c c c c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
6

HEX CODING
c
For Transmitter:
c
A$$00$$3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'3'$$ %c
A1$$0$$#;%#;2#;6#;0%6;'6$%6';#$%6'2c
A1$$0$$0#'#;;#$;%$'%%$3%;6'$101$c
A1$$6$$$#$;2$'%%$3%;;'$$;#$;6$%6$c
A1$$61$$%$3%;1#$$26'$ #$;0;%%$06c
A$%$6#$$%;11#$$26'$ 2c
A$3$$$$$$$#$66;;c
A$ $66;$$%'%02'%6'1#1$#$0'c
A1$$$$3$$61'#0$ '2$61'##%'$;3$$%$#%'$ 26c
A1$$$13$$0%6$$11#$06$#$06#$$$%##c
A1$$$#3$$$$'$1'60$#0;$0300$03$$0$6c
A1$$$33$$#001$$6$$3#02161;2$$#161c
A1$$$03$$1;$61 61 %$$#$613$$%$%'$;0%6 #c
A1$$$63$$$$11#$06$#$03$#$63#%0$3#$% $c
A1$$$23$$'$$30 #$%61''$;'$';$061;#c
A1$$$%3$$6161 61;2$$%%#$1#$$3'$6%61
A1$$$'3$$1 #$1 #$$ #$# #$3 #$6 #$2 #$'c
A1$$$;3$$1#$$$ %$$3$$%$6%$$1#$$01  c
A1$$$3$$1##0#66 #6 #$01#$$$ #0$ c
A1$$$3$$0$$$6$1%6$$%'1;3$6$6$'20c
A1$$$ 3$$$1$2 20#22#$6$0%$$##$3'$;#03c
A1$$$3$$ 01$$6$$0 #6#$0$#$#0#$1;c
A1$$$3$$'$ 2#$$'$ $#$#'$ #6'$#$6c
A1$$$3$$'$0%#$1#$$3#$$#$%%0$161;$$0$#c
A1$$1$3$$11#$$$31#$$3$#$$%%#$'#$2'$ c
A1$$113$$;61#$$$31#$$$31#$$$3;00%$16c
A1$$1#3$$$2%;#$%$3%#$$##61;2$#%$$$c
A1$$133$$''#%6'3$$1#$0%22$$2$261%$$%c
A1$$103$$ #6 $$ $$; $$1#$#;2$$c
A1$$163$$$;$$$$1#$062$ $0%c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 50
c
A1$$123$$$ $$; $$1#$$3$$#0$1;$c
A1$$1%3$$$30$$$$61$02$ 61;'$3 c
A1$$1'3$$'%%%$#%;;##$#'$; %;1$'$$#%;%$c
A1$$1;3$$$' #$2 #$''$$'#6%;$'$$0%;$ #0%c
A1$$13$$661$0%$$#6101#$$$3$2c
A1$$13$$ %$'#$$1131#$$$3%1$3$$$$1#$c
A1$$1 3$$$$$31#$$$3%#$ 33'#6;#66$0c
A1$$13$$13 303$$$$2;0;0#$$1$3;2;c
A1$$13$$0;  0 ' #$1 %$$    'c
A1$$13$$'#0''%$3'$1% 3333312c
A1$$#$3$$33 33 33;;0$$#$';2c
A1$$#13$$3$$1$6'$$ 00'#$1 $$$ 00$c
A1$$##3$$0%'#$%$$%$ #61$$0$ $$1#$c
A1$$#33$$$#;'$$$$#$$1$0 0 $$ 0#$1 $1c
A1$$#03$$$1#$$#%$$6$$#$$%%1#$0 6$1c
A1$$#63$$1063$1'6'$$60 $$10#$1;#0$1;% c
A$$#23$$00$1;0;$$03$1$66$1'002$1'01c
A1$$#%#$$06$1'00%$30$6$$$;#$$#$11$#2c
A1$$#'#$$$$1#3$1$#$$3##$$;0'$$$$$1$'0c
A1$$#;#$$333$$%;$#6#$$3103$$6$;;1$2%c
A1$$##$$$#$0$0;$'$1$0#6#$$2$#6$$1$0#$2'c
A1$$##$$$#2';#$#61;$$6$30 $$%#$3$$31;21c
A1$$# #$$%3$#$#%#$2%#$66$$1#$# #$# #$#c
A1$$##$$$2 #$6 #$'%3$'$$3$$6$3; $$1#%0c
A1$$##$$$$33$$6$3$$;$$61; 3$$61%6%c
A1$$##$$%3$;1$$ 1#$$3%6'3$$0$%%%''$;c
A1$$3$#$$$3;$'$31#$$33$$#$6%#$#$$3%3#c
A1$$31#$$#$#$$''%##$$23##;#$#'$ #'23c
A1$$3##$$%62 2 #;$$#6$030;6'#$11#$$$33$ c
A1$$33#$$$1' #$1%'1;3$6$1$'2$#$$;1#$$c
A1$$30#$$$3#0$30$6$$0$$10;$$3#%;31#$$#16c
A$$36#$$%031#$$##$3%61;$0$#$1'%c
A1$$06$$$1$2';'#''3$##6$$#%##$#;c
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc51c
A$;$02$$3##';'#''30;3##$c
A1$$0%2$$$1$ 6'##;6'#6'336'3$##6$3c
A1$$0'2$$$2;#6'#'2##$2;#6'#'###'6c
A$$0;2$$6'##;6'#6'336'30;3##;c
A1$$03$$$1$2';'#''3$##6$$#%##$13'c
A$#$03$$3##3#c
A1$$06$$2$'$'2;#6$21'2 32##0'c
A1$$0 6$$$'3$'#'0;3%$1#%0$1;3%$$33 2c
A1$$06$$;3'%0$1;36'#'''30%3%0$#;32'2$c
A$2$06$$333'$c
A1$$63#$$0$$%%0$1#$63%0$3$;'11';;;'c
A1$$60#$$'13$ #;'3$;'';; #;''1123$#;c
A$%$66#$$;; #;;6;;##$1c
A$$$$$$$1c

52
For Receiver:
A1$$$#6$$%6;'6$%6';#$%6'0#'#$#%1#c
A$0$$36$$$$$3'$0;c
A1$$$$3$$3$;';; #;'#0 2$$102$$10%c
A1$$$13$$2$$#0$3%$$ #%###%## #$###6#c
A$1$$#3$$$3 c
A$1$$#0$$##;c
A$3$$$$$$$#$$3; #c
A$ $$3;$$%'%02'%6'1$;$#$$#6c
A$$$$$$$1c

53
c
c
c
c
c c c c c c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c c c c c

c
c c c c cc c c c c c c c c c
c
c c c c c c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c ccccccccc c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc7
c c c c c c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE


c c &c c  -c c " c c  c c c c -c "c c c " 
c  c
 cc"cc 
cc 

&")
cc c c c c 
 c c "ccc
cccc

cccc
 cc ccccc)&cc +c"ccccc"ccc ccc
ccc c
 
"+c
"c
c c "c c "c c " c c  
c "c c c c  
c c ,"c c

 " c c c c 
c c ) 
c c ))   "c c "c "c c  " "c c c c
 c
+c c c 
c c c c c c c c c )"c c c c c  ) " c c
  c c c " c  
 c "-c c  c c 

-c ," -ccc

c  
, +c "c  c c " c c "c "c c

c  " c c c " 
+c
""c -c 
"c c ))   "c c  c "
 B  c c  
c c
" c c,"+c

(  
 c

Function
"cc cc c 
c

c) """c
c+cc
Connecting and soldering
"c c "c c c c  c c c c 

c c  c c
-c c  
c  c c
 c ac
c +c 
c  c c kc
c -c 
c   c "-c c
 c "c (-c  c -c 
c
  C!+c c c   c c "c c c c "
c c  c c c 
c  c c c " c  ccccc
c c c c  c c c
c c "+c c  c c  c "c "c c c c   cccccc
"cc

c 
cc"c"c c c  c  c !+cc
"c  c c   c c  c c " 
-c c c
"(c
"c" c ""c cc
cc,
cc" +c/ c ") c )
  "c

c c 
c " 
c  "c "+cc c

Testing an LEDc
Never connect an LED directly to a battery or power supply.
c  c c c c "
c c  "c c "  c c  "c c  c c 

c  c ) ""c

c c
cc +cc
"c c "c c  ,c c
""
c c "
"c  c c c 

c  c c " c , -c 


c
>(cc"cc)
) ""cc cc1( cc
""
cc"cc"  cc
cc "c"cc  
c
")) c c ,  c c "c 1#9c
c c ""+c c .
c  c  c c c c 

c
 c
+c
c

Calculating an LED resistor value


c c "c  ,c c
""
c  c c "
"c  c c c 

c 
c
c-c 
"cc c
c c  "c"  +cc
c
""
c, -c.c"c,cAcc
R = (VS - VL) / Ic
9 cDc")) c,  cc
9cDcc,  c" c#9-cc09c
c c cc"!cc
cDcc

c++c#$!-c"c"cc ""c cc *c)


cc
c ccc  c , c"c  c ,   c "cc
"c " 
c
""
c
, cc"cgreater-c" c cc

c cc c  c ""c c c "+c


cc cc cc cc"ccc cc "cc cc
 
cc
""
cc, cc c
cc


cc c
 "c 
c c
c* ) !ccc"c c (ccc ""c

+cc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 9
9

c
c
c

Working out the LED resistor formula using Ohm's law


7@"c c" "c cc
"" c cc
""
-c.cDc9E-c
Acc
cc9cDc,  c 
""cc
""
cDc9 c&c9cc"c "!cc
cccDcc

c
cc
""
cc
ccc.cDc9 c&c9!cEccc
Colors of LEDs
"c
c ,   cc
-c
-c 
-c -c

-c  c c +c  c c c "c
c
c
c*)",c cc 
c
"+cc
c
c c cccc"c
ccc" 
c 
 -c ccc

cc cc@) ( @cc) "c !+c"c c c
"c
c ,   cc

cc) ( "cccc cc"c (!c
c 
c c"
c
"cc@ 
c 
@!+ccc
cc) ( "cc
cc " c ,   cc "c"cc
" 
c)!c
c
")
+cc
Connecting LEDs in series
cc cc"c c ,cc",
c"c c cc" ccc cc) "" c c
 cccccc"
"+c"cc)
"cc 
c cc c",
c"c
cc" c

c "c"c c+cc


 cc"cc cc"
"c) ""ccsame currentc" cc"c"ccc

cc ccc" c)+ccc) 
cc")) cc"cc ,cc"c,  c c
)
,c  cc#9c
c cc09c
c c c!c) "c c  "c  
c
#9cc
ccc
""
+c c
(c c cc, c
cc
""
c c"c c)c c
cc,  "c c"c"c
c9+cc c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc10
Avoid connecting LEDs in parallel!c
cc",
cc"cccc)
 ccc"c c
""
c"
cc
c"c
c c c c +cc
ccc"c
>
c"  c
c,  "c  cc "c,  cc c
c c c cc cc c ccc "
cc cccc

cc

cc
 c c c 
c c +c   c c  c c "c c  c c
""" c  c c )
 c c c c
""
c "c


 c 
"c c " c c  "c
""
"c
c ,
cc
 )c cccc

cc"cc"cccc" cc "c cc c


"c , +c c "c
c c )
 c  c c "  c
 ,c"c c
""
+cc
c
Advantages of using LEDs
1. "c)
c
c c)
c c c "c "Fc"c"c" cccccccc
 
c) 
c
c
&" ,c,"+c
2.c"c cc c c cc
c cc"c c
c 
"c c

  c c "c
>
+c"c"c
cc c c 
c c
 ""+c
3.c"cc
c cc
c"cccc ))   "c c
c"c c
>c & c
 c
4.c"c cc,
c" c c
c " c) ) c  c)
c
c
c
Disadvantages of using LEDs
1. cc)

 cc
 cc)"cc ccc cc)

cc ccc
)
cc,
+cc7,
&
,cccccc c)

"c
 cc
" cccc ,
 c ccc) ( -c, c  c c,c
  
+c
2. "c"cc")) ccc

c

+c
11

Application Of Light Emitting Diode


1.Devices, medical applications, clothing, toys:
a)cc ) c
c c
c ) c7)"c   "c
b)4 ,c""
"-c
c* ) cc ) c )
c
c). c 
"-c"c "c
c9"c c9 ."-c c"c

c"+
d)c4 ,c""
"-c
c* ) cc ) c )
cc
e)c "c c

   c")
c "-c"c "cc " c
2+cLighting:
a)c
c" c, c") "cc
b)c ( c
c c ," "c c") "
c)c

c -cc "-c 
"-c c 
 "cc
3.cIndicators and signs:c
a)c  "c 
"c c c,
c c>)c
b)c
c "c c" "cc
c)c*c""-c. 
c
""c" "-c c c 
"cc




c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc 12

 RESISTOR
c resistorc "c c  &
 c  
 c
c  
c  ) c  c )) ""c
cc 
cc

cccc)
cc cc,  cc
)cc"cc
 "cc

 cc7@"c c
Ohm's Lawc " "c c
  ")c c c ,  c 9!-c 

c !c c

"" c.!+cc cc


cc
c "Acc
I =c R =c
Vc Vc
c c
V = I × Rc c
cc c c
cc c
Rc Ic
c c
c c

Ac 9cDc,  cc, "c9!c
Ac 9cDc,  cc, "c9!c
ccDc

cc )"c!cc ccDc

cc  )"c!cc
.cDc
"" cc "c !c .cDc
"" cc( "c( !c
c

* ) Accc cccc 
c" Accc cc
c
ccp pu pu pcc"cc> cc cccc,  cc
)cc 
""cccc
""
c
,ccc

cc
cc
""
c ccc)

c
 "cc
" +c.""
"c
c"c "c)
c c 
 c
("c c 
c
"+c
Function
.""
"c
"
cc c c 
c

-c
c* ) c c
""
c"c) cc
"
"ccc c &c c!c c cc

c) ""c
cc
+cc
Connecting and soldering
.""
"c cc c
c c
+cc
c c  cc c
c" 
+cc

13

Resistor values - the resistor color code


."" c"c "
cc "-cc" c
c c"c c  c +cc
1c "c>c" c" c
""
c, "c
c c,cc( c c4 +cc
1c( cDc1$$$c cccc1c4 cDc1$$$$$$ +cc
.""
c, "c
c
 c" c"c
c "+cc
 c
c
)
""c c
c "c" ccc  +cc
4 "c
""
"c ,c0c "Acc
The Resistor
ëc cfirst bandc,"ccfirst digit+cc Color Codec

c /
c
ëc csecond bandc,"ccsecond digit+cc
 (c $c
ëc cthird bandc "ccnumber of zeros+cc 
c 1c
ëc j p  up  p p p .c #c
puu  ppu  u
pu p 7
c 3c
  uu ppu p u p p  cc = c 0c
c 
c 6c
 c 2c
9 c %c
c

c 'c
c <c ;c
c
"c
""
c "c
c#!-c, c%!-c c0cB
"!c c c "+cc
c"c, c"c#%$$$$c Dc#%$c( +cc
7c
c 
"cc "c" c c cc, c"c
c#%$5+cc

Resistance
."" c c "c c c c )
)
c c c c c  ) c c restricts the flow of
electric current+c 
c "c "c )c "c c ,  c 
""c c  ) c

,"c c c c 

c c 
c c c c c c "c c 
c c ))
"c c "c c  c c c c
 ) +cc
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc14
."" cc"cc "
cccc "-cccc" cc
cc cc"cc cc  cc +cc
1c "c>c" c
c 
"c" c
"" "c
c c,cc( c c4 +cc
.""
"cc"ccc 
"cc cc ,cc
"" "cc "c c "c$+1c c
c "c
c "c1$c4 +cc
Resistors connected in Series
<c
""
"c
c ccc"
"c
c c
"" c"c> c c
c, c
"" "c c 
+c
c* ) cc
""
"c.1c c.#c

c cc"
"c
c c
"" -c.-c"c,cAcc
c
"" ccseriesAcccR = R1 + R2cc
"c cc*c
c
c
""
"AcR = R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 +... c
Note that the combined resistance in series will always be greater than
any of the individual resistances.
c
c
c
c
c
c
Resistors connected in Parallel
<cc
""
"cc
c cc)
 c
c c
"" c"c ""c
 cc cc cccc, c
"" "+c
c"c c") c>  c
cc
 c
"" c ctwoc
""
"c.1c c.#Ac
cc
c
"" c c R1 × R2c
R =c
two resistors in parallelAcccc R1 + R2c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc15

cc
cc cc cc
""
"cc cc)
 c c
c c>  c
"cc"+c"c "c)ccreciprocalc? c ,
?!c c c
"" c c
,ccreciprocalc cc c
"" -c.Acc
1c 1c 1c 1c
= c +c +c + ...c
Rc R1c R2c R3c
cc") 
cc>  cc
cctwocc
""
"cccc)
 cc"cc "
c c"Ccc
/ c cccombined resistance in parallelc c  "cclessc c c
cc, c
"" "+c

Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators


c
"" c c cc cc)"cc cc"cshapec cccmaterialc
c
c c c c "c  +c 
c c ,c  
 -c "c c c " 
c 
""&" cc

cc 
c c c ,c c
 
c
"" +cc
4 
 "c cc,c c
c
)"Acc
ëc Conductorsc c  ,c low resistance+cc
* ) "Ac c  "c c c c -c c  ))
-c c " ,
c c +c !c c c c c 
 +cc
4 "c
c "c  c  (c  c 
"-c "c   "c c )c
 "+cc.""
"cc
c c
c
 c
c c  "c cc
+cc
ëc Semiconductorsc c  ,c moderate resistance+cc
* ) "Ac 
 -c "  +cc
 
"c
c "c  c  (c  "-c "-c 
""
"c c

c
"c)"!+cc
c16
ëc Insulatorscc ,chigh resistance+cc
* ) "Acc "cc) ""cc"cc "ccc) cc c 9 c) , c

!-c) )
-c ""+cc
9 c"c"c "c c 
c ,
c
c
"c c)
,cc (c
  +cc

Power Ratings of Resistors


 
 c
c"c ,
c c cc


c "c
c c
""
+c8" cc
c"c  -cccc
"" c"c
c
cc,  c 
""cc
""
c!c
c
c
c

c c) ""c (cc



""
c c   c
+cc

""
c"cc  c c" cc
 cc c
""
"c ,c) 
c

"c c" c"+cc

c
"c c
""
"c
c

 c> c c
c)
"c ""c "c
c "c
"cc :c) 
c
""
"c
" 
c) 
c
"c c$+#6<c
c$+6<c 6<c )-c#6<c  !cc

c"  +c
cc

c ""c
c c   
)"cGc. )c 
"c

c) 
c"c
>
cc"  cc 
c
")ccc)
"c "-c"c cc
"c"clow value resistorsc ""c
 c  c3$$ !c
chigh voltagesc
c c169!+cc
c) 
-c -c, )cc c
""
c"c,cAcc
P = I² × Rc 
Ac cDc) 
c, )ccc
""
cc "c<!cc

cc ccDc

c
cc
""
cc )"c!cc
P = V² / Rc .cDc
"" c cc
""
cc "c !cc
9cDc,  c 
""cc
""
cc, "c9!c
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc17

CAPACITOR
cccapacitorcc"cc cc 
 E 
cc,c c cc"
c
ccc
 
cc ccc c) 
c c 
"c  c?) "?!+ccc)
""c c
"
c
cccc ) 
c"c( c "c?
?-c cc, ,"c 
c

"c c> c -cc )) "c)
-c c)c c c) +c
) 
"c
c c "c c  
c c  
c 
"c "c 
&"
c
,"+cc c " cc"c  cc 
 c c&
>c c
&
>c" "+c"cc)
)
cc ("cc" cc 
c 
"+c
) 
"c
c  "  c


c c "ccondensers+c

Capacitance
cc ) 
@"cc )  ca!c"c c "
c cc  c c
c !c
"
cc cc cc) cc
c c,c)  c
c
c   pc !cc
))
"ccc) "Ac

C = Q/V
<
cAc
cDc )  cc
"!c
HcDc 
cc  " !c
9cDc9  cc, "9!c
ccSI "-ccc cc ) 
ccc "cc cc )  cc cc ccfarad cc c
coulombcc cc
cc"cc"
cc c cvoltc )) c)  c
c

""cccccc) "+cc cccc
ccc"cc ccc,
ccc
cc-ccc, "ccc c
 ) 
"cc
cc" c*)
""cc

"cI!-c  
"c!-c
c
) 
"c)!+c
c
c
c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc18
ccapacitancec"c)
)
  c cc"
 c
 c cc c) c
cc,
" cc)
)
  cc cccc" ccccc) "+cc"c " c
)
)
  c cccc)
,cc cccc 
c cc"-cc & !c
"" c c")
"cc) "+c
c )  c c c)
 &) c ) 
c"c,cAc
2
ccccccC § ȯA/d ; A>> d

cJc"cc)
,c cc 
c"c 
c " !-cc"cc

 c cc) "c cc"cc") cc+c
cc 
-cc
 c  "c
 c c )) "c 
c c c
)
 c  "cc c
 cccc) "-c c)
""c c 
c
)
B  +c

cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c
<c
c"c c
cc 
c
ccc) "-c c 
c
 cc"cc
 ccccc
 ccc) "c c"c)
)
  c cc
 c c
c cc "cccc ,cc
cc c) c cc 
+c"c
 
c c
 "c cc)  c
ccc cDc
ccc) "c c
"cc") c)
 &) c ) 
+c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc19

Stored energy
"cc )) "c
"cc  cc ccc) "c c c ) 
cc ccc
")
 c c
-c cc,  cc, )"c 
""cc ) 
cc ccc
 
c c c"c
"+c,
&
 "c
(c"cc c  "cc
"ccc,
&
 "ccc 
ccc cc "cc
cc
cc"cc")
+ccc

cc "
cc  "-cc !cc"
cccc cc ) 
cc"cc> c cc
 c c
(c
>
c c"  "cc,  c 
""cc ) 
-c c


cc 
c +cc
c"
c"c,cAc
EStored =1/2CV2 = 1/2 VQ
cccccccccccccccccccc
c c"cc,  c 
""cc ) 
+c
c
cc *cc
c c cc"  !c"
cc c)

c ) 
ccccccc
"cc cccccc *cc 
c c cc 
c c" c

ccccc
 ("cc +ccc

-ccc ) 
"ccc ccccccc" c
 
c ,c  cc" c *c
c"c  "c c
ccc
)
cc
!-ccc 
c, c  "cc  c, +c
Capacitors in Series and Parallel
c )  c !c c 1c 1c 1c 1c
= c +c +c + ...c
 ) 
"c ccseriesAccc Cc C1c C2c C3c
c )  c !c c
C = C1 + C2 + C3 + ...c
 ) 
"c ccparallelAccc
c
 cc
cc
cc ) 
"cc
cc

 c 
 c cc"
"cc
 c

"-ccc cc" c c c ) 
"cc)
 c c  c c,
c

c )  -c
c* ) c c" c c) 
c")) +cc
c
c
20

cccccccccccccccccccc c
Figure shows the Capacitors in Series and Parallel
c

c
c c)"c c ) 
ccc cc") c c c
)"-c
polarisedc cunpolarised+c c
)c "c"c c
c" +cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
Polarised capacitors (large values, 1µF +)
c

* ) "Accc cccc 
c" Accc cc

Electrolytic Capacitors
 
cc ) 
"cc
c)
"c cthey must be connected the
correct way round-cc cc  "cc cc c
c  "c cc
(cKc
c&+cccc
c
c c  cc cc" 
+cc
c
21

c
cc cc""c c 
c ) 
"Fcaxialc
cc  "c
c
 c c cc##$Icc)
!c cradialc
c c  "cc
c c
c" cc1$Icc)
!+c.  c ) 
"ccc cc c  c" 
c
cc" c)
c cc
c
+cc
c"c "c ccc, c c 
c ) 
"c "cc
c 
c
)
ccc
c )  c c,  c
+cc,  c
c cc
>c c29c
c* ) !c cc"  c  "cc(cc" cc
c 
cc ) 
+cccc)
c)
"c "c "c c")c c,  -c
 "c cc ) 
cccc c
cc"c
 
c cc)
@"c) 
c
")) c,  +c#69c"c c"" cc
c "c 
c
"+cc

Unpolarised capacitors (small values, up to 1µF)

* ) "Accc cccc 
c" Accc cc
c
 cc, cc ) 
"c
c)
"c c cc c
c c

+ccc
cc cc  cccc cccc" 
-cc*)c
c c
" c)c) "
!+cc ,cc,  c
"c c c  "c6$9-c
" cc#6$9cc
cc" +cccc cccc cc ccccc, "c c"c" c
 ) 
"cc "cc
cc
cc cc)"cc cc c",
c
c
 c"""Ccc
4 cc" cc, cc ) 
"ccccc ,cc
cc, cc)
cccc cc c
 ) 
-cc" cc cccc c"c*)
c c
(c c cc
 ) 
c"  cCcc

c* ) c0.1c "c$+1IcDc1$$+cc
"cc ) 
c"c"cc) c cc c) Acc

c* ) Accc4n7c "c0+%+cc

cccccccccccc22

Capacitor Number Code


c
c c"c c"c c" c ) 
"c
c)
c"c Acc
ëc c1"c
c"cc1"c-cc
ëc c#c
c"cc#c-cc
ëc c3
c
c"cc
c cB
"c c,cc )  cc)+cc
ëc 
c c 
"c&cc"c c 
c c,  c
+cc

c* ) Accc102 c "c1$$$)cDc1ccc  cc

c* ) Accc472Jc "c0%$$)cDc0+%cLc "c6Mc 
!+cc

Capacitor Color Code


c
c c "c"c c) "
c ) 
"c
c c
"+cc"c c
" -cc c 
"c
c
c c" c
+cc
"c"  cc
 c
(cc
""
c -cc )c
c
c "c,cc, cc)+c
c
c0c c 
!c c6c c,  c
!+cc

c* ) Acccbrown, black, orangeccc "c1$$$$)cDc1$cDc$+$1I+cc
/ c c
c
c c )"ccc
c "-c" c#c c "c
 c ))
c "c cc +cc

c* ) Acwide red, yellowcccc Colour Codec
 "c##$cDc$+##I+cc 
c /
c
  (c $c
 
c 1c


 .c #c


7
c 3c

 = c 0c
 
c 6c

  c 2c
 9 c %c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc23 
c 'c
<c ;c

Uses of Capacitors
) 
"c
c"c
c",
c)
) ""Acc
ëc Timingc&c
c* ) cc c666c
c c 
cc

c c"
+cc
ëc Smoothingc&c
c* ) cc c) 
c")) +cc
ëc Couplingc&c
c* ) cccc" "cc cc c  c""c
c c c c ") (
+cc
ëc Filteringc&c
c* ) ccc c 
c c c  c""+cc
ëc Tuningc&c
c* ) cc c
 c""+cc
ëc Storing energyc&c
c* ) cc c 
c "c
+cc
ëc Power conditioningc
ëc  c)
""c
ëc 
c 
c

 c
c
c
c
c
c









24

c
c
c
c
c

cccc c
c
Ö

c
c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc47ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
c
c
cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc

c
 
 


 
 
  
 

 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
     



  
 
 
   
 
 
   
   m 
 

  
   
   
   

   
   

 



c
Ö Ö

 
  



49

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

c
c
c
c
50

c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc48c
ccccccccccccccc
VOLTAGE REGULATOR
cc) 
cccc")) cccc)
,"ccc cc " cc )ccc,  c


"),cc c,
  "cccccc)cc,  cc
cc cc

c"cc
 c c
 c) 
c")) c"c c "c,  c
 
+
c c c c,  c
 
c"c c)
,c c"  cc,  c

c) 
c 
c 
c
"+cc,  c
 
c"  cc
 )  c c)
,c""  c )c

+c
"cccc"
-cc ccc,  ccc
  ccc"cc ccc 
 cccc
 
cccc
"c c    c  c c " c,  c , +c

ccccccccccccccccccc
c
c
 cc,  c
 
"c 
cc ,c) ",c
,  c
 
"c c ,c )c,  c
 
"+c
c%'NNcc"
"cc"cc cc"
"c c) ",c,  c
 
"c c
%;NNc"cc"
"c c ,c,  c
 
"+c
78XX Series IC :
%'NNc"
"c
cc
cc
 c) ",c,  c
 
"+:
c
NNc "cc )c,  +cc 
c)
cc )c,  c
"c
 c6c, "+
25

c
c

c
26

c69c,  c
 
c%'$6!c"c"c c"
c c c
c c
69cc"cc ,
cc cccc cc
cc

 ""cc cc,  cc
)
"cc ccccL1#cc 
c)
,c c,  c"c ""c c
1#9 !+ccc
 
cc "cccc"cc c c c )cc
)cc,  cc cc69 c

 ""c cc)c,  c&c*""c
,  c"c ,
c c cc cc"") cc
ccc c ccccc
cc
 
+ccccc cc cc")) cc cc
 
ccc ccc1#9ccc"c"-c
*"",ccc ccc ccccc
-ccc ccccc
ccc cc
  +cccc cc cc")) cc cc ""cc c69c"c"-c"c
,  c cc)
"c cc
 
"c )+cc
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c cc) 
cc")) cc)
,"c c,  c
c c%c
c'c, "-cc

 
c"c"") c" c +cc??c cc
 
c
 cc"c c)

"c)
c cc c c cc
)
!c )"cc cc"") cc*""c c
c +ccc
c

>
"cc
cc

"ccc cc"c c)


)
c,"c
c


ccc
 
cc
"!-ccccccc
 
cc ccccc c
"") cc
c +cc"c "-cc
 
c cc"
c c
cc
c
cc "ccc c"
c cc"c !+c
cc"
ccc
 
c c cc
c
-c*""c c
 cc) ""c cc
c cc
 c  +c

27
CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR
c
c
" c " 
c"c c 
c
c c""ccc  c

"  cc cc c,


c
" c c)B  
c 
 cc c
 cc
c 
 cc" cccc c,
c)
"c
>+c"cc
>cccc
"c   c"c c()c
(c cc "cc>
Bc
" "!-c
 c)
,c c"  c (c" c
c cc
c
"-c c c
"  Bc
>"c
c
 c
""E
,
"+c
cc
" cc"cc cc" ccccc "c  "-c  "-c
c
 "c
c) (cc c

c

-c
) c) 
c*c
c c
c")  c" "+c
  "c c c c c c "c 
 c  ccc"c (c c

" -cc ))
)
 c
"
"-c"c c "c ,c 
c

"  c
>"c c,
 +c
c
"  c
>cc)"c c"B-c" )-c "-c cc
")c c" cccc 
 +c<c c
" c c>
Bc"c)
)
c
cc cc -ccc cccc cc cc"
cc c 
c cc
)) cc cc,  cc cc cc 
cc
cc
cc cccc
" +c"c
)
)
c"c( c "c)B  
+cc
<cc c"c
 ,-cc>
Bc c
c c 
c c
"cc

"c c"c)
, "c" )-c c"c c
c c,  +c
cc
" cc"c c c>
Bc
" c ,"c (c c
c ) "ccc
cc cc
-cc ) 
cc cc
""
-cccc cc)
"c
"  c

>+c

28

c
APPLICATIONS :
8"cc "
c,"c"c "c
" "-c ("-c
 "-c
 )
"-c c ) "+cH
Bc
" "c
c " c c"c
"c c "
c>)-c"c "c 
"-c" c


"-c c " " )"+c
c

cccc 

Figure shows the symbol of Crystal Oscillator

29

Serial Communication via RS232 Port


Introduction to RS-232:c
. #3#c"cc "c( c"
 c)
c"cc
"ccc  cc
   cc cc
 +cc,cc c"
 c)
c"cc

c c
)

cc cccc)
 c)
-c"c"cc "c,cc cc
ccc  cc
""" cc
>
"cc ""cc
"cc c "c cc
""cc "+cccc. #3#c"ccccc   cc cccc  "cc
cc  cc
""" cccc  cc"cc
ccc
cc ("+ccc
c
("c)
,"c 
"O-c
,Oc c  c
+cc
c 
"Oc c
,Oc c c"c 
c"c c
,c
  c c c  )
"+c "c c  c  "-c c   c "c

"c"
 +cc c)"c
cNcc.N+c
c
c 
c
"c c"c)
c "c. -c  -c .-c.-c c. -c.+cc 1Oc c
$Oc
cc  cc"c c,  c , c c39c c#69c c&39c c
&#69c
"), +c
cc  
 c 

""c c c "
 c )
c "c )
c c c
 
"c "
c ""   !c . #3# c  
c ")"c c
 *c  c
c c #$-$$$)"-c c "c " c  )
c  c
  O"c " 
c ")+c 
c "c
 " -c c  ,c  "c c c
. &#3#c  
-cc "c
 c
  "+c
ccccccccccccccccccccc
cc. &#3#ccc "ccc*"ccccccc cc)"+cc++-cc&= cc#6cc)c
 
cc c&= c;c)c 
-cc
c c 
"c
cccc (cc cccc +cc<cccc cc ccc 
ccc c 
c
   c
c: "c c"c )
+cc
c
c

RS-232 Waveforms:-
. &#3#cc   cc"cc "
 "+c c"c c (c" c"c
 c"ccc  +c c
c"c"
Bc"c@"c"
c-
30
c
c
c cc cc
 cc (cc cc cc"-cc()"c "c cc+c
c
c
c
c
c
cccc
cccccccccccccFigure: Serial Logic Waveform
c
cc 
cc  ,cc" "ccccc*)cc ,
ccc
ccc
8.ccc"cc  c'/1c
 +c'/1c""c'cc  c
"-c/ c
c c1c  )c+cc. &#3#c -cc c"ccc
4
(c  c c1!+ccc
""" cc"
"ccc c"
cccc
c"cc c$!+cccc cccc"cc"c cc -c c c c+cccc
c cc "c  c!c"c"c
"+cc  )cc c311!c"c
c ))c cc" c c (c)cc
""" +c
c
cc 
cc" "cccc*cccc 
cc  )cc cc c$+ccc
"cc"cc c  
c
c"c -c c"c"c@"c 
c+ccc
c
c"c cc
c  c ccc
,c c c" cc"c
 cc" cc c1!+ccc<cc ,cc 
cc" cc cc c
?
 (?c  +c"c"ccc  c c"c cc c c$c" c

cc cccc cc cc c"c c
c
+c

cc c
 @c)cc c (c cc cc cc" -ccccc
,cc
 c
)
c"c "c c
 (c" +cc
c
c  c"c"c"c -c"c" c ccp+c c"cc
  c"cpc c 
cc c  )c+c   cc  )cccc
c
,c "c c c$-cccc c
c


c c 
+c"c"c
  -cc c""c
c  c c
c")"+

31
c  ,cc 
cc"c  c
 , c
cc" c  cc ccc
cc8.+cc. &#3#cc cc , "c""cK3c cK#6c, "c c"cc c
? ) ?cc c$!cc c&3c c&#6c, "cc
c c?4
(?c c1!+cccc
,  cccccc"c
 "c++ccK3c c&3cc9 "!cccccc
"c+c

c"c" c"c)c
c c?. &#3#cc, c
,

?+c"cc"cc" c)
"c cc. &#3#c
c cc 
c
 )
-c" c +c
c
c
c
Figure: RS-232 Logic Waveform
c
c  ,c ,
c )) "c cc
"c c.,c "c c
cc. &#3#cc)
+cc"cc "cc

c"
 c  -ccc c

 cc
+cc
cc
cc 
cc "cc ccc. &#3#c)
c-cc
""cc
ccÊ p  "+cc"cc "cc. -c  -c -c .-c
.-c. c c.!c
c " c c. &#3#c c, "+c
RS-232 Level Converters:-

  "ccc cc c,"ccccccc"cc
>
cc
cc
ccc
47 c c , "+c

cc
"c")c c c c,cc
 cccc. &#3#cc)
cc"c c
"
cc. &#3#c , "c (c c$ccc
c6c9 "+cc
c
c cc  cc. &#3#cc, cc ,

"cc
ccc10''c. &#3#cc

,
c cc10';c. &#3#c.,
+c ccc) ( c  "c0c
,

"cc ccc c)-c
c
,
"c
c.,
"+cc
,
c

>
"cc cc")) cc
 "-ccK%+6c cK16,c c&%+6c c&16,+c"c c
  cc c"c c) "c c)
 cc c" "c
c
 cc cc" c")) c cK69c"c)
"+c: ,
cc ,  "ccccc
c"c+ @"c
cc
c )+

32
c
c

cccc
c
c
c
c

c  "c
cc4N&#3#-cccccccccccccccccccc
c) c4N&#3#c
c
. &#3#c
,
E.,
+c
c
c
c
c
 
c,c"cc4N&#3#+cc "c c 
c )-cc

"ccK1$9cc c&1$9cc
cc c" c6,c")) +c"c+ +c " c
 "cc cc
,
"c c c
"
"ccc" c) ( +c
"cc"cc cccccc cc ""ccccc  cc cc cc"ccc

"cc c.,c  c"+c<c @cc c"c c)"-c
cc
cccc
,c c c c
cc
"+c: ,
c c"c
 ,cc "cc cc cc)
-cccc )
ccccc)
c c
"c cc) 
c")) cc"c,
c )+

33
The advantages of using serial data transfer rather than
parallel:-

1+c 
 c  "c cc 
c c
 c  "+cc"
 cc)
c

""cc c@1@c "c&3c c&#6c, "cc c c@$@c "cK3c cK#6c, "cc
cc
"c c)
 c)
c
""c c@$@c "c$,c c c@1@c "c6,+c

cc
"
 cc)
cc cc ,cc cc *cc"cc c6$9c )
c cc
)
 cc)
cccc "cc cc *cc"cc cc6c9 "+

cc
  c ""c"c c c cc "cc c c)
 c
c"
 c  "c
 cc
c
c)
 +c
c
#+c
c"c cc c "c c
"c "cc)
 c
""" +cc
,ccc"ccc cccc ccc ccc
cc" cc  cc
ccccc
 )
cc3c
c  c/ c4 c 
 !c"c c c
cc cc cc )
cc cc
c1;c
c#6c
c  +c: ,
c c
"c (c c  cc "c cc
 c c c+c
c
c
c
3+c
cc.cc,"cc ,cc)
,cc>cc) )
c
 +c4 c
 
cccc
"ccc ccc)  )cccc )
"cccc ,cc
ccc
cc
 )  "c cc+c 
 cc
""" cc"c"c
c cc"cc
"c c c+cc
c
0+c4
 

@"c ,c " c)
,c cc>cc) )
c
 +c
4 c c"c ,cc c c 
 c   "c
 "!c
ccc cccccc"cccc ccc (cc ccccccc "ccc
+cc 
 c
  cc
"cc)c c c"c4 8@"+c7 cc cc
)"c
c   c"-c
"c  cN!c c.,c  c
.N!cc )
cccc cc  "cc'cc)"ccc"c'cc
 c
 +cc

34
cmicrocontrollerc " cMCUc
cµC!c"c c )
& & &)+cc"c c
)c c 
)
""
c ) "Bc c 
 -c c ) 
c
 ") -c" &"c c "&,""-cc 
"c c c

&)
) "c
)
""
cc(c"cc c !+cc  c
 c c " c
c c c  "c c c 
c )
) "c

)
""
-c c 
 

c ) c 
"c   c
 "c "c "c
 &
c 
c 
c   c "
-c
 &  c

-c "c "c  "c 
c  c "
-c  .74c 
c )
 c
  c "
-c )
)
c ,"-c c )E )c 
 "+c c
 (c ")"c c "c  c "c c c 4:Bc
c ,c 
-c

 

"c c )
c c ,
c c ")c  )
c  c
 
c  c 
)
""
"-c c "c "c > c 
c ) c
))   "+c c  "c
 , c  c ) 
c   "!-c c
 c
c ,cc  c c" )c c c
c c
"c
)
)
c,c"c "c c c)
""c c (cc)c  c c c
" +c 
c  ") c  c " )c  c c "c
   "-c (cc c
c c) 
c c c "c 
c
))   "+c
4
 

"c
c 
> c "c c    c  
c
)
"c c ,"-c "c "c    c c  
c """-c

 c 
"-c c "-c ))  "-c) 
c "-c c "+c
c
c c "B-c  "-c c ) 
c  ") c  )
c  c c
"c "c c")
c
)
""
-c
-c c )E )c
,"-c
 

"c (cc   c c 
 c 
c
 c
c)
"""+c
c

cccccccccc

c
c
c
c
c
HEX INVERTER
c %0: 10c c %0: 10c
c &")c & c 47 c ,"c
c
c)c )  cc c) 
c  (cc
cc%0: 10ccc cc%0: 10cc)
,ccc"*cc,
cc
"ccc
&

cc  +ccc
cc )  cc cc
"
cc"  c
 cc)cc" "cc cc"
) cc-ccc
c&c
ccc )c
" "+cc
c
Features
c
1!c))   "Ac
åc< ,c c) "c" )
"c
åc"  c ,

"c
åc4  "  c ,

"+c
#!c ) "ccL c" 
c +c%c
3!c c)
 Ac
!c:4cEL ##&110&c*"c#$$$c9cc
!c44cEL ##&116&c*"c#$$c9+c
0!c )c
c&0$c cK'6Pc c c&0$c cK1#6c P+cc

ccccccccccccccccccccccccc c

c







SWITCH
c
cswitchc"c c  c,c"c c c c" c c

+
ccc") "cc "-c cc"c "cc cc)"cc cc ccc c
 c cc c c (cc c
-cc cc")
cc c
 (cc

+cc
c   c c  
 c "c  "c 
c "c
"" c  c 

" -c
 "c "c "c
c" c *"c c  c)
,cc
"c
c
(+cc
 c  
 "c
c " c  "c c c  ""c c  
 c
 ,-c 
""c 
"" c  c 
",c 
!-c   c
"
-c c "c c c *+c

cccccccccccccccccccccc c
c
c

c
REFERENCES

1!c+  + EE


" 
"E)
&
 "E $#26+)c
cccc#!c+*)+ c
cccc3!c+() + E(E"c
c0!c+() + E && c
cccc6!c+ "+ c
cccc2!c+  + E  E 
 E $32'+)c
%!cc+() +
E(E

c
cccc'!c+()"+
(+ E ) "E
"" c
cccccE )  c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

cccccc c
c

ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc c

45
C Programming for Transmitter:


ccc1cEQ+++++++++++++++++++++++QEc
c
ccc#cR cS';N61+:TcccccccccccEQc") c c
"
c
 "cccQEc
cccc
ccc3cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccEQc
ccc'$61c
, ,cccccccccQEc
cccc
ccc0cccccccccc
cccc
ccc6cR cS" +TcccccccccccccEQc)
 )c
 "c
cE7c "cQEc
cccc
ccc2cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccEQc" 
cE7c+& cccccccccccccccccQEc
cccc
ccc%ccR cS)+TccccccccccccccccccccEQc

c "ccccccccccccccccccQEc
cccc
ccc'cR cS"
+Tcc
cccc
ccc;cRc47/7.61cccccccccccccccccccccccccEQccc4 
&61c"cccQEc
ccccccc
cccccc
c c
"
,cU3VcW Wc$*#3FcccccccccEQc") c
c"
 c

)ccccccQEc
ccccccc
ccccccRcc
ccc
cc1#c, c c, !Fc
ccc
ccccccccccccc
ccc
cc13c"cccc"W1cD 1X%Fc
c
cc10c"cccc"W#cD 1X2Fc
c
cc16c"cccc"W3cD 1X6Fc
c
cc12c"cccc"W0cD 1X0Fc
cccc
ccc1%c
ccc1'c
ccc1;
46cc
cc#$
cc#1c
cc##c
cc#3c
cc#0c, cc4/, !c
c
cc#6cccccccccccccYc
c
cc#2ccc1c"c
c*Fc
c
cc#%ccc1c"W1cD1Fc
c
cc#'ccc1c"W#cD1Fc
c
cc#;ccc1c"W3cD1Fc
c
cc3$ccc1c"W0cD1Fc
c
cc31ccc1ccccccc
c
cc3#ccc1c
ccccccc
cc33ccc1cc
cccccc
cc30ccc1ccccccc
c
cc36ccc1cRc47/7.61c
c
cc32ccc1c 7/ccDc$*6$FccccccccccccEQc 7/Ac c1-c'&c8.-c  c
,
ccccccQEc
c
cc3%ccc1c47cDc$*#$FcccccccccccccccEQc47Ac
c1-c c#-c'&c
 ccccccccQEc
c
cc3'ccc1c:1cccDc$*0FccccccccccccccccEQc:1Acc
 c, c
c#0$$ccQEc
c
cc3;ccc1c.1cccDc1FccccccccccccccccccEQc.1Acc
c1c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccQEc
c
cc0$ccc1cccccDc1FccccccccccccccccccEQcAccc"cc c"c
"c
c c8.ccccQEc
c
cc01ccc1cR
c
cc 47
cc
cc0#ccc1c 1!c
c
cc03ccc1ccccccYc
c
cc00ccc#cc"W1DD$!c
c
cc06ccc#ccccccccccccccc
c
)
?666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666
666666?!Fc
c
cc02ccc#c "cc"W#DD$!c
c
cc0%ccc#cccccccccccccccc
)
?222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222222
2222?!Fc
c
cc0'ccc#ccccccccccccccc
cc0;ccc#ccccccccccccccc
cc6$ccc#c "cc"W3DD$!c
c
cc61ccc#cccccccccccccc
)
?%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%?!Fc
c
cc6#ccc#c "cc"W0DD$!c
c
cc63ccc#ccccccccccccccc
)
?'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''?!Fc
c
cc60ccc#cccccccccccccccZc
cc66ccc1cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
cc62ccc1ccccccc
cc6%ccc1ccccccc
cc6'ccc1ccccccc
cc6;ccc1ccccccc
cc2$ccc1cccccccccZc
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccc48
C Programming for Receiver:


ccc1cR cS';N61+:TcccccccccccccEQc") c c
"
c
 "cccQEc
c
ccc#cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccEQc
ccc'$61c
, ,cccccccccQEc
c
ccc3ccccccccccc
ccc0cR cS" +TccccccccccccccccEQc)
 )c
 "c
cE7c "cQEc
c
ccc6cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccEQc" 
cE7c+& cccccccccccccccccQEc
c
ccc2cR cS)+TccccccccccccccccccccEQc

c "ccccccccccccccccccQEc
c
ccc%cR cS"
+Tcc
c
ccc'c, c
*W, c!Fc
c
ccc;c"cccc cD #X$Fc
c
cc1$c"cccc
cD #X%Fc
c
cc11ccccccccccc
cc1#ccccccccccc
cc13c"c
c
W  -Fc
c
cc10c, c c, !ccc
c
cc16ccccccccccYccc
c
cc12ccc1ccEQc c)

cQEc
c
cc1%ccc1ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccEQcc )
 cQEc
c
cc1'ccc1c 7/ccDc$*6$FccccccccccccEQc 7/Ac c1-c'&c8.-c  c
,
ccccccQEc
c
cc1;ccc1c47cDc$*#$FccccccccccccEQc47Ac
c1-c c#-c'&c
 ccccccccQEc
c
cc#$ccc1c:1cccDc$*0Fc
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc49
cc#1ccc1c.1cccDc1Fcc
cc##ccc1ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc
cc#3ccc1ccccccccccc
cc#0ccc1c cD1Fc
c
cc#6ccc1c
cD1Fc
cc#2ccc1ccccccc
cc#%ccc1ccccccc
cc#'ccc1c c1!ccYcccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccEQc
) c
,
cQEc
c
cc#;ccc#cc
*W!Fcc
cc3$ccc#cccccccccc
cc31ccc#ccccccZc
cc3#ccc1ccccccccccccccc
cc33ccc1ccccccc
cc30ccc1cccccccc
cc36ccc1ccccccZc
cc32ccccccccccc
cc3%ccccccccccc
cc3'ccc, c
*W, c!c
cc3;ccccccccccYc
cc0$ccc1ccccccc
cc01ccc1c"c
ccFc
c
cc0#ccc1c .DD$!Fc
cc03ccc1ccccccc
cc00ccc1ccccccc
cc06ccc1cD 8Fc
cc02ccc1ccccccc
cc0%ccc1ccccccc
cc0'ccc1ccccccccccccccc
cc0;ccc1ccccccccccccccc
cc6$ccc1c.D$Fc
cc61ccc1cccccccc
cc6#ccc1ccccccc
cc63ccc1c"!c
c
cc60ccc1ccccccYc
c
c
ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccc50
cc
cc66ccc#cccccc "c@6@Acc
c
cc62ccc#cccccc
cD$Fc
cc6%ccc#ccccccc
cc6'ccc#cccccc
 (Fc
c
cc6;ccc#cccccc "c@2@Acc
cc2$ccc#ccccccc
cc21ccc#cccccc
D1Fc
c
cc2#ccc#cccccc
 (Fc
cc23ccc#ccccccc
cc20ccc#ccccccc
cc26ccc#ccccccc
cc22ccc#ccccccc
cc2%ccc#cccccc "c@%@Acc
cc2'ccc#ccccccc
cc2;ccc#cccccc D$Fc
c
cc%$ccc#cccccc
 (Fc
c
cc%1ccc#cccccc "c@'@Ac
cc
cc%#ccc#cccccc cD1Fc
cc%3ccc#ccccccc
cc%0ccc#cccccc
 (Fc
c
cc%6ccc#ccccccZc
cc%2ccc1ccccccZc
cc%%ccccccccccc
c


51

CONCLUSION
c  "c c *)",c
 c  
c 
c  c ))  "c
c
"
c c c c "c c )
c c
)
+c c "c  "c c 

+ c
"cc
cc cc cc ccc cc ))  "cc"cc "c )-c -ccccc

 -c +c c  c c (c cc c ))  "c c c


c -c c c
 c c 
c
)c ) 
-c c  c "c 
c " c +c c 
c  c c
, c 
c c ) c 1$c 
"+c "c c ""c c  "c c "c c cc

") c """ -c c c ,


"c c  " c c "cc
""@"c 
c c c  ) "c )
c  "c c ,
c "
c
"

+c
c c 
c c   c c ) ) c c 
c  c "c c c -c " c c "cccccccc
c ,
c *)",c c  "c "
c  c "c c c ,
 "c
 c c ))  "c c  c c c c  ,+c " c "c  c c
,
c "c,c "cc"c" ,c 
c c 
c O"c+c
c
c
c
c

60

FUTURE PROSPECT
c
 c 
c
c c ))  "cc"c cc) c

c c ,c
c
)-c,
c )c c
c ""c)
c c
c


"+c
:
cc c " c 
cc c ))  "cc )c c)
"  c
 )
-c  c) c
c c c) "+c
c
c