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129-140

Dr.Khalid.M.Mousa

Chemical engineering Department

Nahrain University

Abstract

2

Experimental investigation was conducted to

study the dynamics of double-pipe heat exchanger

using step change in flow rate of hot water and

[Burn ,1981] used lead / lag approximation in

observe its effect on the temperature of cold water

modeling a double pipe heat exchanger system.

and it was found that the transfer function can be

The analysis involved extraction of successive

represented by first order system plus dead time

real poles and zeros of the system transfer

(FOPDT).

functions for temperature or flow forcing. [

Shinsky,1967] formulated a model describing

dimensionless temperature as function of flow

rates.[Stephanopouls,1967] shown that the heat

exchanger can be represented by a partial

MATLAB 7.4 simulation and programming was

differential equation i. e distributed parameter

used to show the response of close-loop system

system.[Timothy,2004] studied a double pipe

using P, PI, PID and fuzzy logic control.

helical heat exchanger numerically and

The Smith predictor was used to remove the

experimentally for both heat transfer and

effect of transport delay on the process and it was

hydrodynamic characteristics. Simulation were

found that this method greatly improve the

performed using various flow rates, his study

response of the system. The stability of the overall

involved the determination of uniformity of the

closed loop system was proved by using Bod plot

residence time and temperature distribution as

diagram.

well as the heating-cooling uniformity.[Sudhir et

Introduction al.,2006] used neural network for controlling

temperature of double pipe heat exchanger .The

Simple double pipe heat exchanger consist of results indicated that the feedback control system

concentric pipes. It is commonly used in is suitable when the process detail are known

applications involving relatively low flow rates completely. whereas neural network control is

and high temperature or pressure, for which they useful for the process with nonlinear and less

are well suited. other advantage include low knowledge about the process.[ Anton et al.,2009]

installation cost, ease of maintenance, and indicated that some parameters ,for example fluid

flexibility [Robert ,2007 ] density and heat capacity are not constant in

[Gerard ,1974] formulated a model for a counter operating temperature rang and this introduced

flow heat exchanger, which has taken into anon-negligible nonlinearities in heat exchangers

account variation of the heat transfer coefficient modeling.

with respect to fluid flow rates and temperature. The aim of this work is to find the transfer

The approach used in this study to solve four function of the double pipe heat exchanger

nonlinear partial differential equations by experimentally and then using a MATLAB

linearization method . Experimental investigation simulink to study the closed loop system via

using various test such as step function and sine applying both conventional and advanced control

wave was conducted. The results showed that the methods.

transfer function with variation of temperature in

both stream could be approximated by the

following forms:

Process Identification

Experimental identification of process

dynamics has been an active area of search for

many years by workers in several area of

1 engineering.

A time domain fitting of step test data is the most

direct way to obtaining an empirical linear

dynamics model of process in order to find the

parameter (dead time, time constant and process

gain) that fit the experimentally obtained step phase angle is 180. At this frequency look at the

response data. The process is being identified is magnitude plot to determine the gain margin

usually open loop, but experimental testing of which is the gain required to raise the magnitude

close loop system is also possible. A step curve to 0 db. A positive gain margin mean that

disturbance in hot water flow rate was introduced the system is stable, and negative gain margin

and record the temperature of could water . mean that the system is unstable. [Luyben, 1997]

probably 80% of open loop process can be The phase margin is found by using the

modeled by gain, a dead time, and one lag. magnitude curve to find the frequency when the

gain is 0 db. On the phase curve at that frequency,

the phase margin is the difference between the

phase value and 180.

3

Mathematical model of a heat

exchanger

The steady state process gain (k) is equal to the

ratio of the final steady state change in the output For double pipe heat exchanger, a liquid flows

over the size of input, while the time constant through the inner tube and it is being heated by

estimated from the response by using several another liquid that flows counter currently around

methods such as time takes (63.2) percent of the the tube. The temperature of the inner liquid not

final steady state change and initial slop methods only changes with time but also changes along the

[Luyben,1997]. Bode plots is used to examine the axial direction z, the energy balance equation is:-

stability of the system and evaluate the gain and

phase margin. The gain margin is found by using

the phase plot to find the frequency, where the

t go to zero yields

+ 7

= DQ 5

It is very robust and can be used when we do not

know the plant model very accurately. The design

Where Q=U( -T), substitute in Eq. (5) , yields: process involves finding values of Kc, i and D

such that the design specifications are satisfied.

The PID gain search process is sometimes

6 referred to as tuning. For certain plant type, The

= DU( -T) Ziegler-Nicolas method provides a structure

tuning procedure, however not all plants are

amenable to that type of tuning. One method

Where relies on interactive computer simulation and

Q=amount of heat transferred from hot fluid to analysis. Initial nominal gain values are choose ,

other per unit of time and unit of heat transfer and then tune the controller parameters by

area. simulating the response and verifying that the

A=cross-sectional area of the inner tube. performance is acceptable. If the performance is

V=average velocity of the inner liquid . not acceptable, update the gains and iterate the

D=external diameter of the inner tube process. Naturally MATLAB is very helpful in

U=overall heat transfer coefficient. this process. [Bishop,1977]

Smith predictor

PID controller A Smith predictor was used to design a

The PID controller is widely used in industry. controller to remove the effect of transport delay .

The transfer function is expressed as follows:- The first step to design the controller Gc(s) is to

design a suitable controller cs (s) when the

system has no dead time. J.M. Smith designed an

innovative controller scheme, to control the plant

with dead time. The Smith predictor consist of

Gc(s), dead time e-DS, and the plant transfer 9

function G(s).

Figure (1) shows the Smith predictor as a minor

loop in the block diagram. The transfer function

between v(s) and E(s) is

10

8

modified to that of figure (2). The close-loop

Then the close-loop transfer function C(s)/R(s)

response of the system with dead time (e-DS) is the

can be given by

same as the response of the system without dead

time (e-DS), [Ogata]

R + + V G(s) e-DS C

c

- -

-e-DS G(s)

+

c G(s) e-DS

R - C

3.10 Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) Fuzzy mathematics is attractive not only

because it is based on the very intuitive idea of

Fuzzy logic is a super set of traditional logic, Fuzzy sets, but because it is capable of generating

according to [Zadeh,1989], who invented this many structures that provide today's scientists and

concept in 1965. He said it is the logic of engineers with new insights into interesting,

approximate reasoning and it is unlike other significant and often-debated problems in both

branches of artificial intelligence (AI) that use science and engineering. [ Zadeh L.A , 1989]

conventional logic. Since then, the theory of The theory of Fuzzy sets has one of its aims,

mathematics has gained more recognition from the development of a methodology for the

many researches in a wide range of scientific formulation and solution of problems that are too

fields. complex or too ill-defined to be analyzed by

conventional techniques.

NUCEJ Vol.13 No.2 Mousa 131

Hence the theory of Fuzzy sets is likely to be configuration single pass. The specification of

recognized as a natural development in the double pipe are 37 mm outer diameter, 12 mm

evaluation of scientific thinking inner diameter and 1 m length was used.

[McCusker,1990]. Hot and cold water were employed as circulating

The Fuzzy logic can be considered as a tool of fluid. steady state values of cold and hot water

promise for control. It can AL's sector, which flow rates are 300 and 600 l/min respectively.

ensures to enhance tomorrow's industrial control After reach the desired temperature of hot water

system [ Zadeh ,1989]. tank (341K), and steady-state of cold water

stream temperature (103K),a step change in hot

Experimental work:- water flow rate was introduced and record the

outlet temperature of exit cold water each two

The process involved a pilot plant of double pipe second until a steady stat was reached and noting

heat exchanger consisted mainly of two the apparent dead time.

concentric pipes assembled in counter-current

Temp.

Glass wool (insulation) recorder

Temp. flow meter

record water

er tank

valve

flow meter

pum Heating

coil

Cold

water

tank

Valv

pum

Results and Discussion is clearly that the system can be represented by

first order system plus dead time (FOPDT)

- System identification

The actual response of the outlet could water

temperature using step change in hot water flow

rate is shown in figure 4. A process reaction curve

was used to find the process parameters. From the

NUCEJ Vol.13, No.2 Control of Double-Pipe 132

A theoretical value of the sped of response

( = m Cp /h A ) is 25s. The deviation

Gp(s)= 11 between the theoretical and experimental

value is due to a neglected the variation of

heat transfer coefficient with respect to fluid

flow rates and temperature. The transport

Where: delay involved the heat exchanger and all the

K is a process gain = 0.6 k/(kg/s) accessories between the valve of hot water

is the time constant =20 s and temperature recorder.

D is the transport delay = 4 s

1.2

0.8

Temp. ( K )

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Time (sec )

Figure 4. Temperature response for step change in hot water flow rate

If the system is first order, then the output (Ziegler-Nicolas) ,and attest for closed loop

response curve has anon-zero slope at the initial control system and fine-tuning was conducted

time. The response of the system with a relative using a MATLAB simulik . Figures (5,6,7,8 and

order greater than one has zero slope at initial 9) show the block diagram of P, PI , PID, fuzzy

time. [wayne Bequette ,1998] logic control and Smith predictor, while figures

(10,11,12,13 and 14) show the response of these

Closed loop block diagram respectively. The results indicate

For simplicity we assume that the transfer that the smith predictor is greatly improved the

function of close-loop system involved only the response or controlled variable. A PI and PID

transfer function of process and controller due to removed the offset but the settling time response

small time constant of valve and transmitter is large compared with that in using smith

compared with process and controller. predictor which only ten second. From figures (11

A servo problem was considered using and 12) one can see that the time required for

MATLAB simulink via unit step change in set response curve to reach and stay within rang

point of controlled variable which is the outlet about the final value of specified by absolute

percentage of the final value usually 2% or 5% ( a

temperature of cold water stream .The initial settling time) equal 50 second when using PI

tuning constants(proportional gain (Kc), time controller and 40 second when using PID

integral ( I) and time derivative ( D ))for P, PI and controller while only 5 second in using Smith

PID controller were found using empirical model predictor .The controlled variable in P ,PI ,and

NUCEJ Vol.13 No.2 Mousa 133

PID control methods overshoots its set point approximation via Bode diagram. Figure (15)

while dos not in using Smith predictor and fuzzy indicate that the system is stable because gain and

logic control phase margin are positive.

A stability of open loop and closed loop using

smith predictor was stated using first order pade

.6

7.5

20 s+1

Step Gain Transfer Fcn Transport Scope

Delay

12 .5s+1 .6

-K -

12 .5s 20 s+1

Step Gain Transfer Fcn 1 Transfer Fcn Transport Scope

Delay

14 s2 +9.3s+1 .6

-K - s2 +7.5s 20 s+1

Gain Transfer Fcn 1 Transfer Fcn Transport

Step Scope

Delay

.6

95 20 s+1

Transfer Fcn Transport Scope

Step Gain

Delay

1.4

1.2

0.8

Temp. (K)

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time (sec)

1.5

1

temp. (K)

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

time (sec)

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

Temp. (K)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

time (sec)

1.5

1

Temp. (K)

0.5

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Time (sec)

Temp.(K)

Bode Diagram

10

-5

M agnitude (dB)

-10

-15

-20

-25

-30

-35

-40

360

270

Phas e (deg)

180

90

-2 -1 0 1 2

10 10 Frequency10(rad/sec) 10 10

Figure 15. Bode diagram for open loop system without time delay

Bode Diagram

-10

Magnitude (dB)

-20

-30

-40

360

Phase (deg)

270

180

90

-2 -1 0 1 2

10 10 Frequency10(rad/sec) 10 10

Figure 16. Bode diagram for close loop system using smith predictor

Conclusion : 3. Coughanowr and Koppel Process

systems and control , Mc Grow-hill,

There are a few points which must be New York,p 94, 1981.

emphasized: 4. Georg Stephanopoulos, chemical process

control An introduction to theory and

1) The system Can be represented by FOPDT practice, prentic-hall, p 69-70, 1984.

with process gain (Kp=0.6) and time constant of

20s 5. Gerard, G.J. dynamic system,

2) Smith predictor greatly improved the response measurement and control ASME, 9

of closed-loop, a settling time only 5 second in (1974).

using Smith predictor

3) The open and closed-loop systems are stable 6. Katrsuhiko Ogata, modern control

due to positive gain margin engineering, prentic-hall, P 411-413 ,

4) Fuzzy logic controller is recommended due to 2002.

low cost ,easy to implement and it does not

required an accurate mathematical model. 7. Larsen P.M., Industrial application of

Abbreviatin Fuzzy Logic Control, academic press,

inc., may, 1979.

p proportional control 8. Mamdine E.H, Application of Fuzzy

PI proportional integral control Logic to Approximate Reasoning using

PID proportional integral derivative Languistic Synthesis, IEEE Trans. On

Notation Computers, December 1977.

9. McCusker T., Neural network and Fuzzy

A Surface area of heat transfer, (m2) logic, Tools of Promise Control, Control

Eng. Magazine, 84-85, May 1990.

C Control variable (temperature), (k) 10. Michael L. Lyben and William L. lyben,

Essentials of process control, Mc Grow-

Cp Heat capacity of water, kjkg-1.k-1 hill, Inc New York, p 548-549,1997.

11. Norman S. N control system

D Transport delay, (s) engineering, johan wiley and sons. Inc

2000.

G Transfer function, (k.s.kg-1)

12. Robert H. Bishop modern control

Gc Transfer function of controller system analysis and design using

MATLAB and simulink. 1977 .

h Heat transfer coefficient (KJ.m-2.s-1) 13. Robert w .Serth ,Process heat transfer

principles and applications ,Elsevier

Kp Process gain, (k.s.kg-1) science and technology book,2007

Kc Controller gain 14. Shinsky process control system, Mc

Grow-hill, New York,p236-238, 1967.

R Input variable 15. Sudhir ,etl , Automation of heat

exchanger using neural network,

m mass of water in heat exchanger, (kg) PWASET ,15, 2006

Time constant, (s) 16. Tiomthy J. Rennie Ph.D a thesis,

University McGill 2004.

i Integral time of controller

17. Wayne Bequette Process dynamics

d derivative time of controller modeling, Analysis ,and Simulation,

prentic-hall RTR ,p 219, 1998.

Referances

18. Zadeh L.A., Fuzzy relation Equations

th and Applications to Knowledge

1. Anton Sodja1 et al., proceeding 7

Modelica conference , Como, Engineering, Kluwer Academic

Italy,Sep.20-22,2009 Publishers, Holland, 1989

2. Burne, A. Journal of dynamics system

ASME, 3 (1981).

MATLAB

Smith predictor

This document was created with Win2PDF available at http://www.daneprairie.com.

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