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# Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 1/8

## SUBJECT OF THE EXERCISE:

• determining of the local pressure loss factors ζ in the turbulent flow through three
different obstacles: I – sudden cross-section expansion, II – orifice and III – sudden
cross-section contraction and compare the results with the data given in this instruction
(see page 6),
• determining of values of the local pressure loss factor ζ for the valve at the test rig and
determine the function ζ=f(Re).

INTRODUCTION
In many cases the pressure losses due to local resistances are observed in the flow of
a viscous fluid. These resistances take place when rapid changes of the fluid velocity vector
(value or/and direction) occur. The local losses can be calculated from the equations:
v2
either for the pressure drop: p Ll = ζρ [N/m2] (7.1)
2
v2
or for the hydraulic head: h Ll = ζ [m] (7.2)
2g

## where: ζ - local loss factor

ρ - fluid density [kg/m3]
v – average fluid velocity [m/s]
g = 9.81 m/s2
Following considerations concern an incompressible fluid. If the field of the pipe cross-
sections in front of and behind the obstacle are the same A1 = A2, velocities of the flow are
also the same (v1 = v2). In other cases (it means A1 ≠ A2), velocities of the fluid are different
(v1 ≠ v2) and the velocity upstream the obstacle v1 is usually used in equations (7.1) and (7.2).
Only in the case of a sudden pipe cross-section contraction, the velocity downstream the
obstacle v2 is applied, because in the extreme cases the velocity v1 approaches zero (e.g. in the
case when the fluid flows out to the container). ATTENTION: The loss factor ζ is never
determined for the average velocity defined as (v1 + v 2 ) 2 .
The information, which velocity (in front of or behind the obstacle) has to be used for the
ζ coefficient determination in the exercise, is given in the instruction.
The local loss factor is a function of the Reynolds number and the geometry of obstacles.
In the laminar flow range, the value of this factor decreases with the growth of the Reynolds
number. In the turbulent range, this dependence is much more complex and due to its small
variation we can assume that this factor does not depend on Re. Data, which are presented in
different publications or manuals, usually concern the turbulent flow.
The local loss factor values for different obstacles are determined in the experimental way.
There are a few cases, which can be solved theoretically. One of them is a sudden cross-
section expansion, where the factor can be derived and presented as follows:

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Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 2/8

2
  d 2 
ζ = 1 −  1   (7.3)
  d 2  

The results obtained on the basis of this equation agree with experimental ones. The
coefficient ζ given by eq. (7.3) refers to the velocity v1; it means the velocity in the smaller-
diameter cross-section of the duct.

## DESCRIPTION OF THE TEST RIG

The diagram of the test rig is shown in Fig. 7-1. The rig is composed of two installations
for:
• loss factor determination for the flow through three obstacles: (Fig. 7-1a),
• loss factor determination for a valve (Fig. 7-1b).
Tap water supplies the first part of the test rig. Water flows through a control valve (10) to
a test pipe (11). In this pipe there are three obstacles: I – sudden cross-section expansion, II –
orifice, III – sudden cross-section contraction. The pipe is made of transparent material.
A rotameter (12) is used for the measurement of the water flow rate and a column manometer
(13) - for the pressure loss determination for all three obstacles. In this case the piezometer is
used, because the same liquid flows through the channel and is used as the manometer liquid.
The level of water in each manometer tube determines the static pressure in the considered
test pipe cross-section. Collector connects the column manometer tubes, and one of the
manometer tubes (not connected with the test pipe) is closed by a stopper (14).

Fig. 7-1a. Diagram of the test rig – installation for the loss factor determination for three different obstacles
10 – control valve, 11 – test pipe, 12 – rotameter, 13 – manometer, 14 - stopper

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Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 3/8

The second installation of the test rig is mainly used in exercise 6. But a test valve (5),
which belongs to this installation, is used in exercise 7 for the determination of the local
pressure loss. Because a flow through coil (6) is not considered in this case, valves (2) and (3)
have to be closed.

Fig. 7-1b. Diagram of the test rig – installation for the loss factor determination for the test valve
1, 2, 3, 4 – valves, 5 – test valve, 6 – coil (for exercise 6), 7 - mercury manometer, 8 – rotameter,
9 – thermometer

## WAY OF MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATIONS

During the determination of the local loss factor for obstacles I, II and III (Fig. 7-1a), set
the control valve (10) in the position in which the water flows through the test pipe (11) are
turbulent. We can obtain this condition for the flow rate greater than 425 l/h. The calibration
graph V & = f (h ) available at the rig can be used for this estimation.
Read the manometer rises zI, zII and zIII for obstacles I, II and III. The manometer rise for
each of them is the difference between the water column heights z1 and z2, where index 1
refers to the cross-section in front of the obstacle and index 2 means behind the obstacle.
Write the results in the table: “results of measurements”.
Obstacle I – a sudden cross-section expansion (Fig. 7-2). In this case, the Bernoulli’s
equation has the form:
v2 v2
ρ 1 + p1 = ρ 2 + p 2 + p Ll (7.4)
2 2
The difference of static pressures can be determined on the basis of the manometer
indication:
p1 − p 2 = ρg(z1 − z 2 ) = −ρgz I

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Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 4/8

## As we can see, this difference is negative, so p 2 > p1 .

The velocity v2 (behind the obstacle) follows from the continuity equation:
2
d
v 2 =   v1
D
After some transformations, we obtain the following formula from equation (7.4) and
(7.1):
4
 d  2g
ζI = 1−   − 2 zI (7.5)
 D  v1

## where: ζI - refers to the velocity upstream the obstacle v1

d = 20 mm
D = 50 mm
zI – manometer rise [m]
v1 – water velocity before the obstacle I [m/s]
4V&
v1 = (7.6)
πd 2
& – water flow rate [m3/s]
V

## Fig. 7-2. Obstacle I – pressure mesurement

Obstacle II – an orifice (Fig 7.3). The Bernoulli’s equation has the following form:
p1 = p 2 + p Ll (7.7)

because the diameter D in cross-sections 1 and 2 are the same and the velocities are also
the same v1 = v 2 = v .
Introducing the pressure difference on the basis of the manometer measurement:
p1 − p 2 = ρg (z1 − z 2 ) = ρgz II

and taking into account equation (7.1), we obtain (from equation (7.7)) the following
formula:
2gz
ζ II = 2 II (7.8)
v

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Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 5/8

## where: zII – manometer rise [m]

v – water velocity [m/s] in the cross-section with diameter D:
4V&
v=
πD 2

## Fig. 7-4. Obstacle III – pressure measurement

In this case, the Bernoulli’s equation has the same form as equation (7.4), namely:
v12 v2
ρ + p1 = ρ 2 + p 2 + p Ll (7.10)
2 2
Introducing the pressure difference:
p1 − p 2 = ρg(z1 − z 2 ) = ρgz III
and the relation:
2
d
v1 =   v 2
D

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Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 6/8

## into equation (7.10), we obtain the following formula:

4
2gz d
ζ III = 2 III +   − 1 (7.11)
v2 D

## where: ζIII - refers to the velocity downstream the obstacle v2

zIII – manometer rise [m]
v2 – averaged water velocity behind the obstacle, from equation (7.6) [m/s]
Write the results in the table “results of the calculations”
Compare the obtained values of the factors ζI, ζII, ζIII with the reference data, taken from
the literature and presented below:
• value of the factor ζI from equation (7.3):
2
  20  2 
ζ I = 1 −    ≈ 0,71
  50  
2 2
d   25 
• value of the factor ζII (for m =  0  =   = 0,25 ) equals ζ II ≈ 28 .
 D  50 
2 2
 d  20 
• value of the factor ζIII (for   =   = 0,16 ) equals ζ III = 0,44 .
 D  50 

During the determination of the local loss factor ζ for the valve (5) (Fig. 7-1b), close
valves (2) and (3). Make the measurements for one position of the valve (5), but for 5
different flow rates. Read the rotameter indication hr and the z1 and z2 liquid levels in the
manometer for every flow rate. Manometer (7) is filled with mercury Hg. Measure the water
temperature and write the results in the table “results of measurements”
ATTENTION: The calibration graph V & = f (h ) is available at the test rig.
r

Pressure loss for the valve can be calculated from equation (7.7)
The pressure difference is as follows:
p1 − p 2 = (ρ Hg − ρ)gz v

where: zv = z1 – z2
Taking into consideration equation (7.1), we can obtain the following formula:

2gz v  ρ Hg 
ζv =  − 1 (7.12)
v 2  ρ 
where: zv – manometer rise [m]
ρHg = 13600 kg/m3
ρ = 1000 kg/m3
v – averaged water velocity [m/s]
The averaged water velocity equals:
4V&
v= (7.13)
πd 2

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Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 7/8

## where: d ≈ 25mm = 0.025m

The Reynolds number:
vd
Re = (7.14)
ν
The kinematic viscosity ν can be read from the graph ν = f (t ) , which is available at the
stand.
Write the results in the table “results of the calculations”.
Make the chart ζ = f (Re ) on the basis of Fig. 7-5.

## Table “results of the measurements”

Obstacle I Obstacle II Obstacle III
hr &
V z1 z2 z I = z 1 − z 2 z1 z2 z II = z 1 − z 2 z1 z2 z III = z 1 − z 2
grad. l/h mm H2O

Valve
Lp. z1 z2 z v = z1 − z 2 hr &
V t
mm Hg gradations l/h °C

## Table “results of the calculations”

Obstacle I Obstacle II Obstacle III
&
V v1 ζI v ζII v2 ζIII
3
m /s m/s - m/s - m/s -
- eq. (7.6) eq. (7.5) eq. (7.9) eq. (7.8) eq. (7.6) eq. (7.11)

Valve
Lp. &
V v ζv ν Re
m3/s m/s - m2/s -
- eq. (7.13) eq. (7.12) - eq. (7.14)

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Exercise 7: PRESSURE LOSS DUE TO LOCAL RESISTANCES 8/8

Re
Fig. 7-5. Chart ζ = f(Re) for the valve.

## COMMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS

What is the difference between the manometer-piezometer, which is used in this exercise
and the original piezometer, and why the unknown air pressure in the collector is omitted?
What is the explanation of the same height of the manometer liquid z1 and z2 (i.e.
manometer rise equals zero) during the measurements at obstacle I?
Compare the following heights of the manometer liquid: z2 for obstacle I and z1 for
obstacle II and also z2 for obstacle II and z1 for obstacle III.
Write the reasons of difference between the determined values of factors ζI, ζII, ζIII and the
values from the references.
Write other comments and observations.