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branch of biology that studies genes and inheritance

● Gregor Mendel - discovered genetics (pea

● mendel’s principle of genetics
○ each organism must inherit a single copy of every
gene from each of its parents
○ when the organism produces its own gametes, these
two sets of genes must be separated so that each
gamete contains just one set of genes
● 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
○ 44 asomatic
○ 2 determine gender : XX = ♀ | XY = ♂
○ 23 from mom, 23 from dad
● 1 gene is made out of 2 alleles
● meiosis - division of reproductive cells
● more genetic material is received from mother
○ mitochondria is received from mom because the
mitochondria on the sperm cell doesn’t enter the egg
● types of alleles:
○ dominant (B,C,I,R)
○ recessive (b,c,i,r)
● zygote - fusion of 2 reproductive cells
○ heterozygote (Bb)
○ recessive homozygote (bb)
○ dominant homozygote (BB)
● genotype - a combination of alleles present in a living
organism for a specific trait (genetic makeup)
● phenotype - expressed traits of a certain organism
(physical characteristics)
● locus - exact place of a gene in a chromosome
● types of inheritance:
○ monohybrid - follows 1 trait
○ dihybrid - follows 2+ traits together
● types of relationships between alleles:
○ dominant-recessive (BB, bb, Bb)
■ a recessive trait is expressed only if the
dominant ver. isn’t present
○ intermediate
■ the average between 2 alleles is expressed
○ codominance
■ both traits expressed
● probability - likelihood that a certain trait will be
● Punnet Square
● genes - chemical factors that determine traits
● independent assortment - genes that segregate
independently do not influence each other’s inheritance
● many genes have multiple alleles
● polygenic traits - controlled by 2+ genes
● homologous chromosomes - each set from mom
matches a set from dad
● diploid cell - contains both sets of chromosomes
● haploid cell - contains only a single set of
○ eg. gametes of sexually reproducing organisms
● meiosis - process of reduction division in which the
number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the
separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
any change in genetic material

● types of mutations:
○ gene mutations
■ point mutations
■ frameshift mutations
○ chromosomal mutations

● produce changes in a single gene

● changes in 1 or a few nucleotides
● occur at a single point in the DNA sequence
● substitutions, insertions, deletions

● if a nucleotide is added or deleted, groupings of bases
shift for every codon that follows
● shift the “reading frame” of the genetic message
● may change every amino acids that follows the point
of the mutation

● changes in the number or structure of chromosomes
● may change the location of genes on chromosomes,
or even change number of copies of some genes
● deletions, duplications,inversions,translocations
● deletions - loss of all or part of a chromosome
● duplications - produce extra copies of parts of a
● inversions - reverse the direction of parts of
● translocations - part of one chromosome breaks off
and attaches to another

● coded dna instructions that control the production of
proteins within the cell
● contains coded information for making proteins
● disposable copy of a segment of DNA
● differences from DNA:
○ ribose
○ uracil instead of thymine
○ single-stranded
● types:
○ messenger RNA - carries copies of instruction for
assembling amino acids into proteins
○ transfer RNA - transfers each amino acids to the
ribosome during protein synthesis
○ ribosomal RNA - makes up ribosomes
● made by joining amino acids into long chains -
● phases:
1. transcription
2. translation
3. elongation
EUCHROMATIN - currently inactive genetic material
HETEROCHROMATIN - constantly active genetic material

- decoding of an mRNA message into a polypeptide
- takes place on ribosomes

1. mRNA is transcribed in the nucleus.

it enters the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome.
2. translation begins at AUG, the start codon.
as each codon of an mRNA molecule moves through the
ribosome, the proper amino acid is brought into the ribosome
by tRNA.
in addition to the amino acid, tRNA has 3 unpaired bases
which are complementary to one mRNA codon. this is the
3. ribosome forms peptide bonds between the a.a.
it breaks the bond that held tRNA to an a.a. and releases the
tRNA molecule.
4. the chain continues to grow until it reaches the stop
1. a.a. make chemical bonds between each other and
form a chain - the primary structure of protein.
2. the protein is not biologically functional yet. it goes
through the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi body to be
3. it is then pushed out of the cell with help of golgi body,
and it’s biologically functional.
- RNA molecules are produced by copying part of the
nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complementary sequence
in RNA

1. RNA polymerase binds to DNA and separates the DNA

2. it then uses one strand as a template from which
nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA.
3. the enzyme bind only to regions of DNA known as
4. sequences of nucleotides, introns are not involved in
coding for proteins. exons are involved.
introns are cut out, and exons are glued together.
protective caps are added to fronts and ends of mRNA.
- properties of proteins are determined by the order of
a.a. in polypeptides
- genetic code is the language of mRNA instructions
- it is read 3 letters at a time. each word of the coded
message is 3 bases long.
- codon - 3 consecutive nucleotides that specify a single
amino acid which is to be added to the polypeptide