Sie sind auf Seite 1von 34

Chemistry of the

elements
Elements and periodicity:
period 3
Melting and boiling properties
The melting and boiling points increase across the three
metals due to the increase in strength of their metallic
bonds. The nuclei of the atoms are more positively
charged, the sea of electrons is more negatively charged
and the sea is strongly attracted to the nuclei due to its
close distance.

Silicon has a high melting point due to its covalent


structure which is complex.

Since silicon and aluminum have different types of


bonding in their structures, a comparison between their
melting and boiling point cannot be drawn.
ELECTRICAL
CONDUCTIVITY
Is a measure of a material’s ability to conduct an electric
current. An electric may be defined as a flow of electric
charge and as such, an element can conduct electricity
provided that it contains electrons that are free to move.

Generally, metals are good conductors of electricity whilst


non-metals are poor conductors.

The trend in electrical conductivity across period 3


elements shows a dramatic increase between sodium and
aluminum followed by a drastic fall at silicon; the remaining
elements do not conduct electricity.
• Sodium, magnesium and aluminum are metals and hence
exhibit metallic bonding in which positive metal ions are
attached to delocalized electrons.

• In going from sodium to aluminum, the number of mobile


delocalized electrons increases. Therefore, there are
more charge carriers and so the electrical conductivity
increases.
• Silicon is metalloid and is a semiconductor. Within the
tetrahedral structure, the four electrons in each
silicon atom are held strongly in covalent bonds.

• However, there are a few delocalized electrons which


accounts for the poor conductivity of silicon.

• Unlike a true metal, the conductivity increase with an


increase in temperature.
• Phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine and argon are non-metals
and not conduct electricity because there are no free
delocalized electrons within their structures to convey
an electric current.

• In phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine the outer electrons


are not free to move and carry charge because they are
held strongly in covalent bonds.

• In argon, the outer electrons are not free to move and


carry charge because they are held strongly in a stable
third energy level.
ATOMIC RADII

• Assuming that an atom is circular in shape, the atomic radius may be


defined as the distance between the center of the nucleus and the
outermost electron (valence) shell.

• However, according to the quantum theory, there is no well-defined


valence shell since valence electrons do not reside in a specific orbit.

• Rather, an atom’s electrons are described as occupying a region of


space for example atomic orbitals. As a consequence, the size of an
atom is difficult to define and measure accurately.
VAN DER WAALS RADIUS

This is half the inter-nuclear distance between


non-bonded, similar atoms at their closest
approach.

This is most easily determined for non-metals and


is particularly useful for the noble gases as they
do not form chemical bonds.
COVALENT OR METALLIC
RADIUS
• This is half the shortest inter-nuclear distance between
similar atoms either joined by covalent bond or in a
metallic crystal lattice.

• Covalent radius may be measured for most elements,


since even metals in the vapor phase often exist as
diatomic molecules.

• Metallic radius is restricted to those elements which


form metallic lattices.
• Clearly, the type of bonding will influence the size of
the atom. Hence, the various atomic radii will have
different values for the same element.

• Generally, the covalent radius is the smallest and the


van der Waal radius is the largest.
Regardless of the measure of atomic radius that is chosen,
the general trend across period 3 remains the same.

The two primary factors that affect the atomic radius are
• The size of the charge on the nucleus; and

• The number of shells between the nucleus and the outermost


electrons (inner shells)

 As you go along period 3 from left to right, electrons are


going into the same main outer shell and therefore, the
number of inner shells remains the same. However, due to the
increase in protons in the nucleus, the nuclear charge
increases.
Ionisation energies
• Ionisation energy is defined as the minimum amount of
energy needed to remove 1 mole of an electron from an
isolated atom in it's gaseous state.

-Ionisation energy decrease across period 3. To


understand the decrease in ionization, three factors must
be considered:

1. Atomic radius
2. Shielding
3. Nuclear charge
Anomalies in the trend of ionisation energy (Across the
Period)
Magnesium vs Aluminium
Mg: 1s²2s²2p63s²
Al: 1s²2s²2p63s²3p¹

• A new subshell is introduced. This means that the 3p


atomic orbital of Al is slightly higher in energy than the 3s
orbital of Mg. (The higher the atomic orbital the lower the
ionisation energy)

Phosphorus vs Sulphur
P: 1s²2s²2p63s²3p³
S: 1s²2s²2p63s²3p⁴

• Both atoms are in the 3p orbital however in Sulphur, the


electrons begin to pair which creates more repulsion,
making it easier for it to remove the electron from it.
The Four Molecular
Elements

The four molecular elements are phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine and


argon. These four elements have a lower boiling and melting points
than those of the first four members of the period which have
complex structures.

The magnitudes of the melting and boiling points are e governed


entirely by the size of the molecules.
Phosphorus: has a tetrahedral arrangement (P4). Heating phosphorus in
order to melt disrupts the weaker van den Waals forces between the
molecules rather than breaking the covalent bonds.

Sulfur: has a (S8) ring of atoms. The molecules are bigger than the
phosphorus molecules resulting in stronger van den Waals attractions.

Chlorine: (Cl2)Is a smaller molecule in comparison to sulfur and


phosphorus. It has very weak van der Waals forces. This results in
chlorine having a lower melting point and also a boiling point.

Argon: This is monatomic. Van den Waal’s attractions between the argon
atoms are limited.
Density
The density of an element depends solely on the structure
of the element and the strength of the forces between the
atoms.

Since an atom is mostly empty space with a mass which is


the nucleus at its core, the relative densities of individual
atoms can be worked out by dividing the atomic mass of
the element by its volume.

Therefore, density can be defined as the mass divided by


𝑀𝑎𝑠𝑠
the volume of a substance: 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒
Reaction of the elements in period three with
oxygen, chlorine and water
Variation of oxidation number in oxides and
chlorides

• The oxidation number depends on the group than an


element bonds to the oxide or chloride is in.

• The highest oxidation number of oxides and chlorides


is equal to the number of valence electrons on the
atom.

• Please note that all the valence electrons can be or


are used in chemical bonding.
Acid-Base Character of Oxides &
Hydroxides

• From left to right on the periodic table, acid-base


character of oxides and hydroxides go from basic
to acidic. Increasing charge on an anion increases
the production of basic solutions.

• As electronegativity increase, production of ionic


cations increases because elements are more able
to adopt a cation.

• As ionization energy increases, the acidic nature


increases.
Metallic Oxides:
Ionic Bonding: no distribution of electron wave function
Ionic oxides are usually basic
(element act as a base when reacting with H2O)

Na2O(s) + H2O(l) --> 2NaOH(aq) --> 2Na+(aq) + 2OH-(aq)


Semimetal Oxides:

• Semimetal are amphoteric (elements acts as an acid


and/or base when reacting depending on pH of solution)
Al2O3 --> Al(OH)3 --(3H+)--> [Al(H2O)6]^(3+) (aq)—
(OH-)--> [Al(OH)4]-(aq)
Non-Metal Oxides:

Covalent Bonding: almost complete distribution of electron


wave function.

Covalent oxides are usually acidic (elements act as an acid


when reacts with
H2O)SO3 + H2O(l) -> H2SO4(aq) -> H+ + HSO4-

• Throughout period 3, the trend is from strongly basic


oxides on the left to an amphoteric oxide in the middle to
strong acids oxides on the right. This trend occurs as a
result of chemical character changes from metallic oxides
(basic) to non-metallic oxides (generally acidic).
Ionic Hydrides
Ionic Bonding: no distribution of electron wave function.

- Bronsted Basic because they will react with proton.

- Lewis Basic because they can be ligands.


CaH2 + 2H2O -> 2H2 + Ca(OH)2

-In this case, CaH2 is basic because it reacts with water (an acid in
this case) to form many hydrides by reducing a proton.
Covalent Hydrides:

- Covalent Bonding: almost complete distribution of


electron wave function
HF + H2O -> F- + H3O+ ....can also be written as
HF(aq) <--> H+(aq) + F-(aq)

- HF is a weak acid that is bronsted acid because it will


loose a proton. Therefore, HF is the weak acid, where the
water acts as silent water, and F- is the weak conjugate
base.
Physical and Chemical Properties of
Oxides in Period III

• The change in bonding type is because of the decreasing


difference in electronegativity between oxygen and the
element as period three is trans versed from left to
right.

• Group 1-3 have ionic bonds while 4-7 have simple


covalent bonds.

• Metallic elements react with water to form alkaline


while non-metals react with water to form acids. This in
tern determines the pH of the oxide.
Types of chemical bonding in
chlorides
Element Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon (Si) Phosphorus Sulfur (S)
(Na) (Mg) (Al) (P)

Formula of NaCl MgCl2 Al2Cl6 SiCl4 PCl5 SCl2


Chloride

Chemical Ionic ionic covalent covalent covalent covalent


Bonding