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# Introduction to Physics

Science 9

Introduction
Physics​ is the science that investigates the fundamental concepts of ​matter,
energy, space,​ and the relationships among them. It is the most basic of the
sciences, underpinning all other disciplines of science, medicine, and engineering. A
physicist​ is someone who ​specializes in physics.

Famous Physicists
1) Albert Einstein
- nuclear bombs
- theory of relativity (different opinions can all be correct)
- e = mc^2
- law of the photoelectric effect (a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum
theory)

2) James Watt
- steam engine (inspired by boiling kettles)
- the unit watt was named after him
- increased power, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness in engines

## 3) James Prescott Joules

- work lead to the law of conservation of energy
- developed the Law of Thermodynamics
- studied the nature of heat
- the unite joule was named after him
- discovered the relationship of heat and mechanical work

4) Edmond Halley
- work influenced the development of actuarial science
- computed the orbit of Halley’s Comet
- actuarial scientist
- drawn to planetary motion of Kepler

5) Georg Ohm
- electric current (resistance)
- the unit ohm is named after him

6) André-Marie Ampère
- showed that two parallel wires carrying electric currents attract/repel each
other
- electrodynamics
- the unit ampere was named after him

7) Allesandro Volta
- electrochemistry
- battery

## 8) Hans Christian Oersted

- unified energy
- magnetic field
- connection between electricity and magnetism
- ørsted law

9) Isaac Newton
- predicted that the earth is an oblate spheroid
- calculus
- laws of motion
- optics
- knight

## 10) Galileo Galilei

- discovered how free-fall works
- book called “two new sciences”

## Uniformly Accelerated Motion

Distance
- how far an object has traveled
- scalar quantity (only includes magnitude) i.e. (8 cm)
- magnitude is number + unit

Displacement
- how far an object is from its starting point
- vector quantity (includes magnitude and direction) i.e. (8 cm, to the right)

Speed
- how fast the object is moving, equivalent to distance over time
- scalar
Velocity
- rate at which the object changes its position, equivalent to displacement over
time
- vector

Uniformly accelerated motion ​is when the object is speeding up, slowing down, or
changing direction at a constant rate.

Acceleration
- change in velocity with respect to time
- measures how fast an object changes its velocity
- acceleration will always have square (^2)
- most common unit of measurement is m/s^2