Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

FIRE and EXPLOSION Hazards

S.D.Bharambe, IHSS, BARC


What is Fire ?

A rapid chemical
reaction

The self-sustaining
process of rapid
FUEL
oxidation of a fuel which
produces heat and light.
CHEMICAL
REACTION
Classification of Fire

Class A or Ordinary Combustibles

This includes fuels such


as wood,paper, plastic,
rubber, and cloth.
Classification of Fire

Class B or Flammable and


Combustible Liquids

This includes all hydrocarbon


and alcohol based liquids, oil and
that will support combustion.
Classification of Fire

Class C or Compressed
Gases

This includes all fires involving


Compressed gases
Classification of Fire
Class D
Fires involving Combustible
Metals

Examples of these types of


metals are: zirconium,
D
titanium, potassium, and
magnesium.
HAZARDOUS OPERATIONS
Explosion
rapid expansion of gases resulting in a rapid moving pressure
or shock wave.
• chemical reaction in which a substance combines with an
oxidizer and releases energy
• Mechanical Explosion – due to failure of vessel with high
pressure non reactive gas.
• Nuclear Chain Reaction
Dust Explosions
Dust Explosions - This explosion results from the rapid combustion of fine
solid particles. Many solid materials become very flammable when reduced to a
fine powder.

• Smaller the particles, the greater the potential for an explosion to occur.
• Primary areas in process industries inside process equipment such as
conveyors, dryers, mills, mixers, and storage silos.
• Many materials can explode it they come in contact with an ignition source,
when air dispersed in the right concentration.
• Combustible powders (metals) difficult to avoid danger of dust explosions in
processes where being handled.
National Fire Protection Association
Flammability classification
• Flammable IA – Flash point < 73°F, boiling point <
100 °F
• Flammable IB – Flash point < 73°F, boiling point >
100 °F
• Flammable IC – 73°F < Flash point < 100 °F
• Combustible II – 100 °F < Flash point < 140 °F
• Combustible IIIA – 140 °F < Flash point < 200 °F
• Combustible IIIB – Flash point > 200 °F
Classes of Flammable
and Combustible Liquids
200

IIIA
COMBUSTIBLE
140 (Flash Point >100 F)
Flashpoint (Fo)

II
100
IC
73 FLAMMABLE
(Flash Point < 100 F)
IA IB

100

Boiling Point (F)


Flammable Gases

• Gases are ignitable within their flammable range

• Gases are usually measured in percentage of their


explosive Limit
Flammable/Explosive Limits

Explosive limits involve the concentration level of


the given chemical in the air.
In popular jargon, a vapor/air mixture below the
flammable limit is too lean to burn or explode. A
mixture above the upper flammable limits is too
rich to burn.
Most flammable liquids are volatile, meaning they
evaporate quickly, and can reach a concentration in
air that could lead to an explosion.
Lower and Upper Explosive Levels
(LEL/UEL)
100% v/v gas 0%
v/v air

too rich

UEL 15% vol;


150,000 PPM
flammable
range
LEL 5% vol; 50,000
PPM
too lean
0% v/v gas 100%
v/v air
Explosion Control
• Segregation of the hazard (isolate with a barrier)
• Separation of the hazard (isolate with distance)
• Confining the Hazardous Operations
• Provision of Adequate ventilation
• Deflagration venting of a building, room, or area
• Explosion venting-Use of vents diaphragms
• Control of oxygen content by inerting
• Control of ignition sources
• Explosion protection systems
• Sprinkler systems
• Education and Training
Mixture Flash Points
– Flash Points of mixtures can be estimated only IF
one of the components is flammable. If more
than one is flammable then need to determine
experimentally.
– For mixtures:
• Determine the temperature at which the vapor
pressure of the flammable in the liquid is equal to the
pure component vapor pressure at its flash point.
Causes of Fire
Smoking related Chemical Reactions

Electricals Combustible Liquid

Static Electricity Unattended Equipment

Open Flames Spontaneous Ignition

Hot Objects/Surfaces Lightening


FIRE DETECTION

• PATORLLING

• AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION AND ALARM SYSTEM

• SPRINKER SYSTEMS- WATER BASED, GAS SYSTEM


Conventional Fire Detection
Systems
Zone 1
4.7K
EOLR
Zone 2
FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE FIRE

FACP SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT SILENT KNIGHT

NAC 1 4.7K
EOLR

Multiple devices are combined into a


single zone. Zones can contain 30 or
more devices.
THE FIRE PYRAMID

FUEL

CHEMICAL
REACTION
PRINCIPLE OF EXTINGUISHMENT
Cooling -To reduce the temperature of fuel below its
ignition temperature

Smothering-To prevent oxygen entry into burning


material

Starvation-Removal of unburnt fuel, Blocking the heat


radiation to the fuel.

Chain Inhibition-Inhibiting the formation of free


radical compounds contributing to the spread of fire.
Portable Fire Extinguishers

Soda Acid/CO2 Cooling Class A fires


Water Extinguisher .
Foam type Smothering and Class B fires
cooling
CO2 Type Smothering Class B fires,
Electrical Equip.
Dry Chemical Smothering and Class B & C
cooling fires
Sand Buckets Smothering Class A fires
Dry Powders Smothering Class D fires
Halogenetaed Inhibition of Chain Class A, B and C
Extinguishers reaction fires
OTHER FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES

• Fire Hydrant System

• Evacuation - Standing Fire Orders

• Fire Loss Control Programme-Housekeeping,


Minimising Fire loads