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1st TRIUMVIRATE The Triumvirate proceeded to make

further arrangements for it. The senate


History awarded Caesar, as a snub to his dealings
in the Triumvirate, "the woods and paths
Crassus and Pompey had been colleagues of Italy" as his proconsul territory. Caesar
in the consulship in 70 BC, when they had passed, through a tribune, his own ruling
legislated the full restoration of the on the matter, and became proconsul of
tribunate of the people (the dictator Lucius both Gauls (Gallia Cisalpina and Gallia
Cornelius Sulla had stripped the office of Transalpina) and of Illyricum, with
all its powers except the ius auxiliandi, the command of four legions, for five years;
right to rescue a plebeian from the Caesar's new father-in-law, Lucius
clutches of a patrician magistrate). Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, was made
However, since that time, the two men consul for 58 BC, and Pompey and Crassus
had entertained considerable antipathy for shared a second consulate in 55 BC.
one another, each believing the other to Pompey and Crassus then extended
have gone out of his way to increase his Caesar's proconsular government in the
own reputation at his colleague's expense. Gauls for another five years and secured
for themselves as proconsuls the
government of both Hispanias (Hispania
Caesar contrived to reconcile the two Citerior and Hispania Ulterior) and of
men, and then combined their clout with Syria, respectively, for five-year terms.
his own to have himself elected consul in
59 BC; he and Crassus were already amici
(modern consensus as to the beginning of The alliance had allowed the Triumvirs to
the friendship to be as early as 65 where a dominate Roman politics completely, but it
young Caesar supported Crassus' proposal would not last indefinitely due to the
to make Egypt tributary to Rome), and he ambitions, egos, and jealousies of the
solidified his alliance with Pompey by three; Caesar and Crassus were implicitly
giving him his own daughter, Julia, in hand-in-glove, but Pompey disliked
marriage. The alliance combined Caesar's Crassus and grew increasingly envious of
enormous popularity and legal reputation Caesar's spectacular successes in the
with Crassus' fantastic wealth and Gallic War, whereby he annexed the whole
influence within the plutocratic Equestrian of the Three Gauls to Rome.
order (ordo equester) and Pompey's
equally spectacular wealth and military Death of Crassus and Pompey
reputation.
Julia's death during childbirth and
The Triumvirate was kept secret until the Crassus's ignominious defeat and death at
Senate obstructed Caesar's proposed Carrhae at the hands of the Parthians in
agrarian law establishing colonies of 53 BC effectively undermined the alliance.
Roman citizens and distributing portions of Pompey remained in Rome – he governed
the public lands (ager publicus). He his Spanish provinces through lieutenants
promptly brought the law before the – and remained in virtual control of the
Council of the People in a speech which city throughout that time. He gradually
found him flanked by Crassus and drifted further and further from his
Pompey, thus revealing the alliance. alliance with Caesar, eventually marrying
Caesar's agrarian law was carried through, the daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus
and the Triumviri then proceeded to allow Pius Cornelianus Scipio Nasica, one of the
the demagogue Publius Clodius Pulcher's boni ("Good Men"), an archconservative
election as tribune of the people, faction of the Senate steadfastly opposed
successfully ridding themselves both of to Caesar. Pompey was elected consul
Marcus Tullius Cicero and Cato the without colleague in 52 BC, and took part
Younger, both adamant opponents of the in the politicking which led to Caesar's
Triumviri. crossing of the Rubicon in 49 BC, starting
the Civil War. Pompey was made
commander-in-chief of the war by the
Senate, and was defeated by his former members of the Triumvirate saw no
ally Caesar at Pharsalus. Pompey's contradiction between holding a
subsequent murder in Egypt in an inept supraconsular office and the consulate
political intrigue left Caesar sole master of itself simultaneously (Lepidus was consul
the Roman world. in 42 BC, Antony in 34 BC, and Octavian in
33 BC).

Octavian, who, despite his youth had


2nd TRIUMVIRATE extorted his way to having been named
suffect consul (consul suffectus) for 43 BC,
The Second Triumvirate is the name had been warring with Antony and Lepidus
historians give to the official political in upper Italia when they met near
alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus Bononia (now Bologna[2]) in October that
(later known as Augustus), Marcus year and agreed to unite and seize power.
[3]
Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony, In order to refill the treasury, the
formed on 26 November 43 BC with the Triumvirs decided to resort to proscription.
[4]
enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of As all three had been partisans of
which marked the end of the Roman Caesar, their choices of targets were
Republic. The Triumvirate existed for two somewhat peculiar. The most notable
five-year terms, covering the period 43 BC victim, Marcus Tullius Cicero, who had
– 33 BC. opposed Caesar and excoriated Antony in
his Philippics, came as no surprise; nor did
the proscription of Marcus Favonius, a
Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate, the follower of Cato and a constant opponent
Second Triumvirate was an official, legally of both triumvirates;[5] but the proscription
established institution, whose of Caesar's legate Quintus Tullius Cicero
overwhelming power in the Roman state (Marcus Tullius Cicero's younger brother)
was given full legal sanction and whose seems to be motivated by pure spite.
imperium maius outranked that of all Perhaps the most shocking proscription
other magistrates, including the consuls. was that of Caesar's legate Lucius Iulius
Caesar, Caesar's first cousin once
History removed (and Antony's uncle) and one of
Caesar's closest friends.
The Triumvirate was legally established in
43 BC as the Triumviri Rei Publicae Octavian's colleague in the consulate that
Constituendae Consulari Potestate year, his cousin and nephew of Caesar,
("Triumvirs for Confirming the Republic Quintus Pedius, died before the
with Consular Power", invariably proscriptions got underway. Octavian
abbreviated as "III VIR RPC"). It possessed himself resigned shortly after, allowing the
supreme political authority. The only other appointment of a second pair of suffect
office which had ever been qualified "for consuls (the original consuls for the year,
confirming the Republic" was the Caesar's legate Aulus Hirtius and Gaius
dictatorship of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. The Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, had died
only limit on the powers of the Triumvirate fighting on the Senate's side of the first
was the five-year term set by law. civil war to follow Caesar's death, that
between the Senate and Mark Antony
A historical oddity of the Triumvirate is himself). This became a broad pattern of
that it was, in effect, a three-man the Triumvirate's two terms; during the
directorate with dictatorial powers which ten years of the Triumvirate (43 BC – 33
included Antony, who as consul in 44 BC BC), there were 42 consuls in office, rather
had obtained a lex Antonia which had than the expected 20.
abolished the dictatorship and expunged it
from the Republic's constitutions. As had The Caesarean background of the
been the case with both Sulla and Julius Triumvirs made it no surprise that
Caesar during their dictatorships, the immediately after the conclusion of the
first civil war of the post-Caesar period, Triumvirate, but allowed him to retain his
they immediately set about prosecuting a Pontificate.
second: Caesar's murderers Marcus Junius
Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus had War between Octavian and Antony
usurped control of most of the Eastern
provinces, including Macedonia, Asia Despite having married Octavia,
Minor, and Syria. In 42 BC, Octavian and Octavian's sister, in 40 BC (Octavian had
Antony set out to war, defeating Brutus married Antony's stepdaughter Clodia
and Cassius in two battles fought at Pulchra three years earlier), Antony openly
Philippi. lived in Alexandria with Cleopatra VII of
Egypt, even siring children with her. A
After the Battle, the Triumvirs agreed to master of propaganda, Octavian turned
divide the provinces of the Republic into public opinion against his colleague. When
spheres of influence. Octavian — who had the Triumvirate's second term expired in
begun calling himself "Divi filius" ("son of 33 BC, Antony continued to use the title
the divinity") after Caesar's deification as Triumvir; Octavian, opting to distance
Divus Iulius ("the Divine Julius") and now himself from Antony, refrained from using
styled himself simply "Imperator Caesar" it. Octavian illegally obtained Antony's will
— took control of the West, Antony of the in July 32 BC, and exposed it to the Roman
East, and Lepidus of Hispania and Africa. public: it promised substantial legacies to
This pact was enacted by the Treaty of Antony's children by Cleopatra, and
Brundisium (Brundisium Agreement) instructed that his body should be shipped
in September 40 BC. to Alexandria for burial. Rome was
outraged, and the Senate declared war.
While Antony cemented his hold in the
East and reformed the provincial Octavian's forces decisively defeated
administration (like Sulla's provincial those of Antony and Cleopatra at the
reforms, Caesar's had been quietly Battle of Actium in Greece in September
ignored after his death), Octavian 31 BC, chasing them to Egypt in 30 BC.
tightened his grip on the West and Both Antony and Cleopatra committed
nominally oversaw a campaign against the suicide in Alexandria, and Octavian
pirate commander Sextus Pompeius (the personally took control of Egypt and
campaign was actually commanded by Alexandria (Egyptian chronologies
Octavian's lieutenant, Marcus Vipsanius consider Octavian as Cleopatra's
Agrippa), which culminated in victory in 36 successor as Pharaoh). A conspiracy
BC. Agrippa had been consul in 37 BC and organised by Lepidus's son was crushed
had secured the Triumvirate's renewal for by Octavian's ally Gaius Maecenas. With
a second five-year term. the complete defeat of Antony and the
marginalisation of Lepidus, Octavian,
Like the First Triumvirate, the Second having restyled himself "Augustus", was
Triumvirate was ultimately unstable and left sole master of the Roman world, and
could not withstand internal jealousies and proceeded to establish the Principate as
ambitions. Antony cordially detested the first Roman "emperor".
Octavian and spent most of his time in the
East, while Lepidus favoured Antony but
felt himself obscured by both his
colleagues, despite having succeeded
Caesar as Pontifex Maximus in 43 BC.
Consequently, Lepidus cooperated in
Octavian's campaign against Pompeius
(son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) but
foolishly attempted to seize control of
Octavian's victorious legions. Octavian
unilaterally expelled Lepidus from the