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SUBSEA ENGINEERING (MIDTERMS)

Subsea Production Equipment includes: subsea wellheads, subsea production trees, subsea manifolds,
subsea well templates and the ancillary equipment associated with these.

Lesson 1: Subsea Wellhead and Types of Production Platform

Types of Production Platform:

1. Shallow Water Complex

Subsea Wellhead Definition:

 A machined, forged steel housing welded to the surface casing of a subsea well to which a
BOP or a subsea tree may be connected for controlling the well and containing well
pressures during drilling and production operations.
 Also known as MARINE WELLHEAD
 used in subsea drilling applications that require installing the BOP at the seabed and
typically used for drilling wells from a floating drilling rig.
 If the pressure is not contained during drilling operations by the column of drilling fluid,
casings, wellhead, and BOP, a well blowout could occur.

Subsea Wellhead Purposes:

 to support the subsea blowout preventer (BOP) and seal the well casing during drilling
 to support and seal the subsea production tree
 to support and seal the well casing.
 to support and seal the production tubing hanger.

The subsea wellhead together with the BOP or the production tree:

 provides the means to safely contain reservoir pressure during oil and gas drilling
and production operations.
 (rarely sees actual reservoir pressure) but rated to withstand this pressure in case of
loss of well control during drilling or a breach of a primary pressure barrier during
production

Standard API pressure ratings in use: 5,000 psi, 10,000 psi, 15,000 psi, 20,000 psi (more recently)

Subsea Wellhead may also be designed to accommodate a surface tie back system to a surface
completion on a TLP, spar or, more rarely, a fixed platform

Other class of wellhead: Mudline suspension system

 relies on the use of a surface BOP during drilling, usually from a jackup type drilling rig.

Subsea Wellhead Sizes: (The size designates the nominal bore (I.D.) of the wellhead, in inches.)

 13-5/8 inch and 21-1/4


- Earlier subsea drilling systems used a “two stack” approach and relied on a low-
pressure 21-1/4 inch BOP to start the well and a high pressure 13-5/8 inch BOP for
finishing the well.
 16-3/4 inch
- Traditionally Drill Ships have used
- Advantage: smaller riser and less mud volume
- Riser storage requirements are reduced, the suspended weight is reduced, current
drag on the riser is reduced, and the mud system can be smaller.
- relatively common in Brazil, probably influenced by their significant deepwater
experience and prevailing available equipment at the time that trends were established.
 18-3/4 inch
- most common size
- With the development of the 18-3/4 inch x 10,000 psi (10M) BOP, the well could be
drilled to final depth with one BOP and the 18-3/4 inch x 10M wellhead became the
standard. Wellhead pressure ratings are trending higher, with 18-3/4 inch x 15M
wellheads becoming the new standard, though manufacturers still offer 10M models.
18-3/4 inch x 15M BOPs are not as common, but the 15M wellheads are compatible
with the 10M BOP connectors. (book)
-it is a high-pressure wellhead housing which is designed for 10,000 or 15,000 psi and 7
million pounds end-load carrying capacity (google)
-can be installed with a standard lock ring or a rigid lockdown mechanism, which is the
preferred choice for deepwater operations. (google)

An area for further development by wellhead manufacturers is in smaller bore versions of current
wellhead and tree technology. This would help mitigate the increased weight imposed by deeper water
operations. Manufacturers of Subsea Intervention Trees are being pressured to provide higher pressure
rated designs for use within smaller (16-¾ inch) bores. Operators may adopt Slim Hole well technology
that starts with 26-inch conductors.

Wellhead Connector Profiles

 Profiles are for mechanically connecting and sealing the BOP or tree to the wellhead

Most Common External Profiles: Cameron “hub” and Vetco H4 “mandrel”

 Each wellhead profile utilizes a particular style of metal gasket designated “AX”, “DX”, “VX”,
or “NX” depending on the wellhead profile. The gasket provides the seal between the
wellhead and the BOP connector. It is the ultimate barrier between the well and the
environment.

Cameron: developed the double hub style profile. This profile is unique in that either their
new deepwater connector or their standard connector can latch onto it.

ABB Vecto Gray: has also developed a deepwater profile and wellhead. It is similar to their
existing designs except that the wellhead wall thickness is greater and the outer profile
diameter is larger providing more strength than their conventional wellheads.
Tubing Spool Adapters

It is necessary that the wellhead connector on the BOP be compatible with the wellhead on the planned
development well. Therefore, specify the wellhead type and profile of choice, taking into account
compatibility with other existing wells or their preference for the well completion equipment.

GOOD THING! Connectors can be changed out EASILY

 Also known as WELLHEAD CONVERSION


 Used to complete a well with a tree having a connector that is not compatible with the
wellhead
 consists of a forged spool piece having a connector matching the existing wellhead on the
bottom and a profile matching that of the tree’s connector on top. (also referred as: tubing
head adapters)
 used to provide a new wellhead seal surface if the existing one is damaged. (w/c is an
uncommon occurrence)
 used to land the tubing hanger into, and this is often done for conventional style trees.
 A wellhead component that supports the tubing hanger and provides a means of attaching
the Christmas tree to the wellhead. (google)

Casing and Tubing Hanger Interface

Typical Well Casing Programs

Depending on the soil conditions the hole may be started with a large conductor such as 42 inch
or 36 inch. Conventional 30-inch conductor is usually installed if a template is being used it may have a
large sleeve pre-installed.

Again depending on the anticipated loading this may have a 1 inch, 1-1/2 inch, 2 inch, or larger wall
thickness.

Program in Most Subsea Wells:

1. Started by driving, drilling or jetting-in the ‘surface’ conductor with the low-pressure housing
attached to the top
2. The well is then drilled ahead through this conductor. The 18-¾ inch high-pressure wellhead
(housing) with 20 inch/18-¾ inch or similar sized casing attached is then run through it, into the
pre-drilled hole, landed in the low pressure housing and cemented in place.
3. The subsea BOP stack is then run onto and tested on the high-pressure wellhead housing.
4. Further holes are progressively drilled ahead and the appropriate sized casing is then installed
through the BOP and wellhead. These are selected from a variety of sizes. The following sizes
are the most common; 20 inch, 18-¾ inch, 16-¾ inch, 13-3/8 inch, 10-¾ inch, 9-5/8 inch and 7
inch. The progressively smaller selected casings are suspended in the wellhead. Most wellheads
can accommodate 3 or 4 hangers. If more casing is required, it can be suspended farther down
the well bore as a ‘Liner’.

The Horizontal Subsea Xmas Trees…

- enable the wellhead system to have one less hanger than conventional trees normally demand
of wellhead systems because the tubing hanger sits in the horizontal tree rather than the wellhead
as in a conventional tree.

 routine practice to include an extra hanger slot available in the wellhead ‘just in case’.
Tubing hanger spool adapters are added to accommodate those tubing hangers

Note: Most wellheads are limited to 3 or 4 hangers. If more are required, secondary hangers can
be installed below the wellhead.

Packoffs or Seal Assemblies in Wellhead

-seal the annulus between casings. Older packoff designs used elastomer seals. Newer designs
employ metal to metal seals. These are, in some cases, actually composite metal and elastomeric
seals designed so that the elastomer provides an initial seal that, with deformation, causes the
metal seal to be forced into place or ‘energized’. The elastomer serves as a back-up seal.

Most of the casing weight is suspended at the mud line by the wellhead. Some casing strings are
anchored deeper in the well. Later when the production tubing is installed, it is suspended either in the
wellhead or tubing hanger adapter spool or in the tree above. Each method transfer the loads back to
the wellhead.

During well production thermal and pressure effects on the tubulars can reverse the hanger loads and
push up against the wellhead. Therefore lock down of the hangers is recommended for production
wells. Some ‘Exploration’ wellheads do not apply the lockdown feature so as to facilitate dismantling
and abandonment of the well and because this feature can sometimes be troublesome to install.

Casing Hanger

 These are supporting shoulders. Located at the top of each casing (and the production
tubing) is a forging with an external, tapered shoulder that lands on a mating shoulder
within the wellhead and transfers the weight of the casing to the wellhead.
 provides a machined surface to seal against.
 Once the casing is landed and locked in place, the annular cavity is sealed by a Pack-Off or
seal assembly mechanism.
Wellhead Guide Structures:
A. Guideline Drilling and Completions

Permanent Guide Base (PGB) also known as Retrievable Guide Base

 mounted to the low pressure conductor housing


 a fabricated structure with guideposts and wire rope guidelines for guiding equipment onto
or into the wellhead, or it may be a guidelineless style, which employ large funnels for
guidance.
 incorporate level indicators that can be observed by camera when landing the first
conductor in a new well. If the conductor is off true vertical by more than about one degree,
the driller may decide to re-spud the well
 recommended almost universally to do this if the well is off vertical by more than one
degree. If not, key seating (wearing on one side) of the casing and or BOP stack can occur
seriously degrading the pressure integrity of the well and well control equipment.
 utilize the API standard post spacing, four guideposts at 90º spacing, on a six-foot radius
from the well center. This leads to the standard 101.82 inches between posts.
 designed to be retrievable while leaving the well intact for future use. This offers the
advantage of not having to purchase a new guide base for every well. This style of guide
base is more expensive than one that is not retrievable, but pays for itself after use on very
few wells.

Temporary Guide Base (TGB)

 traditionally used for starting the well, although modern equipment has made the TGB
largely unnecessary.
 a gravity-stabilized guide structure
 normally with a 42 - 46 inch diameter central hole that is lowered to the seabed on four
guide wires.
 lies on bottom at the angle of the seabed and holds the guide wires in place to enable the
30-inch conductor to be easily guided through the central hole. The housing at the top of
the 30 inch has the PGB attached to it, to take over the guidance function after the 30 inch
conductor has been secured. The term “temporary” in the name is misleading in that it is a
permanent fixture to the well once deployed.

Completion Guide Base (CGB) or flowbase

 This guide base is used if it is known beforehand that the well is to be a production well, and
the guide base may incorporate piping, flowline connections, and tree piping interface
hardware
 Virtually all CGBs are application specific designs. Sometimes a CGB is deployed on top of an
existing PGB if it cannot be easily removed.

Guideposts are normally designed to accommodate guide wires latched to the post tops.

Post tops are generally designed to enable easy latching or unlatching of the guide wires and
include a means of reestablishing new guide wires onto the post top.
B. Guidelineless Drilling and Completions

Guidelineless PGBs

 used in deeper water where guidelines become cumbersome and less effective.
 usually deployed from dynamically positioned drilling vessels.
 used at shallow depths but are not normally used in less than about 2,000 feet
 typically have a funnel-up design for capturing the guidelineless BOP or subsea tree and
guiding it onto the wellhead.

Guidelineless funnel-down trees

 used to complete wells in shallow water that have no installed guidebase.

Loads on Wellheads:

Wellheads:

 must be designed for high structural loads imposed during drilling, workover, or well
completion operations
 must support the weight of the BOP, drilling riser loads, casing weight and forces imposed
by internal pressure.

wellheads are of such robust construction that, as far as external loads are concerned, they
are rarely the weak point of the wellhead system.

 The 15M wellheads can generally sustain greater external loads than the 10M wellheads.

For deep water and other special applications, manufacturers must engineer the
wellhead equipment to meet the specified load requirements. A heavy duty deepwater
wellhead with a heavy duty connector engaging two profiles instead of the one for more
strength.

To improve the transfer of loads from the wellhead to the low-pressure conductor
housing and reduce fatigue stresses and fretting at critical wellhead interfaces, a rigid
lockdown system may be employed. This mechanism locks the wellhead housing securely
into the lowpressure conductor housing. It may be engaged automatically with the
installation of the wellhead (passive), or it may require an externally applied preload
(active).

Description of Typical Subsea Wellhead System

Wellhead system consist of:

a. 30 inch conductor housing joint,


- provides the structural foundation for the wellhead system.
- Consists of 30 inch conductor housing welded onto a 30 inch conductor
pipe. A proprietary, mechanical, pin connector is fabricated onto the
bottom end of the 30-inch conductor. The overall length of the joint is
approximately 45 feet. The 30-inch conductor will normally have large
landing pad eyes for handling and hang off purposes welded to it near the
housing. The string is suspended below the pad eyes through the rotary
table while the running tool is made up to it. The padeyes are then cut or
burnt off and the casing run to the seabed.
- The outer diameter of the housing is fitted with a keyway and a shoulder to
provide orientation of the PGB which in turn orientates the BOP and the
tubing hanger, and later the tree

A 30-inch conductor housing should normally provide the following


features:
o An internal profile locking facility for the 30-inch conductor
housing running tool.
o Side outlet holes with diameters for cement returns.
o Control of the elevation, concentricity, and vertical
alignment of the 18-3/4-inch wellhead housing by the load
shoulder and locking mechanism incorporated with the
internal profile.
o Unrestricted passage of a 26-inch drill bit.
o Available working pressure of 2000 psi (135 bar).
b. 18 ¾ inch wellhead housing joint

- serves as the suspension head for the surface casing


- string and provides a mechanical connection and sealing preparation for the
BOP stack and tree.
- provides landing, locking, and sealing preparations for the subsequently run
casing hangers.
- 18-3/4 inch high pressure housing welded to a 20 OD pipe (typically 0.625
inches wall thickness). A 20 inch pin connector is welded to the lower end of
the casing joint. The overall length of the 18-3/4 inch wellhead housing joint
is approximately 40 feet.

An 18-3/4 inch wellhead housing should generally provide the following


features:
o Positive mechanical lockdown mechanism into the 30 inch
conductor housing.
o Provision for the flow of drill cuttings and cement returns
between the 18-3/4 inch wellhead and the 30-inch
conductor housing.
o Control of the elevation and concentricity of the casing
hangers and the tubing hanger.
o Seal surfaces appropriate for the sealing systems associated
with the test and running tools.
o Transfer loads from the hangers and bending loads from the
BOP and riser into the 30 inch conductor housing. This can
be achieved by a two point socketing arrangement between
the 30 inch housing and the 18-¾ inch wellhead housing.
o Allow passage of 17-1/2 inch drill bit.
o Incorporates an external wellhead connector profile to suit
the tree connector and
o BOP connector.
o A wellhead gasket seal preparation for metal-to-metal
sealing between the wellhead
o and the connector, inlaid with nickel based alloy Inconel
625.
o Suitable working pressure of 10,000 or 15,000 psi
o A variety of profiles exist in the market today. There are two
primary profiles, licensed by two different manufacturers.
All manufacturers produce each other’s profiles through
cooperative agreements and license arrangements. The two
most common profiles are currently being further
developed for deep water requirements demanding higher
capacities.
c. 20 inch casing

d. 13 3/8 inch and 9-5/8 inch centralized casing hangers

Casing Hangers:

- centralize and suspend the casing strings inside the 18 3/4 inch wellhead
housing.
- provide seal surfaces for the pack off assembly to isolate the casing annuli.
- normally supplied with a casing pup joint pre-installed. The casing pup
usually terminates with a pin connection.

Casing hangers should generally provide the following additional features:

o Two-point centralization in the 18-3/4 inch wellhead housing.


o Sufficient flow-by area to permit flow of drilling mud, cuttings,
and cement.
o Allows passage of drill bits for the next successive casing size.
o Interfaces with a variety of running tools – such as drill pipe
tool, full bore tool, or single trip tool.
o Suitable working pressure of 10,000 or 15,000 psi.
o Suspend a sufficient working load – usually at least 1,000,000
lbs capacity.
e. Associated packoffs.

The pack off or seal assembly should generally provide the following features:

o The necessary seals and components to ensure that the seal is


set, energized, tested and if required, retrieved in a single down
hole trip.
o Seals are protected during running phase.
o Single trip tool runs casing hanger and pack off assembly as a
unit.
o Complete seal assembly can be retrieved using single trip tool or
a pack off retrieval tool.
o An effective seal for continuous or intermittent annulus
pressure.
o Bi-directional metal-to-metal seal with elastomeric backup seals
to pack off the casing hanger to 18 3/4 inch wellhead housing
annulus.
o Suitable working pressure of 10,000 or 15,000 psi.

Subsea Wellhead Features:

The following are features that should generally be expected in wellhead equipment:

o The ability to test all the seals and locking arrangements.


o Protection for all permanent seals during running and the seals are remotely energized
after landing.
o The ability to clean component seal surfaces after cementing operations and prior to
setting the pack off seals.
o The casing hangers have ability to be locked in place.
o The flow path for cuttings and cement returns without excessive build up of pressure,
blockage or reduction in velocity through the flow-by holes and slots.
o The use of a minimum number of seals and components installed subsea.
o The primary metal-to-metal seals with elastomeric secondary system for all
permanently installed seals.
o Weld overlay surfaces with a nickel-based alloy (Inconel 625) at the wellhead's gasket
seal surface.
o Reliable and robust suite of versatile running tools.

Wellhead Running Tools

What are Running Tools

- required to install, test and retrieve the wellhead system components


- supplied by the wellhead manufacturer as part of the wellhead system,
most often on a rental basis.
- One aspect of wellhead system design is to design the running sequence
and tools so as to minimize the number of trips required. This becomes
more important in deep water where rig rates are high and trips take more
time.
- The tools should be of robust design, debris tolerant, and capable of giving
strong easily detected signals of correct function that can be observed at
the drill floor.

Bore Protector
- used to protect the casing hanger sealing surfaces inside the 18 ¾ inch
wellhead housing during drilling operations associated with the subsequent
setting of the surface casing string.
- normally mechanically held in place by shear pins or o-ring friction.
- usually be deployed with the bore protector installed.
- Additionally, most systems have tools designed that do not transfer
pressure end load into the protector and therefore allow the BOP stack to
be pressure tested without retrieving the bore protector

Wear Bushing

- protects the bore of the packoffs and casing hangers from mechanical wear
associated with drilling activities subsequent to the setting of the
intermediate casing string
- deployed and retrieved on drill pipe and set using a wear bushing running
and retrieval tool.
- often used for several functions and called multi-purpose or multiutility
tools.
- normally designed to allow BOP testing to be conducted without retrieving
the bushing.

30-Inch Conductor Housing Running Tool.

The 30 inch running tool is used to deploy the 30 inch conductor string and
housing. Typical features of this tool are:

 Locks into the profile of the 30 inch housing.


 Seals inside the 30 inch housing below the flow-by ports
 Visual position indicator provided.
 Anti-rotation feature.
 Right hand rotation of the running string releases the tool. This is often a
hydraulic
 function in deeper waters.
 6 5/8 inch API Regular box up by 4 1/2 inch API Internally Flush (NC50) pin
down.
 Valves to allow filling of the string with seawater and then closed.

18 3/4 inch Housing Running Tool.

The 18 3/4 inch housing running tool runs the high-pressure wellhead housing.
It typically includes the following features:

• Locks into the upper groove inside the wellhead bore.


• Has visual position indicator.
• Right hand rotation of the running string to release. This is often hydraulic
function in deeper waters.
• 6 5/8 inch API regular box up by 4 1/2 inch API Internally Flush (NC50) box
down.
• Anti-rotation pins to prevent free spinning of the tool inside the housing.
• Valves to allow filling of the string with seawater and then closed.

Bore Protector Running and Retrieval Tool.

- typically used for running and retrieving all of the 18-3/4 inch bore
protectors and wear bushings.
- used as a test tool with wear bushings in place or as a washout tool if need
be. The tool typically has a 4-1/2 inch API Internally Flush (NC50). box up by
4-1/2 inch API Internally Flush (NC50) pin down.

Single-Trip Tool

- is used to run, set, and test the casing hangers with its pack off in a single
trip.
- After the casing is cemented in place, the tool hydraulically sets the pack
off. Most tools are designed so that if the pack off should fail to set
properly, the tool will retrieve it. The tool generally has a 6-5/8 inch reg. box
up by 4 ½ inch API I.F. pin down.

Pack-Off Assembly Running Tool

- primarily used to run, set, or retrieve the pack off independently of the
casing hanger.
- enable testing of the pack off in the same running trip.
- has a 4-1/2 inch API Internally Flush (NC50)inch box up by 4- 1/2 inch API IF
(NC 50) box down.

Drill Pipe Casing Hanger Running Tool.

- runs the casing hanger without its packoff on drill pipe.


- Running the casing hanger and pack off this way is a two-trip operation and
in deeper waters is generally avoided.

Full Bore Casing Hanger Running Tool.

- runs the casing hanger without its packoff on casing. Running the casing
hanger and pack off this way is a two-trip operation and in deeper waters is
generally avoided.

BOP Test Tool.

- used to test the BOP stack without subjecting the wellhead components
below it to the BOP test pressure. The tool is deployed on drill pipe and
seals inside the housing bore.

Emergency Drill Pipe Hang-Off Tool.

- used to suspend drill pipe in the wellhead during suspended drilling


situations. Drill pipe weight is transferred into the wear bushing. The
configuration of the tool is unique to the particular BOP stack involved in
the field development.

Mill and Flush Tool.

- used to clean out the annular area behind the casing hanger neck before the
installation of the pack off assembly. Lead impression blocks can be
provided to enable the elevation of the casing hanger to be verified prior to
running the pack off.

Emergency Seal Assembly.

- used when the casing hanger is set high. Height adjustment is built into the
design of the emergency seal assembly enabling it to pack off on the high
set, casing hanger. It can then still provide a landing shoulder for the
subsequent run casing hanger or seal surface for the Horizontal Tree stinger
at the correct elevation.

Typical Subsea Wellhead Installation Process:

- Run 30 inch conductor string into open hole with 30 inch suspension joint
attached to the guidance cone.
- Once landed and set to the correct vertical elevation, cement 30 inch
conductor in place according to operator procedures.
- Rotate the drill pipe and pull to release running tool. Pull back to surface.
- Drill the next hole to TD and run the 20-inch casing.
- Attach the 18 ¾ inch wellhead body to the 20-inch casing. Install the bore
protector in the wellhead (if not installed at the factory). Run cement
stinger into wellhead housing sitting on rotary table and make up the
wellhead body to the running tool. Make up running tool to wellhead.
- Run the wellhead body assembly into the suspension joint. Cement.
- Release the running string from the wellhead by rotation and pull back to
surface.
- Place the drilling BOP across the spider beams over the moon pool. Make up
the hydraulic umbilicals and check all the functions.
- Run the BOP on marine riser. Lock BOP connector onto 18 ¾ inch wellhead
- Rig up diverter with choke and kill lines.
- Make up the isolation test tool onto drill pipe string. Run into the wellhead
- Test the BOP stack then retrieve the test tool.
- Drill the hole for the 13-3/8 inch casing. Pull back the string and make it up
to the bore protector retrieval tool. Run in and retrieve the bore protector.
- Run in the 13-3/8 inch casing string with attached cementing equipment.
- Make up the 13-3/8 inch casing hanger and the pack off to the single trip
tool and make this assembly up to the casing string, run in the hole with the
drill string and casing.
- Land the hanger into the 18 ¾ inch wellhead. Slack off the weight and
cement the string into place. Activate the pack off setting mode of the tool
- Slack off the string weight and close the BOP pipe rams.
- Build up pressure above the tool to set and test the pack off. Open the pipe
rams, release the tool from the pack off and then pull it back to the surface.
- Run in the 13-3/8 inch bore protector on the bore protector running tool.
- Land and lock into the wellhead. Release the tool and pull back to the
surface.
- Repeat the above steps to run the next casing strings.
- Start next functions for well – (e.g. Temporary abandonment, permanent
abandonment, completion, etc.).

Subsea Xmas Tree

Definition: a stack of valves installed on a subsea wellhead to provide a controllable interface between
the well and the production facilities

Functions:

1. Sealing the wellhead from the environment by means of the tree connector.
2. Sealing the production bore and annulus from the environment.
3. Providing a controlled flow path from the production tubing, through the tree to the
production flow line. Well flow control can be provided by means of tree valves and/or a
tree-mounted choke.
4. Providing access to the well bore via tree caps and/or swab valves.
5. Providing access to the annulus for well control, pressure monitoring, gas lift, etc.
6. Providing a hydraulic interface for the down hole safety valve.
7. Providing an electrical interface for down hole instrumentation, electric submersible
pumps, etc.
8. Providing structural support for flow line and control umbilical interface.

Types of Subsea Trees:

Vertical Subsea Xmas Tree


1. Dual Bore/Conventional Tree
- have a production and annulus bore passing vertically through the tree body
with production and annulus master valves and swab valves oriented
vertically in the main block of the tree
- designed to allow vertical access to the main production bore and to the
annulus bore during installation and workover operations
- When it is connected to a subsea wellhead, it must interface with the tubing
hanger previously installed in the wellhead.
- The tubing hanger and tree must be correctly orientated so they mate
properly with one another and the production and annulus bores are
properly aligned and sealed.
- Alignment of the tubing hanger in the wellhead is generally accomplished by
interaction of a pin and helix between the tubing hanger running tool and
the BOP or a pre-machined vertical orientation slot in the BOP connector
upper body. The reaction between the pin and the helix causes the tubing
hanger assembly to rotate into the correct position. Alternatively, the tubing
hanger is rotated until the alignment slot lines up with a spring-loaded
alignment key on the running tool. The tree is subsequently aligned by the
permanent guidebase.

2. Mono Bore Tree


- similar to a conventional dual bore tree but differs in that it utilizes a
simpler riser system to install the tree and tubing hanger
- simpler styles of mono bore tree exist which are generally used on mud line
completions in shallow water
-