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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

GEOLOGY AND DRILLING


LABORATORY

CGE 558
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Geology and Driling Laboratory


Reporting of Practical Work

1. Raw Data
Students must submit to the instructor/lecturer their raw data, graph or drawing at the end of
each experiment. Raw data should be a table containing all the measurements performed
according to instructions, written on an A4 paper. Particulars such as below should be
included:
 Name of experiment
 Name of present students in the group
 Date experiment performed
A short comment is expected on whether the results substantiated the theory and factors
which contribute to discrepancies. A full report must be submitted within two weeks after
the completion of the experiment.

2. Full Report
The general order of the various sections of a full Iaboratory report is set out below:
 Front cover
 Table of content
 Abstract / Summary
 Introduction
 Aims / Objectives
 Theory
 Procedures
 Apparatus
 Results
 Sample Calculations
 Sample of calculation of errors (if necessary)
 Discussions
 Conclusions
 Recommendation
 References
 Appendices
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3. Summary
The summary is important because it provides information to persons not wanting to read
the whole report. The summary should also contain the general conclusions of any
experimental work under the test conditions and recommendations, (if any). It should not
discuss the reasoning or detailed evidence that is contained in the body of the report. Most
important, the summary must be brief.

4. Equipment description and experimental technique


Enough should be said of the equipment and technique so that the reader could operate the
equipment if necessary.

5. Calculated results
A summary of the calculated results should be clearly tabulated. Related variables should be
presented graphically where dependence need to be shown.

6. Sample of calculation
A sample of calculation from a set of raw date obtained must be presented in the report
using all formulae used in obtaining the final calculated result.

7. Calculation of errors
It is important to show the calculation of errors as the reader will know how efficient the
experiment has been carried out. The experimental error calculation can be carried out by
comparing it with the expected theoretical values.

8. Discussion
In this section, the results of the experiments are presented as a fulfillment of the aim. It is a
coordinated analysis of what the data and calculated results mean. From the analysis, should
come the overall impression of the meaning of the experiment and its significance in the
light of published work or established theory.

The material should be presented logically. Even the most complicated explanation or theory
can be conveyed easily to the reader if broken down and presented in logical sequence. If the
discussion is long, its organization should be facilitated by the use of subdivisions and
headings.
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“Summary” but will be more detailed in that it will include the opinion reasoning of the
author about various aspects of the experiment. The limitation of the experiment must be
discussed and the accuracy of the results noted.

This section must show the significance of the experimental findings has been appreciated.
Recommended journals, textbooks or lecture notes will provide an aid to such an
understanding.

9. Conclusions
The analysis must be objective, keeping in mind experimental problems or deviations from
conditions reported in published work and making a conclusion, if possible, in the light of
this.

10. Recommendations
The recommendations could indicate how the experimental technique or apparatus should be
improved, considering what conclusions were arrived at and what consistency with expected
performance the experimental results showed. It is also wise to include the observations that
cause errors occurred during the experiment.

11. References
Reference provides the reader with sources of information that were used during the writing
of the experimental report. Thus reported data or formulae checked for validity etc.

Book and journal references must follow a standard format that includes the author, title,
journal, volume, pages, date and publisher.

12. Appendices
Appendices contain material that is not an integral part of the report or cannot be included
conveniently in the body of the report.
These should include material such as supporting information, mathematical derivations,
answers to question included on the typed experimental sheet or similar material that would
overload the body of the report without contributing significantly to the immediate line of
thought.
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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA
GEOLOGY AND DRILLING LABORATORY
(CGE 558)

NAME :
STUDENT NO :
EXPERIMENT :
DATE PERFORMED :
SEMESTER :
PROGRAMME/ CODE :
GROUP :

No Title Allocated Marks % Marks


1 Abstract/ Summary 5
2 Introduction 5
3 Aims/ Objectives 5
4 Theory 5
5 Apparatus 5
6 Procedure 10
7 Result 10
8 Calculations 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusions 10
11 Recommendations 5
12 References 5
13 Appendices 5
TOTAL 100

Remarks:

Checked by:
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LABORATORY SAFETY AND REGULATIONS

A. General Laboratory Rules.


1. Always wear the lab coat before performing any experiments and a suitable
protective gear to ensure your safety in the laboratory. Students are not allowed
to perform the experiments without wearing the lab coat.

2. Always wear appropriate shoes, never wear sandals or shorts, exposure of legs
and feet to spilled chemical is the main cause of chemical burns.

3. Do not eat, smoke or chew gum or tobacco in the laboratory or chemical storage
areas. Do not use laboratory glassware for food or beverages, including the
refrigerators.

4. Never work alone in the chemical laboratory and storage area.

5. Do not fool around in the laboratory. Horseplay and pranks can be dangerous.

6. Students are not allowed to use hand phones in the laboratory.

7. Observe good housekeeping in the laboratory.

8. Never pipette with your mouth.

9. Report any accident or near miss to the lab technician (e.g. broken glassware or
equipment, any fire or chemical spillage).

10. Always wash your hands before and after working in the laboratory, and also
after cleanup of spillage.

11. Never leave heat sources unattended (eg. Gas burners. hot plates, heating
mantles, sand baths, etc.)

12. Never lean into fume hood.

13. Do not perform unauthorized experiments.

14. Read all procedures and anticipate for possible hazards.

15. In case of any emergency please call these numbers for help: 03-55436303/6304
(FKK General Office)
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B. Lab Attendance

Attendance to the lab is compulsory to each student and for all lab sessions. Students who do
not attend any of the lab sessions without a valid reason will not be allowed to do
replacement labs. In other words, the submission of lab report will not be allowed without
the attendance to the lab. Students who are late for more than 15 minutes will not be
allowed to perform the experiments.

C. Experimental Data

Students must verify the experimental data with the respective lecturer at the end of every
experiment. The experimental data sheet must be signed by the respective lecturer before
leaving the lab session.

D. Submission of Lab Reports

The lab reports should be submitted within two weeks after the date of conducted
experiments to the respective lecturer. Marks will be penalized for late submission.
Individual evaluation will be done on each student.

Please identify your group’s lecturer. Submission of lab report to the wrong lecturer will
affect your grade. Lecturers will not be responsible for missing lab reports by the students.

DO NOT submit the lab reports to the FKK general office/ Technician Office

DO NOT submit the lab reports in the lecturer’s pigeon holes in the FKK general office.

Students shall submit the lab reports directly to the lecturer during the following lab session
or in the respective lecturer’s office. To avoid missing lab reports, always discuss with your
lecturer the best place to hand over the lab reports.

E. Plagiarism

Plagiarism is totally not allowed in lab reports. Students who are caught cheating or who
plagiarized the lab reports will be penalized without any notice or warning.
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LABORATORY 1

DETERMINATION OF DRILLING MUD DENSITIES

1. Objectives

To determine the densities of different sample of drilling mud

2. Overview

Density is a measurement of fluid weight per unit of volume. For drilling fluid (drilling
mud) it is often referred to as “mud weight”. The mud densities are usually reported to the
nearest 0.1 lbs/gal or “ppg”. Mud density is monitored closely to fulfill the dual role of
opposing formation pressures while avoiding excessive lost returns to the formation.

Two types of equipments those can be used to determine density of drilling fluid are
hydrometer and mud balance. A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific
gravity (SG) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water.

The introduction of mud balance in the late 1930’s was one of the most important
technological advances in the drilling fluids industry. Not only was the mud balance is much
easier to use than the hydrometer, but it was more accurate. The mud balance can directly
give the measurement of the mud density. The common units for the mud densities given by
the mud balance are lbs/ft3, psi/1000ft and Specific Gravity (SG).

The density of the drilling fluid must be controlled to provide adequate hydrostatic head to
prevent influx of formation fluids, but not so high as to cause loss of circulation or adversely
affect the drilling rate and damaging the formation.

Proper control of drilling fluid density can improve drilling/ penetration rates, reduce
formation/ aquifer damage and improve hole stability.
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LABORATORY 2

MUD VISCOSITIES AND OTHER RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

(Viscosity, Gel Strength and Yield Point)

PART A: MUD RHEOLOGY DETERMINATION USING VISCOMETER

1. Objectives

To determine the viscosity, gel strength and yield point of each of the samples.

2. Overview

Rheology refers to the deformation and flow behaviour of all forms of matter. Rheological
measurements made on fluids, such as Plastic Viscosity, Gel Strength and Yield Point help
to determine how this fluid will flow under a variety of different conditions. Such
information is important in the design of circulating systems required to accomplish certain
desired objectives in drilling operations.

Rheology is an extremely important property of drilling muds, drill-in fluids, workover and
completion fluids, cements and specialty fluids and pills. It refers to the deformation and
flow behavior of all forms of matter. Certain rheologic measurements made on fluids, such
as viscosity, gel strength and yield point help to determine how this fluid will flow under a
variety of different conditions. This information is important in the design of circulating
systems required to accomplish certain desired objectives in drilling operations.

Mud rheology is measured on a continual basis while drilling and adjusted with additives or
dilution to meet the needs of the operation. In water-base fluids, water quality plays an
important role in how additives perform. Temperature affects behavior and interactions of
the water, clay, polymers and solids in a mud. Downhole pressure must be taken into
account in evaluating the rheology of oil muds.

A) Viscosity:

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear
stress or tensile stress. It is measured as the ratio of the shearing stress to the rate of shearing
strain.

Viscosity is measured with various types of rheometers. Close temperature control of the
fluid is essential to accurate measurements, particularly in materials like lubricants, whose
viscosity can double with a change of only 5 °C.

There are two types of fluid characterizations:

1. Newtonian (true fluids) where the ratio of shear stress to shear rate or viscosity is
constant, e.g. water,light oils, etc. And
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2. Non-Newtonian(plastic fluids) where the viscosity is not constant, e.g. drilling muds,
colloids, etc.. Their viscosity cannot be described by a single number. Non-
Newtonian fluids exhibit a variety of different correlations between shear stress and
shear rate.

B) Gel strength

The Fann Viscometer is also used to determine the gel strength, in lb/100sq.ft of a mud. The
Gel strength is a function of the inter-particle forces. An initial 10-second gel and 10-minute
gel strength measurement give an indication of the amount of gellation that will occur after
circulation ceased and the mud remains static. The more the mud gels during shutdown
periods, the more pump pressure will be required to initiate circulation again.

Most drilling muds are colloids or emulsions which behave as plastic or non-Newtonian
fluids. The flow characteristics of these differ from those of Newtonian fluids (i.e. water,
light oils etc.) in that their viscosity is not constant but varied with the rate of shear, as
shown in Figure 2.1. Therefore, the viscosity of plastic fluid will depend on the rate of shear
at which the measurements were taken.

C) Yield point

This is the measure of the electro-chemical or attractive forces in the mud under flow
(dynamic) conditions. These forces depend on (1) surface properties of the mud solids, (2)
volume concentrations of the solids and (3) electrical environment of the solids. The yield
point of the mud reflects its ability to carry drilled cuttings out of the hole.
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PART B: DETERMINATION OF MARSH FUNNEL VISCOSITY

1. Objectives

To measure funnel viscosity of drilling fluid.

2. Overview

Viscosity of fluid by definition is its resistance to flow. In drilling, it is one of the most
important mud properties to be controlled to ensure smooth drilling operation. Drilling mud
must have high enough viscosity to transport the drill cuttings from bottom hole to the
surface. This is to ensure that the cuttings could be removed at the minimum velocity of the
mud pump.

Marsh Funnel is used on rig to provide a quick test on the viscosity of the mud. It has
become the standard instrument for the field measurement. The viscosity given by the Marsh
Funnel is not a true viscosity, but serves as a qualitative measure of how thick the mud
sample is. The funnel viscosity is useful only for relative comparisons. It indicates the
changes in viscosity and cannot be used to quantify the rheological properties such as Yield
Point and Plastic Viscosity.

For field measurements the marsh funnel has become the standard instrument. The marsh
funnel is a simple device for indicating viscosity on a routine basis. When use with a
measuring cup the funnel gives an empirical value for the consistency of a fluid. The
number obtained depends partly on the effective viscosity at the rate of shear prevailing in
the orifice, and partly on the rate of gelation.

The Funnel Viscosity is defined as time, in seconds for one quart of mud to flow through a
Marsh funnel which has a capacity of 946 cm3. For calibration, the funnel viscosity for fresh
water at 75ºF is 26 sec/quart. The dimension for standard funnel is 12” long, 6” diameter at
the top and 2” long, 3/16” diameter tube at the bottom.

Questions

1. What is Plastic Viscosity?


(b) What does it characterize?
(c) What is the difference between the Plastic Viscosity and Apparent Viscosity of a
drilling fluid.
2. Which role does Gel Strength play in the drilling process?
3. What type of fluids does drilling fluid belong to?
4. What is the Yield Point?
(b) What does it characterize?
(c) What is the difference between Gel Strength and Yield Point of a drilling mud?
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5. Explain what you know about one point and two points curve fluids? Give one example
of each type of fluid.
6. Discuss the difference between Plastic Viscosity and Funnel Viscosity.
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LABORATORY 3
SOLID &LIQUID CONTENT AND EMULSION CHARACTERISTIC OF
DRILLING MUDS

PART A: EMULSION TEST

1. Objectives

To determine the Electrical Stability (ES) of drilling mud samples

2. Overview

Emulsion tester is used in the evaluation of inverted emulsion drilling fluids, cement and
fracturing fluid. This test indicates the stability and types of emulsion whether water-in-oil
or oil-in-water. Time stability and resistance to electrolyte contamination of these systems
can be predicted from a measurement of relative emulsion stability.

Electrical Stability (ES) test is a test that applied to oil-base and synthetic-base muds that
indicates the stability of the emulsion and oil-wetting capacity of the sample. The electrical
stability is determined by applying a steadily increasing sinusoidal alternating voltage across
a pair of parallel flat plate electrodes submerged in the oil base drilling fluid. Maximum
voltage that the mud will sustain across the gap before conducting current is displayed as the
ES voltage.

The composition of the oil base drilling fluid controls the absolute magnitude of (ES).
Several conditions influence the Electrical Stability of a given drilling fluid such as
resistivity of the continuous phase, conductivity of the non-continuous phase, properties of
suspended solids, temperature, droplet size, type of emulsifier used, dielectric properties of
the fluids and shear history of the sample. It is advised to take several readings of ES of the
samples to establish a trend. This series of (ES) measurements will reflect a more accurate
condition of the drilling fluid on which drilling fluid treatments can be based.
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PART B: SOLID&LIQUID CONTENT

1. Objective

To determine the liquid and solid contents of each of the drilling fluid samples.

2. Overview

Drilling fluid composition consists of liquid (oil and water) and solid. Knowledge of solids
content is fundamental to proper control of mud properties such as rheology, density and
filter cake building properties. The amounts of solids need to be controlled to avoid drilling
problem such as pipe sticking. The Oil & Water Retort provides a simple, direct field
method for directly measuring the percent by volume of oil and water in samples in drilling
mud. The volume of solids is found by subtraction from 100%.

Knowledge of the liquid and solids content of a drilling mud is essential for good control of
the mud properties. Such information will often explain poor performance of the mud and
indicate whether the mud can best be conditioned by the addition of water or whether
treatment with chemical thinner or the removal of the contaminant is required. Similarly,
proper control of an oil emulsion mud depends upon knowledge of the oil content.

For muds containing only water and solids, the quantity of each can be determined from the
mud density and from the evaporation of a weighed sample of mud. Oil and water content
can also be obtained by measuring the liquid fraction. The latter method is only applicable to
oil emulsion muds.

The retort kit working principle is based on the heating, vaporisation and condensation. The
mud is heated up to 500ºC until all the liquid is vaporized. The vapour then flow into the
condenser and condensed back to liquid form.
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LABORATORY 4
WELL LOG CORRELATION

1. Objective

The objective of this experiment is to correlate between the well logs. The well log
correlation is an important step for the identification and connection of equivalent patterns
or values between log curves of adjacent wells.

2. Overview

Correlation can be defined as the determination of structural or stratigraphic units that are
equivalent in time, age, or stratigraphic position. For the purpose of preparing subsurface
maps and cross sections, the two general sources of correlation data are electric wireline logs
and seismic sections.

Fundamentally, electric well log curves are used to delineate the boundaries of subsurface
units for the preparation of a variety of subsurface maps and cross sections. These maps and
cross sections are used to develop an interpretation of the subsurface for the purpose of
exploring and exploiting hydrocarbon reserves. In this lab, the well log of Gamma Ray
(GR), SP, Neuron and Density logs are given for the well log correlation and geologic
interpretation.
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LABORATORY 5

VOLUME AND CAPACITY OF A RESERVOIR

1. Objective

The objective of this experiment is to determine the capacity of oil reservoir if structural
map for the area of the reservoir is available.

2. Overview

After the discovery of a reservoir, a petroleum engineer will seek to build a better picture of
the accumulation. If an isopach map is available, the volume or capacity of the reservoir can
be determined using planimeter. Isopach is a contour that connects points of equal thickness.
Commonly, the isopachs, or contours that make up an isopach map, display the stratigraphic
thickness of a rock unit as opposed to the true vertical thickness.

The planimeter is a simple instrument for the precise measurement of areas of plane figures
of any shape. In this experiment, planimeter is used to determine the capacity of the
reservoir. The capacity (in terms of volumetric value) can be determined by multiplying the
area and the depth/structural elevation of the reservoir.

Volumetric estimation is also known as the “geologist’s method” as it is based on cores,


analysis of wireline logs, and geological maps. Knowledge of the depositional environment,
the structural complexities, the trapping mechanism, and any fluid interaction is required to
estimate the volume of subsurface rock that contains hydrocarbons. The volume is
calculated from the thickness of the rock containing oil or gas and the areal extent of the
accumulation with these reservoir rock properties and utilizing the hydrocarbon fluid
properties, original oil-in-place or original gas-in-place volumes can be calculated.
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LABORATORY 6

THIN SECTION AND PETROGRAPHY

3. Objective

The objective of this experiment is to study the rocks and minerals using a microscope.
Cross sections are useful for the identification of rocks, minerals and ores.

4. Overview

There are two types of specimens prepared for petrographic analysis, thin sections and
polished bulk specimens. In this lab thin section being use as for the analysis of rocks and
minerals. Thin section will be observed with a transmitted polarized light microscope.

The general preparation sequence for making transparent thin sections is as follow:
sectioning, vacuum impregnation, grinding, cementing to a slide, resectioning, grinding and
polishing. Generally a thin section must be prepared to a thickness of approximately 30µm.
(Courtesy of Buehler LTD)