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Matter and Nomenclature:

Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Equation

Duration : 2 x 75 minutes

Kimia Dasar I (CH1101)


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Classification of Matter
Elements
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Element

An element is a chemical substance that cannot be


broken-down into any simpler substances by chemical
reactions

Mercury Sodium/Natrium Sulfur


Element and Periodic Table
Natural Abundance of Elements in earth crust
and human body

Earth crust

Human body

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Periodic Table
è Summarizes periodic properties of elements
Modern Periodic Table
• Arranged by increasing atomic number (Z):
• Rows called periods
• Columns called groups or families
q Identified by numbers
q 1 – 18 standard international
q 1A – 8A longer columns & 1B – 8B shorter
columns

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Modern Periodic Table

Transition
Elements

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A groups—Longer columns :
Alkali Metals (1A = first group)

• Very reactive
• All Metals except for H û
• Tend to form +1 ions
• React with oxygen
qForm compounds that dissolve in water
qYield strongly caustic or alkaline solution
(M2O)

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A groups—Longer columns :
Alkaline Earth Metals (2A = second group)

• Reactive
• Tend to form +2 ions
• Oxygen compounds are strongly alkaline (MO)
• Many are not water soluble
• Accumulate in ground

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A groups—Longer columns :
Halogens (7A)

• Reactive
• Form diatomic molecules in elemental
state
ü2 gases
ü1 liquid
ü2 solids
• Form –1 ions with alkali metals—salts

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A groups—Longer columns :
Noble Gases

• 8A = last group on right


• Inert—very unreactive
• Only heavier elements of group react &
then very limited
• Don’t form charged ions
• Monatomic gases

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Transition Elements
B groups—shorter columns
• All are metals
• In center of table
• Begin in fourth row
• Tend to form ions with several different
charges
Ex.
• Fe2+ and Fe3+
• Cu+ and Cu2+
• Mn2+, Mn3+, Mn4+, Mn5+, Mn6+, Mn7+
Note: Last 3 columns all have 8B
designation 13
Metals, Nonmetals, or Metalloids
ü Elements break down into 3 broad categories
ü Organized by regions of periodic table
Metals
ü Left-hand side
ü Sodium, lead, iron, gold
Nonmetals
ü Upper right hand corner
ü Oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine
Metalloids
ü Diagonal line between metals & nonmetals
ü Boron to astatine 14
Metals, Nonmetals, or Metalloids

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Metals
Most elements in periodic table
Properties
üConduct heat & electricity
üSolids at Room Temperature
• Melting points (mp) > 25 °C
• Hg only liquid metal (mp = –39 °C)
• Tungsten (W) (mp = 3400 °C)
• Highest known for metal
üChemical reactivity
• Varies greatly
• Au, Pt very unreactive
• Na, K very reactive 16
Nonmetals
• Brittle
• Pulverize when struck
• Insulators
• Non-conductors of
electricity and heat
• Chemical reactivity
• Some inert
• Noble gases
• Some reactive
• F2, O2, H2
• React with metals to form ionic compounds
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Metalloids
• 8 Elements
• Located on diagonal line between metals &
nonmetals
• B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At
Properties
• Between metals & nonmetals
• Metallic shine
• Brittle like nonmetal
• Semiconductors
• Conduct electricity
• But not as well as metals
• Silicon (Si) & germanium (Ge) 18
Compound

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Compound

A chemical compound is a chemical substance consisting of two or


more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed
ratio determining the composition

The only way to dissociate a compound to its original elements is


by chemical reaction

Sugar
Classification of Compound

• Molecular Compound
ü chemical compounds that take the form of
discrete molecules
ü usually between two or more nonmetals
ü Ex : H2O, CO2, C6H12O6
• Ionic Compound
ü compounds made up of ions
ü Usually between metals (as cation) and
nonmetals (as anion)
ü Ex : NaCl, KBr, MgSO4, NH4Cl
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Molecular/Covalent Compound
A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a
definite arrangement held together by chemical forces.

H2 H 2O NH3 CH4
Molecular
Elements

A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms


H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO diatomic elements

A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms


O3, H2O, NH3, CH4
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Molecular Formula and Empirical
Formula
A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of
each element in the smallest unit of a substance
An empirical formula shows the simplest whole-
number ratio of the atoms in a substance

molecular empirical
H2O H2O
C6H12O6 CH2O

O3 O
N2H4 NH2
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Ionic Compound
ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations
and an anions

• The formula is usually the same as the empirical formula


• The sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each
formula unit must equal zero

The ionic compound NaCl

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Ion
An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net
positive or negative charge.
cation – ion with a positive charge
If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation.

Na 11 protons Na+ 11 protons


11 electrons 10 electrons
anion – ion with a negative charge
If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion.

Cl 17 protons Cl- 17 protons


17 electrons 18 electrons
Monoatomic and Polyatomic Ion

A monatomic ion contains only one atom


Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-

A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom


SO42-,OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-

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Common Monoatomic Ion

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Common Polyatomic Ions

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Your turn !!
Classify these into Molecular Compounds, Ionic
Compound, or Ion
N2O4 CCl4 CrCl3
Na+ FeBr3 (NH4)2SO4
P4S3 PO43-

Answer:
Molecular Compounds: N2O4 , CCl4 , P4S3
Ionic Compounds: FeBr3, (NH4)2SO4, CrCl3
Ion: Na+ , PO43-

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Hydrates
• Crystals that contain water molecules
e.g., Plaster: CaSO4∙2H2O calcium sulfate dihydrate
• Water is not tightly held
• Dehydration
• Removal of water by heating
• Remaining solid is anhydrous (without water)

Blue = White = CuSO4


CuSO4 •5H2O

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Mixture

• A mixture contains two or more substances that are not


chemically combined.
• Mixtures have variable compositions
• The substances in a mixture can be separated using physical
methods such as filtration, freezing, and distillation

Soil
Vinegar
Concept Check

Classify these matters as element, compound, and mixture


1. Dry Ice 1. Compound
2. Aluminum 2. Element
3. Paper 3. Mixture
4. Manure 4. Mixture
5. Silver 5. Element
6. Ozone 6. Element
7. Sea Water 7. Mixture
8. Caffeine 8. Compound
Change

1. Chemical Change
• Create at least one new
substance
• Involving rearrangement
of atoms
2. Physical Change
• Doesn’t create any new
substance
• Rearrangement of atoms
is not occurred
Concept Check

Classify these changes as physical or chemical changes


1. Ice melting
2. Sublimation of camphor
3. Photosynthesis
4. Corrosion
5. Make a cup of coffee
6. Explosion of Bomb
See you next class

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Chemical Nomenclature
Why ??

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Chemical Nomenclature

Ionic Compound Molecular Compound


1. Non-Metal

Cation (1st) Anion (2nd)


1. Metal (1A, 2A, 3A, 1. Non Metal
except Boron) 2. Polyatomic Anion
2. Transition Metal
3. Polyatomic Cation
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Nomenclature of Ionic Compound
• Often a metal + nonmetal
• Cation (1st) = name of atom (metal)
Li - Lithium
Be - Beryllium
K - Potassium
Ca - Calcium
Sc - Scandium
Ti - Titanium
V - Vanadium
Cr - Chromium
Mn - Manganese
Fe - Iron
Co - Cobalt
Ni - Nickel
Cu - Copper
Zn - Zinc

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JacobH/Getty Images
Nomenclature of Ionic Compound
• Often a metal + nonmetal
• Cation (1st) = name of atom (metal)
= name of polyatomic cation
(NH4+ : Ammonium/ amonium)
• Anion (2nd) = nonmetal,
Monoatomic anion: add “ide” to element name (in Bahasa : add “ida”)
Polyatomic anion = the name of polyatomic anion
Monoatomic English Bahasa Polyatomic English Bahasa
anion anion
Cl- chloride klorida CO32- carbonate karbonat
Br- bromide bromida PO43- phosphate fosfat
O2- oxide oksida SO42- sulfate sulfat
S2- sulfide sulfida CrO42- chromate kromat 39
Nomenclature of Ionic Compound
• Often a metal + nonmetal
• Cation (1st) = name of atom (metal)
= name of polyatomic cation
(NH4+ : Ammonium)
• Anion (2nd) = nonmetal,
Monoatomic anion: add “ide” to element name (in Bahasa : add “ida”)
Polyatomic anion = the name of polyatomic anion
BaCl2 barium chloride barium klorida
K2O potassium oxide kalium oksida
Mg(OH)2 magnesium hydroxide magnesium hidroksida
KNO3 potassium nitrate kalium nitrat 40
Transition metal ionic compounds

Transition metals usually form several type of cations


Indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals

FeCl2 2 Cl- = -2, so Fe is +2 iron(II) chloride

FeCl3 3 Cl- = -3 so Fe is +3 iron(III) chloride

Cr2S3 3 S-2 = -6 so Cr is +3 (+6/2) chromium(III) sulfide 41


Common Cation and Anion

Find name of Cations and


Anions in “Bahasa” !!
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Concept Check
Give the correct name for below ionic compounds:

1. KBr
2. (NH4)3PO4
3. FeCO3
4. Cr2(SO4)3

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Nomenclature of
Molecular compounds
• Molecular compounds
−Nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids
−Common names
−H2O, NH3, CH4, Bahasa

−Element furthest to the left in a period and mono


di
closest to the bottom of a group on Tri
periodic table is placed first in formula Tetra
Penta
−If more than one compound can be formed Heksa
from the same elements, use prefixes to Hepta
indicate number of each kind of atom Okta
Nona
−Last element name ends in ide (ida in deka
Bahasa) 44
Examples

HI hydrogen iodide Hidrogen iodida


NF3 nitrogen trifluoride Nitrogen trifluorida
SO2 sulfur dioxide Sulfur dioksida
N2Cl4 dinitrogen tetrachloride Dinitrogen tetraklorida

NO2 nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen dioksida


N2O dinitrogen monoxide Dinitrogen monoksida
Concept Check
Give the correct name for below molecular
compounds
1. CO 3. H2S

2. SF6 4. P4O10
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Summary

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Hydrate

Hydrates are compounds that have a specific number of water


molecules attached to them.

BaCl2•2H2O barium chloride dihydrate Barium klorida dihidrat


LiCl•H2O lithium chloride monohydrate Litium klorida monohidrat
MgSO4•7H2O magnesium sulfate heptahydrate Magnesium sulfat heptahidrat
CuSO4 •5H2O Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate Tembaga (II) sulfat pentahidrat

CuSO4•5H2O CuSO4
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Concept Check
Give the correct name for below compounds
1. MnSO4
2. SF6
3. Na2SO4.7H2O
4. NH4Br
5. N2O4

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Common Trivial Name

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Chemical Equation

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How to describe chemical reaction

• One or more substances react to


form one or more new substances

Ex methane CH4 reacts with


oxygen (O2) and produce carbon
dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O)
üReactant = CH4 and O2
üProduct = CO2 and H2O

• How to describe that reaction?


• By Sentences, too long
• By Image, ????!!!!######
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Chemical Equation
• Use symbol and formula to show reactant and product
üReactant at left
üProduct at right
üArrow symbol (¾®) meas “react and produce)
üCoefficient
• Number in the front chemical formula
• Describe how many substance reacted or
produced
• Example , CH4 + 2O2 ¾® CO2 + 2H2O
• methane reacts with oxygen and produce carbon dioxide
and water

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Mass Balance in Chemical Reaction
• Atom cannot be created and destroyed
• It means that amount of each atom at reactant and product
must be same
• If amount of each atom is same, total mass of each element
must be same

CH4 + 2O2 ¾® CO2 + 2H2O


4H + 4O + C = 4H + 4O + C 54
Balancing Chemical Equations

1. Write the correct formula(s) for the reactants on


the left side and the correct formula(s) for the
product(s) on the right side of the equation.

Ethane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water


C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O
2. Change the numbers in front of the formulas
(coefficients) to make the number of atoms of
each element the same on both sides of the
equation. Do not change the subscripts.

2C2H6 NOT C4H12 55


Balancing Chemical Equations (cont)

3. Start by balancing those elements that appear in


only one reactant and one product.
C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O start with C or H but not O

2 carbon 1 carbon
multiply CO2 by 2
on left on right

C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + H2O

6 hydrogen 2 hydrogen
on left on right multiply H2O by 3

C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O


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Balancing Chemical Equations (cont)

4. Balance those elements that appear in two or


more reactants or products.
multiply O 7
by
C2H6 + O2 2CO2 + 3H2O 2
2

2 oxygen 4 oxygen + 3 oxygen = 7 oxygen


on left (2x2) (3x1) on right
7
C2H6 + O 2CO2 + 3H2O
2 2
remove fraction
2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O
multiply both sides by 2

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Balancing Chemical Equations (cont)

5. Check to make sure that you have the same


number of each type of atom on both sides of the
equation.

2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O


4 C (2 x 2) 4 C
12 H (2 x 6) 12 H (6 x 2)
14 O (7 x 2) 14 O (4 x 2 + 6)
Reactants Products
4 C 4 C
12 H 12 H
14 O 14 O 58
Let’s Try

Write balance chemical equation for below


reactions
1. C3H8 + O2 à CO2 + H2O
2. Pb(NO3)2 + KI à PbI2 + KNO3
3. C2H6O + O2 à CO2 + H2O

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