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ASME VIII, API standards

a. MAWP, Design Pr, MAWT, Design T – Accumulation vs Overpressure, CDTP
b. Types of valves – backpressure limits
c. Overpressure scenarios
d. Sizing (system calculations)

Types of Valves

PSV Operation

Conventional PRD

What is the difference between a conventional pressure relief valve and a

Balanced Bellows valve. Why can it withstand a greater back pressure?

Working of Pilot PRD (Farris)

Why do we have the 3% rule?

How does a rupture disk work in combination with a PRV?

Refinery CDU Process

Shut off Head

This term is used only in case of non-positive displacement pumps, since positive
displacement pumps discharge fluid regardless of the head.

To understand shut off head, consider a 10 HP centrifugal pump, having a rated

discharge of 50 cubic meter per hour at a head of 36 meter. As the head increases, the
discharge of the pump will reduce due to increase in resistance since the pump has
deliver fluid to a greater height. As the head is continuously increased, the discharge will
reduce until a point is reached at which the pump is just able to raise the fluid to that
point but cannot make it flow. The head at which this happens is the shut off head of the
pump. For example:
A pump is pumping water with discharge valve fully open and the pressure is
approximately 300kPa. Hence the head is h= (300000)÷(1000×9.81)=30.581m

When the pump is pumping water with discharge valve 50% open and the pressure is
approximately 360kPa. Hence the head is h= (360000)÷(1000×9.81)=36.697m
when discharge valve has been fully shut so that the pump cannot produce any flow. The
pressure is 440kPa. Hence the head of the pump is 44.852m. This is the shut off head of the

Pulsation Dampeners improve pump system efficiency by removing pulsating flows from positive
displacement pumps, insuring a smooth and continuous fluid flow and metering accuracy, eliminating
pipe vibration and protecting gaskets and seals. The result is a longer lasting safer system.