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Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Indian Institute of Science, Fixed Bistable Arch-Profiles

Bengaluru 560012, Karnataka, India

e-mail: safvanp@iisc.ac.in Using a Bilateral Relationship

G. K. Ananthasuresh

Professor Arch-proﬁles of bistable arches, in their two force-free equilibrium states, are related to

Department of Mechanical Engineering, each other. This bilateral relationship is derived for arches with ﬁxed–ﬁxed boundary con-

Indian Institute of Science, ditions in two forms: a nonlinear single-variable equation for analysis and a closed-form

Bengaluru 560012, Karnataka, India analytical expression for design. Some symmetrical features of shape as well as necessary

e-mail: suresh@iisc.ac.in and sufﬁcient conditions for bistability are presented as corollaries. Analysis and design of

arch-proﬁles using the bilateral relationship are illustrated through examples.

[DOI: 10.1115/1.4043044]

1 Introduction pinned-pinned bistable arches are valid for ﬁxed–ﬁxed arches bis-

table arches as well. Thus, we address the design of bistable arch-

Bistable arches, owing to their ability to maintain two force-free

proﬁles in microscale, mesoscale, and macroscale because it is

equilibrium states, ﬁnd applications in mechanisms that need two

easy to achieve ﬁxed conditions at any scale.

distinct stable conﬁgurations. An electric switch and a hair clip

The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Sec. 2, we derive

are two examples for such applications in everyday life. Bistable

the necessary and sufﬁcient conditions of force-free equilibrium

mechanisms are used as microelectromechanical systems relay,

states using an energy approach. In Sec. 3, conditions on the funda-

switches, micro-mirrors, energy harvesters, micropositioning

mental mode weights and upper limit on the compression energy in

stages, chair for the elderly [1–5], etc. A bistable arch is the key

the arches are derived. Furthermore, the bilateral relationship is

mechanical element in these designs. Design and analysis of such

deduced from the necessary conditions derived in Sec. 2 and pre-

arches have been of interest among researchers in the ﬁeld of

sented in two forms: one for analysis and the other for design.

mechanics [6–11]. In the case of microscale applications, such

Section 4 includes examples illustrating the use of relationship for

bistable arches with ﬁxed–ﬁxed end conditions are preferred as

analysis and design. The 3D-printed prototypes of the bistable mech-

they are amenable to microfabrication techniques. In this paper,

anisms validate the analytical relationship between arch-proﬁles in

we analyze and design arch-proﬁles of ﬁxed–ﬁxed bistable arches

the two stable states. Concluding remarks are presented in Sec. 5.

using an analytical relationship—which we derive—between the

arch-proﬁles in their force-free stable equilibrium states.

The existing analysis and design techniques for bistable arches 2 Necessary and Sufﬁcient Conditions for Force-Free

[6,7,9,12] enable us to ﬁnd the critical bistable characteristics [8] Equilibrium States in Fixed–Fixed Bistable Arches

such as switching and switch-back forces, switching and switch-back

displacements, and travel for a limited range of arch-proﬁles. In The Rayleigh–Ritz method is used to derive the necessary condi-

this work, we examine the bistability without considering the force- tions for the force-free equilibrium arch-proﬁles of bistable arch by

displacement characteristics. The necessary and sufﬁcient conditions minimizing the total strain energy. For arbitrarily curved arches

derived here are at the force-free stable equilibrium states of the arch. with ﬁxed–ﬁxed boundary conditions (see Fig. 2), the initial

Thus, the importance is given to design arch-proﬁles of any shape at proﬁle h(x) and the deformed proﬁle w(x) are taken as the weighted

the force-free stable states using a closed-form analytical solution combinations of the buckling mode shapes of a straight ﬁxed–ﬁxed

instead of obtaining the force-displacement characteristic of the column. Arch-proﬁles obtained from such a choice of basis set are

arch. The design capabilities of analytical results are illustrated kinematically admissible and tend to show bistability [7,8].

through three design examples. One such example is that of a bistable By taking Ai and ai as the unknown weights corresponding to the

gripper to grasp a circular object as shown in Fig. 1. The details of the ith buckling mode shape, the normalized as-fabricated proﬁle H(X )

ﬁnal design are given in Sec. 4. and the normalized deformed shape W(X ) are written as

In an earlier work, Hsu [13] analyzed the relationship between

h(XL) ∞

the stable equilibrium states in arches. However, he did not consider H(X) = = ai Wi (X) (1)

the upper bound on compression energy in the stable state of arches. hmid i=1

Furthermore, the design of bistable arch-proﬁles was not explored.

The design aspect of the bistable arch-proﬁles was ﬁrst studied in w(XL) ∞

our previous work [14], where we derived a bilateral relationship W(X) = = Ai Wi (X) (2)

between arch-proﬁles of bistable arches with pinned-pinned bound- hmid i=1

ary conditions. A wide range of design applications were illustrated where

in Ref. [14]. However, pinned-pinned boundary conditions pose a

practical difﬁculty in the fabrication of micromachined mecha- Wi (X)

nisms. This work extends the analytical tools developed for pinned-

1 − cos (Mi X), i = 1, 3, 5 . . .

pinned to ﬁxed–ﬁxed boundary conditions. We show that the ana- = sin (M X) (3)

lytical bilateral relationship and insights derived from it for the 1 − 2X − cos (Mi X) + 2 M i , i = 2, 4, 6 . . .

i

(i + 1)π, i = 1, 3, 5 . . .

1

Corresponding author. Mi = (4)

Contributed by the Mechanisms and Robotics Committee of ASME for publication 2.86π, 4.92π, 6.94π . . . , i = 2, 4, 6 . . .

in the JOURNAL OF MECHANISMS AND ROBOTICS. Manuscript received July 17, 2018; ﬁnal

manuscript received February 19, 2019; published online April 8, 2019. Assoc. Editor: X = x/L, L is the span of the arch, and hmid is the mid-span

David J. Cappelleri. height. Note that Mi, for i = 2, 4, 6, . . . , satisﬁes the equation tan

Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics Copyright © 2019 by ASME JUNE 2019, Vol. 11 / 031002-1

Fig. 3 Double bistable arch with suppressed asymmetric

deformation

Fig. 1 Schematic of a bistable gripper in the closed equilibrium states, do not undergo asymmetric switching [7,8].

conﬁguration Nonetheless, the aforementioned analysis remains valid as the con-

straint does not affect the arch-proﬁles in their stable states, but

inﬂuences only the in-between deformation. However, the proﬁles

obtained from the design equations presented in this work need to

be made double curved while fabricating them as shown in Fig. 3.

Proﬁles of Fixed–Fixed Bistable Arches

By using the necessary conditions for equilibrium, i.e., Eq. (7), a

bilateral relationship between force-free arch-proﬁles can be

Fig. 2 Fixed–ﬁxed bistable arches with arbitrary initial proﬁle obtained analytically. The key observation that leads to this deriva-

tion is that the constant C is common in Eq. (7) for all the values of i.

By solving for C from Eq. (7) when i = 1, Ai /ai is written in terms of

(Mi/2) = Mi/2 [15]. The total strain energy, which consists of the A1 /a1 and Mi. This step in turn simpliﬁes the expansion for C to

bending and compression energies, is written in terms of the arrive at the bilateral relationship.

mode weights as [8,14] We begin this section by stating and proving two conditions

on fundamental mode weights. Then, an upper limit on the term

1 ∞ ∞ ∞

3Q 2C that corresponds to the compression energy in the arch is

SE = a M +

2 4

Ai M i − 2

2 4 4

ai Ai Mi

4 i=1 i i i=1 i=1

obtained. Both these conditions are essential in deriving the bilateral

2 relationship. Furthermore, the relationship is derived in forms ame-

3h2 ∞ ∞ nable for analysis and design. Subsequently, insights gained from

+ mid a2 2

M

i i − A 2 2

M

i i (5) the bilateral relationship are presented as corollaries.

8t 2 i=1 i=1

By minimizing the strain energy with respect to the unknown 3.1 Conditions on Fundamental Mode Weights of Fixed–

weights corresponding to the deformed proﬁle, the necessary condi- Fixed Force-Free Shallow Bistable Arch.

tions for the force-free equilibrium states are obtained as

(1) The fundamental mode weight a1 is not zero in the initial

∂SE proﬁle of a bistable arch.

=0 for i = 1, 2, 3, . . . ∞ (6) (2) The fundamental mode weight A1 is not zero in the toggled

∂Ai

proﬁle of a bistable arch.

which simplify to [14]

In our previous work [14], the preceding conditions were shown

Ai (Mi2 − 3Q2 C) = ai Mi2 for i = 1, 2, 3, . . . ∞ (7) to hold for pinned–pinned boundary conditions. The proof for

ﬁxed–ﬁxed boundary conditions is similar, and the key difference

being M1 is 2π instead of π. Hence, the derivation is presented suc-

∞

∞

C= a2i Mi2 − A2i Mi2 (8) cinctly. To prove the ﬁrst condition, consider Eq. (7) with a1 = 0.

k=1 k=1

We have

where Q = hmid/t and t is the in-plane depth. The Hessian matrix H A1 (M12 − 3Q2 C) = 0 (12)

obtained by differentiating Eq. (5) twice should be positive deﬁnite

if the arch-proﬁle pair obtained from the necessary conditions is

2

Here, 3Q C cannot be equal to = M12 4π 2

as it results in imaginary

stable. The diagonal elements in the matrix Hii and the nondiagonal solutions for A1 [14]. When 3Q C = 4π , from Eq. (7), we have

2 2

Ai = (13)

∂2 SE Mi4 3Q2 Mi2 C Mi2 − 3Q2 C

Hii = = − + 3Q2 A2i Mi4 (9)

∂A2i 2 2

ai Mi2

= , i = 2, 3, . . . ∞ (14)

∂2 SE Mi2− 4π 2

Hij = = 3Q2 Ai Aj Mi2 Mj2 (10)

∂Ai ∂Aj Thus, |Ai| is greater than |ai|, since Mi is greater than 2π for i greater

than 1. Therefore, we see from Eq. (8) that C is negative, which con-

Positive deﬁniteness of H is checked by tradicts our starting assumption that C = 4π 2 /(3Q2 ). Furthermore,

vT Hv > 0 (11) by substituting a1 = 0 and 3Q 2C = 4π 2 in Eq. (8), we get that A21

is negative. So, the only real solution for Eq. (12) is when A1 = 0.

for all nonzero vectors v. However, we see next that these real solutions do not lead to

For cosine-curved bistable arches, the second asymmetric mode stable arch-proﬁles. We construct this argument on the stability of

of deformation needs to be suppressed to ensure bistable operation. the arch-proﬁles based on the Hessian H. By substituting A1 = 0

This can be shown mathematically using force-displacement char- in Eqs.(9) and (10), we see that the only element that remains

acteristics of a double-cosine arch [7]. This restraint is physically nonzero in the ﬁrst row and column of H is H11. Hence, for

realized by connecting two cosine-curved arches at the center. the arch-proﬁle to be stable, H11 = M12 /2(M12 − 3Q2 C) > 0.

This implies that By using this relation, Eq. (8) is simpliﬁed as follows:

∞

∞

3Q2 C < M12 (15) C= a2i Mi2 − A2i Mi2

i=1 i=1

where 3Q 2C, and thereby C, can be positive, negative, or zero ⎡ ⎤2

while satisfying this inequality. When C is positive, Eq. (13) ∞ ⎢ ⎥

implies that |Ai| is greater than |ai|. This further implies that C is neg-

∞ ⎢ ai ⎥ 2

= a2i Mi2 − ⎢ ⎥ M

ative, which is a contradiction to starting assumption that C is pos- ⎣

M12 a1 ⎦ i

itive. A similar situation arises when C is assumed to be negative.

i=1 1− 2 1−

i=1

Mi A1

Hence, C should be zero while satisfying Eq. (15). This solution, ⎧ ⎫

ai = Ai, corresponds to the starting as-fabricated shape of the arch. ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪

Hence, the fundamental mode weight a1 is not zero in the initial ∞ ⎨⎪ ⎪

⎬

(20)

1

proﬁle of a bistable arch. = 1− a2i Mi2

⎪

⎪

i=1 ⎪ M 2

a

2 ⎪

⎪

To prove that the fundamental mode weight A1 is not zero in the ⎩ 1 − 12 1 −

1 ⎪

⎭

toggled proﬁle of a bistable arch, we note that a1 = 0 when A1 = 0. Mi A1

We already showed that when a1 and A1 are zero, the arch has only a ⎧ ⎫

⎪

⎪ M12 a1 ⎪

⎪

single stable state. ∞ ⎨⎪ 1 − − 2 ⎪

⎬

a1 Mi2 A1

= 1− 2

M1 a2i

A1 ⎪

⎪

i=1 ⎪ M 2

a

2 ⎪

⎪

⎩ 1 − 12 1 − 1 ⎪

⎭

3.2 An Upper Limit on 3Q 2C for Fixed–Fixed Boundary

Mi A1

Conditions. The term 3Q 2C is the measure of the change of

length of the arch. We obtain an upper limit on 3Q 2C to aid in By substituting for C in Eq. (7), we get

derivation of the bilateral relationship and corollaries presented

thereafter. Let us assume that 3Q 2C = j 2π 2 at the force-free equilib- Ai =

ai

rium state. For the arch to be bistable, H11 and the determinant 3Q2 C

of the upper left 2 × 2 corner of H, H11 H22 − H12 2

, should be posi- 1−

Mi2

tive, i.e., ai

= ⎧ ⎫

⎪

⎪ M12 a1 ⎪

M14 3Q2 M12 C ⎪ 1− −2 ⎪ ⎪

H11 = − + 3Q2 A21 M14 3Q2 M12 a1 ∞ ⎨ Mi2 A1 ⎬

2 2 1− 1 − a2

Mi2 A1 i=1

⎪

⎪ M 2

a

2⎪ i

⎪

= π 4 8 − 2j2 + 48Q2 A21 > 0 (16) ⎪

⎩ 1 − 12 1 − 1 ⎪

⎭

Mi A1

=⇒ j2 < 4 + 24Q2 A21 (21)

By comparing the denominators in Eqs. (19) and (21), we get

H11 H22 − 2

H12 = C1 j + C2 j + C3 > 0

4 2

(17) ⎧ ⎫

⎪

⎪ M12 a1 ⎪

∞ ⎨⎪ 2

1− −2 ⎪ ⎪

⎬

M A 1

where C1, C2, and C3 can be expressed in terms of A1, A2, and Q. 3Q2

i

a2 = 1 (22)

We observe that Eq. (17) is a quadratic expression in j 2. This ⎪

i=1 ⎪ M 2

a

2⎪ i

⎪

⎪ 1− 1 1−

⎩ 1 ⎪

⎭

expression takes the values 821.51π 8 A21 Q2 , −1680.59π 8 2 2

A2 Q , and

Mi2 A1

−9642.44π A1 A2 Q when j is 2, 2.86, and 4 + 24Q A21 , respec-

8 2 2 4 2

−

H122

is negative when j is Note that we have ignored the trivial solution corresponding to the

initial proﬁle (Ai = ai) in writing Eq. (22). This equation can be

greater than 2.86 but less than 4 + 24Q2 A21 . This condition written in terms of Ais by substituting for ai from Eq. (19) as

along with Eq. (16) implies that j should be less than 2.86 when

the arch is in a force-free stable equilibrium state. Also, in Sec. ∞ 2 2

3.1, while proving the conditions on the fundamental mode a1 Ai M 1 ∞

3Q 1−

2

−2 Ai = 1

2

(23)

weights, it was shown that 3Q 2C ≠ 4π 2 in the second stable state. A1 i=1 Mi2 i=1

Thus, for a bistable arch in its force-free equilibrium state,

3Q2 C ≠ Mi2 . On rearranging the terms, we get a closed-form expression

for a1:

Conditions. We ﬁrst derive a relation between Ai and ai by i=1 −2 ∞ i=1 Ai −

2

Mi2 3Q2

expressing 3Q 2C in terms of a1, A1, and M1. In Sec. 3.1, we a1 = A1 (24)

∞ M12 A2i

showed that A1 and a1 are nonzero in the stable equilibrium states i=1

of the bistable arch. By using Eq. (7) for i = 1, this helps us to Mi2

write 3Q 2C as Equations (19), (22), and (24) capture the bilateral relationship

between the force-free proﬁles of a bistable arch. Equation (22)

a1 is used for analysis, i.e., to obtain the stressed toggled proﬁle for

3Q2 C = M12 − M12 (18)

A1 a given stress-free as-fabricated proﬁle. This equation reduces

to a nonlinear equation in a single variable A1 once the

By substituting Eq. (18) in Eq. (7), Ais for i > 1 can be written as as-fabricated shape (ais) is speciﬁed. By using Eq. (19), remain-

ing Ais can be obtained. To design bistable arches for a desired

ai toggled proﬁle, i.e., to obtain the values of ais given Ais, the

Ai = (19) closed-form analytical relation equation (24) is used. This form

M12 a1

1− 2 1− of the bilateral relationship is immensely useful because design-

Mi A1 ing the initial proﬁle of a bistable arch is not straightforward.

Otherwise, for example, if one were to design using trial-and- valid for i ≥ m. By substituting Eq. (26) in Eq. (22), we get

error approach with ﬁnite element analysis (FEA), even multiple

trials of as-fabricated proﬁle might not assure the desired toggle

∞

1

A21 + a1 A1 + 2 a2i + =0 (27)

proﬁle. The bistability of the arch-proﬁle pairs obtained from i=m

3Q2

analysis and design problems is checked for sufﬁciency condi-

tion using Eq. (11). Section 4 comprises examples using the For the arch to be bistable, Eq. (27) should have two real

bilateral relationship for design and analysis of arch-proﬁles. roots, i.e., the discriminant needs to be positive. Thus, we

We discuss a few useful insights of the bilateral relationship have

before that.

n

4

a21 − 8 a2i − >0 (28)

i=m

3Q2

3.4 Corollaries. In this section, we summarize results and

insights pertaining to the magnitude and sign of the mode weights

deduced from the bilateral relationship. 4 Illustrative Examples

(1a) For i > 1, Ai = 0 implies ai = 0 and vice versa. When ai is 4.1 Analysis. The nonlinear form of the bilateral relationship,

zero, Eq. (7) becomes i.e., Eq. (22), is used to obtain the toggled second stable proﬁle of

the bistable arch for a given as-fabricated proﬁle. Consider the

Ai (Mi2 − 3Q2 C) = 0 (25) initial proﬁle speciﬁed in Fig. 4. As mentioned earlier, the initial

2

In Sec. 3.2, we showed that 3Q C cannot be equal to Mi2 proﬁle considered here is a double curve to restrict the asymmetric

when the arch is in a stable equilibrium state. Thus, Eq. switching mode in the arch. The ﬁrst step in the analysis is to rep-

(25) implies that Ai = 0. To prove the converse, we see resent this proﬁle in the basis of buckling mode shapes as in Eq. (1);

from Eq. (7) that ai = 0 when Ai = 0. here, the ﬁrst 20 buckling mode shapes are used for the approxima-

(1b) The toggled proﬁle of a bistable arch with the symmetric tion. Thus, we have the ais (i = 1, 2, . . . , 20) corresponding to this

initial proﬁle will also be symmetric and vice versa. proﬁle. For hmid = 10 mm and t = 0.5 mm, Q is 20. By numerically

From Corollary 1a, we know that when am = 0, corre- solving Eq. (22), A1 is obtained to be −0.5388. Remaining Ais are

sponding Am is also zero for m = 2, 4, 6, . . . ∞, i.e., the found using Eq. (19). The toggled proﬁle is given in Fig. 5. The

toggled proﬁle is symmetric when the initial proﬁle is sym- matrix H is found to be positive deﬁnite. We know that every

metric. Similarly, the converse is also true. as-fabricated proﬁle might not exhibit bistability. Such cases

(1c) For i > 1, Ai ≠ 0 implies ai ≠ 0 and vice versa. would result in H with negative eigenvalues. When compared to

As mentioned before in Sec. 3.2, 3Q 2C cannot be equal to the bistable arch proﬁles with pinned-pinned boundary conditions,

2 one would come across more ﬁxed–ﬁxed proﬁles that are not bis-

Mi such that the resulting toggled proﬁle is stable. Thus,

table. This can be attributed to the compliance at the ends for a

from Eq. (7), if a mode weight is nonzero in one of the

pinned arch compared to a ﬁxed arch. The pinned arch by rotating

stable states, its corresponding mode weight in the other

at the ends reduces the compression energy stored in the second

stable state is also nonzero.

stable state. Thus, allowing a broader range of arch-proﬁles that

(1d) Toggled-proﬁle of a bistable arch with asymmetric initial

are bistable.

proﬁle will also be asymmetric and vice versa.

If a bistable arch is asymmetric, at least one mode weight

corresponding to an asymmetric mode is not zero in its

as-fabricated shape. From Corollary 1c, we have that the

same mode will be nonzero in the other stable state as well.

(2a) (a1A1) < 0.

This can be deduced

from the bilateral

∞ relationship for

design. The term ∞ M 2 2

i=1 1 iA /M 2

i − 2 A

i=1 i

2

− 1/3Q 2

in

Eq. (24) is negative because M12 /Mi2 is always less than 2.

Thus, the signs of a1 and A1 are different.

(2b) (ai>1Ai>1) > 0. We proved in Sec. 3.2 that 3Q 2C should be

less than 2.862π 2. This implies that the maximum value of

1 − a1 /A1 is less than 1.045 (from Eq. (18)). Hence,

1/i2 (1 − a1 /A1 ) cannot exceed unity for any value of i.

Thus, from Eq. (19), we see that the sign of Ai is determined

by the sign of ai and vice versa, for i > 1. Fig. 4 Speciﬁed and approximated initial proﬁles

(3a) (inexact) Ai is approximately equal to ai for higher values

of i.

Corollary 3a is an approximate result that becomes accu-

rate for larger values of i. This result is obtained by neglect-

ing the term M12 /Mi2 (1 − a1 /A1 ) in Eq. (19). Hence, Eq. (19)

becomes

Ai ≈ ai (26)

In Corollary 2b, we observed that 1 − ai/Ai is less than

1.045. Hence, the approximation ai ≈ Ai will have a

maximum error of 3.5% if i is greater than 10.

(3b) (inexact) For arch-proﬁles composed of only ais with higher

values of i (i ≥ m, where m is the least value of i such that

Corollary 3a is valid) along with a1, a21 − 8 ∞i=m ai − 3Q2 >

2 4

For arch-proﬁles with only higher mode shapes (i ≥ m) Fig. 5 Toggled proﬁle corresponding to the initial proﬁle in

along with the fundamental mode shape, Corollary 3a is Fig. 4

In the next example, a quartic polynomial is taken as the ini- The solid curve is obtained from the bilateral relationship, and the

tial proﬁle of the arch. The height H(X ) can be expressed as dotted curve is obtained from nonlinear FEA using continuum ele-

8X 2(X − 1)2 as shown in Fig. 6. The toggled proﬁle of the arch ments. The analytical prediction and FEA show good agreement,

for Q = 20 is given in Fig. 7. whereas the 3D-printed proﬁle shows slight deviations from the pre-

dicted proﬁle. This is mainly due to the stiffening that happens at the

center of the arch due to the interconnection between the arches.

4.2 Design. The bilateral relationship in the form given in

Eq. (24) is a powerful design tool. Similar to the example in Sec.

4.1, the ﬁrst step involves representing the desired toggled proﬁle

in the form of Eq. (2). By taking Q = 20, ais are obtained from

Eqs. (19) and (24); the corresponding arch-proﬁle to the toggled

proﬁle taken in Fig. 8 is given in Fig. 9. Positive deﬁnitiveness of

H is ensured for bistability.

Can we design an arch such that the inverted form of arch-proﬁle

considered in Fig. 4 is the toggled proﬁle? Such an arch can be used

as an initially curved valve mechanism as shown in Fig. 10. By

taking the ais of the proﬁle in Fig. 4 as the Ais in the design equation

(Eq. (24)), the obtained initial proﬁle is shown in Fig. 12. Note

that the arch-proﬁle in Figs. 4 and 11 are stress-free and stressed,

respectively.

With the aid of the analytical equations for the stable proﬁles,

arches with speciﬁc change in slope at any point on the arch can

be designed. The point of interests are taken at X = 0.25 and X = Fig. 8 Speciﬁed arch-proﬁle in the second stable state

0.75. For the geometric parameters hmid = 13.46 mm, t = 0.5 mm,

and L = 100 mm, an enclosing mechanism design using a bistable

arch is given in Fig. 13. When the arch is in the second stable

state, the mechanism forms an enclosure due to a 45° rotation of

the vertical arms attached to the initial arch proﬁle. A 3D-printed

model of the design is given in Fig. 14. Note that all the arch-

proﬁles designed using the analytical equations presented here

have zero slopes at the end.

The 3D-printed prototypes of the design examples in their two

stable states are given in Fig. 15. The shape of the arch-proﬁles

match with the analytical prediction. The design cases of the bis-

table valve and gripper considered are veriﬁed using FEA and the

arch-proﬁles in the second stable state are compared in Fig. 16.

Fig. 10 Schematic of a bistable valve mechanism

Fig. 6 Fig. 11 Speciﬁed arch-proﬁle in the second stable state

(a)

(b)

0.04 conditions

0.03

0.02

0.01

0.02

-0.01

-0.02

mm for hmid = 13.46 mm, t = 0.5 mm, and L = 100 mm

3D-printed prototypes

(a)

5 Summary

In this work, a bilateral relationship for analyzing and designing

arch-proﬁles with ﬁxed–ﬁxed boundary conditions is presented.

Corollaries presented further improves the understanding of the

changes in magnitudes and signs of mode weights of the arch-

proﬁle as they switch from the one stable state to other. Design

examples of bistable arches and mechanisms using bistable arches

are presented to illustrate the ease of design using the bilateral

(b) relationship. We note that the analytical solutions given in this

paper are insightful in design because they allow visualization of

the other shape rather easily; and they indicate if a given stress-free

arch-proﬁle is bistable without having to perform ﬁnite element

analysis. This work appends to our earlier work on arch-proﬁles

with pinned–pinned boundary conditions [14]. Since bistable

arches with ﬁxed–ﬁxed boundary conditions are easier to fabricate

Fig. 14 3D-printed gripper in its open (a) and closed (b) in microscale, this addition enables the design of arch-proﬁles of

conﬁgurations bistable micromechanisms.

Acknowledgment [6] Fung, Y. C., and Kaplan, A., 1952, “Buckling of low arches or curved beams of

small curvature,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington,

The ﬁnancial support from the Department of Science and Tech- DC, Technical Note 2840, p. 78.

nology (DST) under the Technology Initiative for the Disabled and [7] Qiu, J., Lang, J. H., and Slocum, A. H., 2004, “A Curved-Beam Bistable

Mechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst., 13(2), pp. 137–146.

the Elderly (TIDE) programme for this study is acknowledged. We [8] Palathingal, S., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2017, “Design of Bistable Arches by

thank Mr. Priyabata Maharana for proofreading the manuscript. Determining Critical Points in the Force-Displacement Characteristic,” Mech.

Mach. Theory., 117, pp. 175–188.

[9] Chen, J. S., Ro, W. C., and Lin, J.-S., 2009, “Exact Static and Dynamic Critical

Loads of a Sinusoidal Arch Under a Point Force at the Midpoint,” Int. J. Non.

Linear. Mech., 44(1), pp. 66–70.

References [10] Vangbo, M., 1998, “An Analytical Analysis of a Compressed Bistable Buckled

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[2] Hu, N., 2015, “Buckling-Induced Smart Applications: Recent Advances and Generalized Method to Investigate the Bistability of Curved Beams Using

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[3] Pellegrini, S. P., Tolou, N., Schenk, M., and Herder, J. L., 2013, “Bistable Machines and Mechanisms, iNaCoMM, Vol. 73.

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[5] Sarojini, D., Lassche, T. J., Herder, J. L., and Ananthasuresh, G. K., 2016, 143, pp. 183–193.

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