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Lecture 5 TCPIP

IPv4 connectivity is confgured using various tools suh as

Network and Sharing center (vista and later)


Windows PowerShell (3.0 for Windoes 8)

These configure anything related to networking

Types of configuration: dynamic (receive the IP address from a DHCP server) and
manual (manually
type it in). Obvs Dynamic is more preferred.

Setting IP addresses:
Static are manually configured by administration, using properties of the LAN and
Wireless conections.
Dynamic addresses are configured using network service called DHCP (Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol).
If a DHCP service is not available, an Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) us
used to randomly generate a 169.254.x.x address.
APIPA only used when server is down, problem with DHCP, APIPA addresses cannot
communicate with any other machine as their IP addresses are all DHCP assigned and
not of 169.254.x.x format.

Servers and printers may have static addresses, but client machines will almost
always have dynamic.

DHCP can be a client/network device, doesn't always have to be a server.


All it is, is a machine which listens in on a DHCP port (port 67) and when a client
requests a scope, it gives
an address to the client on a temporary basis.

DORA process for automatic giving.


Discover (client will "broadcast" to DHCP server, shouts out to the entire netweork
and is doscovered by he DHCP)
Offer (DHCP server will send an offer message to the client, which contains the MAC
address, the DHCP server info and the IP being offered)
Request (Client could receive multiple offers, and will pick the 1st one - sends it
back to DHCP to request that one)
Acknowledge (Server will acknowlegde it has been assigned, on a lease!, usually 8
days, can be 30 days, 30 minutes, if server is still there the client will renew
the lease automatically)

The client will respond to any server - no way to tell it which server to respond
to.

If uknown server gives unknown IP, it is called "rougue server", and gives faulty
addresses.

Name resolution services gives user-friendly names to numeric IP addresses.


Name is mapped to the IP using DNS (Domain Name Services).

FQDN (Fully qualified domain names) made up of:


- Host name (www.)
- Domain name (google)
- Top level domain name (.com)

DNS is a database of user friendly names and their IP address mappings


One DNS only is assigned to one domain!!!!
- The client checks the local name resolution cache (recent history to see names
already queried)
- Client queries preferred DNS server (likely the server wont have the answer if
name is external)
- Server will either check local database and gives answer.. if not then can go
external and find it.