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23/08/2019

BENDING & SHEARING


STRESSES IN BEAMS
LECTURE 2

BENDING STRESS,fb
A bending stress is NOT considered to be a simple stress. In other words, it is not load divided by area. The
formula for bending stress, fb, is as follows:

𝑀𝑐 where: M = moment acting on beam from moment diagram (kN.m, N.mm)

𝑓𝑏 = c = distance from neutral axis to extreme edge of member (m, mm)

𝐼 I = moment of inertia (m , mm )

Bending stress is distributed through a beam as seen in the diagram below:

So, in reality, bending stresses are tensile or


compressive stresses in the beam!

A simply-supported beam always has tensile stresses at


the bottom of the beam and compressive stresses at the
top of the beam.

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23/08/2019

BENDING STRESS For Common Cross Section:

𝑀𝑐 General/ Actual Stress


𝑓𝑏 =
𝐼
𝑀𝑐 Allowable Stress
𝐹𝑏 =
𝐼
𝑀 Section Modulus, S=
𝐼
𝑓𝑏 = 𝑐
𝑆
6𝑀 Rectangular Section, c= d/2
𝑓𝑏 =
𝑏𝑑²
4𝑀
𝑓𝑏 = Circular Cross Section
𝜋𝑟 3
where:
fb= General/ Actual Bending Stress, ( MPa, KPa), Fb= Allowable Bending Stress, (Mpa, Kpa)
M = moment acting on beam from moment diagram (kN.m, N.mm), c = distance from neutral axis to extreme edge of member (m, mm)
I = moment of inertia about the reference axis (m , mm ), d- depth or height of the beam (m, mm), b- breadth of the beam, ( m,mm)

Problem 2.1
The simply supported Timber beam has the cross-sectional
area shown in Figure. Determine the bending stress in
point B, C, and D of the beam.

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23/08/2019

SHEARING STRESS, fv
It is easy to imagine vertical shear on a beam that was made up of concrete blocks:

This type of shear is called “transverse” shear, and occurs if there is


no bending stresses present. The transverse shear stress ;

𝑉
𝑓𝑣 =
𝐴

SHEARING STRESS, fv
However, almost all real beams have bending stresses present. In this case, beams are more like a deck of cards
and bending produces sliding along the horizontal planes at the interfaces of the cards as shown below:

𝑉𝑄
𝑓𝑣 =
𝐼𝑏

This type of shear is called “longitudinal” or horizontal shear. The formula used for determining the maximum
longitudinal shear stress, fv, is as follows:
where:
V = the internal resultant shear force, determined from the method of sections and the equations of equilibrium (N, kN),
Q = first moment of area = Ay or Statistical Moment of Area
A = area of shape above or below the neutral axis, c = distance from neutral axis to centroid of area “A” (in)
I = the moment of inertia of the entire cross-sectional area calculated about the neutral axis (mm , m ), b = width of area “A” (mm, m)

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23/08/2019

SHEARING STRESS For Common Cross Section;

𝑉𝑄 General/ Actual Stress


𝑓𝑉 =
𝐼𝑏

𝑉𝑄 Allowable Stress
𝐹𝑣 =
𝐼𝑏
3𝑉 Rectangular Section
𝑓𝑣 =
2𝑏𝑑

3𝑉 Triangular Section
𝑓𝑣 =
2𝐴

4𝑉 Circular Cross Section


𝑓𝑣 =
3𝐴

SHEARING STRESS, fv

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Problem 2.2
A composite Timber beam has the dimensions shown in Fig. If it is
subjected to a shear of V=80 kN plot the shear-stress distribution
acting over the beam’s cross-sectional area.