Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

Cherimoya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


(Redirected from Annona cherimola)

For the thoroughbred racehorse, see Cherimoya (horse).

Cherimoya

Chirimuya – Annona cherimola

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae

Clade: Angiosperms

Clade: Magnoliids

Order: Magnoliales

Family: Annonaceae

Genus: Annona

Species: A. cherimola

Binomial name
Annona cherimola
Mill.

Current range of uncultivated A. cherimola

Synonyms

Annona pubescens Salisb.


Annona tripetala Aiton[1]

The cherimoya (Annona cherimola), also spelled chirimoya and called Chirimuya by the Inca
people, is an edible fruit-bearing species of the genus Annona from the family Annonaceae, which
generally is thought to be native to Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia[2] then transported to
the Andes and Central America.[2][3][4] Today, cherimoya is grown in tropical regions throughout the
world.[2]
Mark Twain called the cherimoya "the most delicious fruit known to men".[5] The creamy texture of
the flesh gives the fruit its secondary name, custard apple.

Contents
[hide]

 1Description
 2Etymology
 3Indigenous cultures
 4Pollination
 5Distribution
 6Cultivation and harvesting
o 6.1Eating characteristics
 7Nutritional value
 8Postharvest handling
 9Cultivars
o 9.1Chirimoya of the Granada-Málaga Tropical Coast
 10Gallery
 11See also
 12References
 13External links

Description[edit]

Split cherimoya fruit

Annona cherimola is a fairly dense, fast-growing, woody,[6] briefly deciduous[7] but


mostly evergreenlow branched, spreading tree[6] or shrub[7] 5 metres (16 ft) to 9 metres (30 ft) tall.[6]
Stems and leaves
Mature branches are sappy and woody;[7] young branches and
twigs have a matting of short, fine, rust colored hairs.[6][8]
Leathery leaves 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 25 centimetres (9.8 in)
long[8][9] 3 centimetres (1.2 in) to 10 centimetres (3.9 in)
wide[8] mostly elliptic, pointed at the ends and rounded near the
leaf stalk. When young, covered with soft, fine, tangled, rust
colored hairs. When mature, hairs only along the veins on the
undersurface.[6] Tops hairless and a dull medium green with
paler veins,[9] backs velvety,[7] dull grey-green with raised pale
green veins. New leaves are whitish below.[9]
Leaves are single and alternate, 2-ranked[6] attached to the
branches with stout 6 millimetres (0.24 in) to 10 millimetres
(0.39 in) long and densely hairy leaf stalks.[8]
Flowers
Very pale green,[9] fleshy flowers 3 centimetres (1.2 in)
long,[7] with very strong fruity odor,[9] each with three outer,
greenish, fleshy, oblong, downy petals and 3 smaller, pinkish
inner petals[6] with yellow or brown finely matted hairs outside,
whitish with purple spot[7] and many stamens on the
inside.[8] They appear on the branches opposite to the leaves,
solitary or in pairs or groups of three,[6][8] on flower stalks that are
covered densely with fine rust colored hairs, 8 millimetres
(0.31 in) to 12 millimetres (0.47 in) long. Buds 15 millimetres
(0.59 in) to 18 millimetres (0.71 in) long, 5 millimetres (0.20 in) to
8 millimetres (0.31 in) wide at the base.[8]
Fruits and reproduction
Large green conical[9] or heart-shaped compound fruit,[6] 10
centimetres (3.9 in) to 20 centimetres (7.9 in) long,[6] and
diameters of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) to 5 centimetres
(2.0 in),[8] with skin that gives the appearance of having
overlapping scales or knobby warts. Ripening to brown with a
fissured surface[9] from winter into spring;[7] weighing on the
average 150 grams (5.3 oz) to 500 grams (18 oz) but extra large
specimens may weigh 2.7 kilograms (6.0 lb) or more.[6] The
ripened flesh is creamy white.[9] When ripe, the skin is green and
gives slightly to pressure. Some characterize the fruit flavor as a
blend of banana, pineapple, papaya, peach, and strawberry.
The fruit can be chilled and eaten with a spoon, which has
earned it another nickname, the ice cream fruit. Indeed, in Peru,
it is commonly used in ice creams and yogurt.[3]
The flesh of the cherimoya contains numerous hard, inedible,
brown or black, beanlike, glossy seeds, 1 centimetre (0.39 in) to
2 centimetres (0.79 in) long[6] and about half as
wide.[8] Cherimoya seeds are poisonous if crushed open.[2] Like
other members of the family Annonaceae, the seeds contain
small amounts of neurotoxic acetogenins, such
asannonacin,[2] which appear to be linked to
atypical Parkinsonism in Guadeloupe.[10] Moreover, an extract of
the bark can induce paralysis if injected.[2]

Etymology[edit]
The name originates from
the Quechua word chirimuya, which means
"cold seeds", because the plant grows at high
altitudes and the seeds will germinate at higher
altitudes.[2] In Bolivia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador and
Colombia the fruit is commonly known
as chirimoya (spelled accordingly with
the Spanish language rules).

Indigenous cultures[edit]

Moche ceramic cherimoya, 200 BC, Larco Museum


Collection inLima
Cherimoya-shaped bottle made by
the Cupisnique culture around 1000 to 700 BC in
the Peru's Coast

The Moche culture of Peru had a fascination


with agriculture and represented fruits and
vegetables in their art. Cherimoyas were often
depicted in their ceramics.[11]

Pollination[edit]

Cherimoya sprouts emerging

The flowers are hermaphroditic and have a


mechanism to avoid self-pollination.[2] The
short-lived flowers open as female, then
progress to a later, male stage in a matter of
hours. This requires a separatepollinator that
not only can collect the pollen from flowers in
the male stage, but also deposit it in flowers in
the female stage.
Studies of insects in the cherimoya's native
region as its natural pollinator have been
inconclusive; some form of beetle is suspected.
Quite often, the female flower is receptive in
the early part of the first day, but pollen is not
produced in the male stage until the late
afternoon of the second day. Honey bees are
not good pollinators, for example, because
their bodies are too large to fit between the
fleshy petals of the female flower. Female
flowers have the petals only partially
separated, and the petals separate widely
when they become male flowers. So, the bees
pick up pollen from the male flowers, but are
unable to transfer this pollen to the female
flowers. The small beetles which are suspected
to pollinate cherimoya in its land of origin are
much smaller than bees.
For fruit production outside the cherimoya's
native region, cultivators must either rely upon
the wind to spread pollen in dense orchards or
else usehand pollination. Pollinating by hand
requires a paint brush. Briefly, to increase the
fruit production, growers collect the pollen from
the male plants with the brush, and then
transfer it to the female flowers immediately or
store it in the refrigerator overnight. Cherimoya
pollen has a short life, but it can be extended
with refrigeration.

Distribution[edit]
Widely cultivated now, Annona cherimola is
believed to originate from the Andes at
altitudes of 700 metres (2,300 ft) to 2,400
metres (7,900 ft)[6][12] although an alternate
hypothesis postulates Central America as the
origin of Annona cherimola because many of
its wild relatives occur in this area.[12] From
there it was taken by Europeans to various
parts of the tropics. Unlike
other Annona species[13] A. cherimola has not
successfully naturalized in West Africa,[14] and
in Australasia Annona glabra is often
misidentified as this species.
Native
Neotropic:
Western South America: Ecuador, Peru[1][15]
Southern South America: Chile[15]
Current (naturalized and native)
Neotropic:[6][15][16][17][18]
Caribbean: Florida, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico
Central America: Belize, Costa Rica, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama
Northern South America: Guyana, Venezuela
Southern North America: Mexico
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
Southern South America: Chile, Brazil
Palearctic: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, France, Italy, Spain, Madeira
Afrotropic: Eritrea, Somalia, Tanzania,
Indomalaya: India, Singapore, Thailand

Cultivation and
harvesting[edit]

A Cherimoya fruit, growing


in a protective cover on a
plantation in Bin Lang
Village, Taiwan

Annona cherimola,
preferring the cool Andean
altitudes, hybridizes with
the other Annona species
and a hybrid with A.
reticulata calledatemoya h
as received some
attention in West
Africa.[14] Along with
other Annona species, An
nona cherimola has been
shown to possess
antioxidant activity in its
flesh and skin
components [19]
The tree thrives
throughout the tropics at
altitudes of 1,300 to
2,600 m (4,300 to
8,500 ft). Though sensitive
to frost, it must have
periods of cool
temperatures or the tree
will gradually go
dormant.[2] The indigenous
inhabitants of
the Andes say the
cherimoya cannot stand
snow.
In the Mediterranean
region, it is cultivated
mainly in southern Spain
and Portugal, where it was
introduced between 1751
and 1797[2] from where it
was carried to Italy, but
now can be also found in
several countries of Africa,
the Middle
East and Oceania. It is
cultivated throughout
the Americas,
including Hawaii since
1790 and California where
it was introduced in
1871.[2]
Large fruits which are
uniformly green, without
cracks or mostly browned
skin, are best. Unripe
cherimoyas will ripen at
room temperature, when
they will yield to gentle
pressure.[2]
Exposure to ethylene (100
ppm for one to two days)
accelerates ripening of
mature-green cherimoya
and other Annona fruits;
they can ripen in about
five days if kept at 15 to
20 °C (59 to 68 °F).
Ethylene removal can be
helpful in retarding
ripening of mature-green
fruits.
Eating
characteristics[edit]

Ripe cherimoya fruits

Different varieties have


different flavors, textures,
and shapes.[2] Shapes can
range from imprint
areoles, flat areoles, slight
bump or point areoles, full
areoles, and combinations
of these shapes. The
flavor of the flesh ranges
from mellow sweet to
tangy or acidic sweet, with
variable suggestions of
pineapple, banana, pear,
papaya, strawberry or
other berry, and apple,
depending on the variety.
The usual characterization
of flavor is
"pineapple/banana"
flavor[citation needed], similar to
the flavor of the Monstera
deliciosa fruit.

Cherimoya, raw

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 313 kJ (75 kcal)

Carbohydrates 17.71 g

Sugars 12.87
Dietary fiber 3g

Fat 0.68 g

Protein 1.57 g

Vitamins

Thiamine (B1) (9%)

0.101 mg

Riboflavin (B2) (11%)

0.131 mg

Niacin (B3) (4%)

0.644 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5) (7%)

0.345 mg

Vitamin B6 (20%)

0.257 mg

Folate (B9) (6%)

23 μg

Vitamin C (15%)

12.6 mg

Vitamin E (2%)

0.27 mg

Minerals

Calcium (1%)
10 mg

Iron (2%)

0.27 mg

Magnesium (5%)

17 mg

Manganese (4%)

0.093 mg

Phosphorus (4%)

26 mg

Potassium (6%)

287 mg

Sodium (0%)

7 mg

Zinc (2%)

0.16 mg

Link to USDA Database entry

 Units
 μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
 IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated usingUS recommendations for

adults.

Source: USDA Nutrient Database

When the fruit is soft-


ripe/fresh-ripe and still has
the fresh, fully mature
greenish/greenish-
yellowish skin color, the
texture is like that of a
soft-ripe pear and papaya.
If the skin is allowed to
turn fully brown, yet the
flesh has not fermented or
gone "bad", then the
texture can be custard-
like. Often, when the skin
turns brown at room
temperature, the fruit is no
longer good for human
consumption. Also, the
skin turns brown if it has
been under normal
refrigeration for too long -
a day or two maybe.

Nutritional
value[edit]
In a 100 g serving
providing 75 calories,
cherimoya is an excellent
source (> 19% of the Daily
Value, DV) of vitamin
B6 and a good source (10-
19% DV) of vitamin
C, dietary
fiber and riboflavin (table).

Postharvest
handling[edit]
The optimum temperature
for storage is 8–12 °C
(46–54 °F), depending on
cultivar, ripeness stage,
and duration, with an
optimum relative humidity
of 90–95%.[2]

Cultivars[edit]
Chirimoya of the
Granada-Málaga
Tropical Coast[edit]
The Chirimoya of the
Granada-Málaga Tropical
Coast is a fruit of the
cultivar ‘Fino de Jete"
grown in the Granada-
Málaga tropical southern
coast of Spain with
the EU's appellation
protected designation of
origin status. [20]
This variety is prepared
and packed in the
geographical area
because "it is a very
delicate perishable fruit
and its skin is very
susceptible to browning
caused by mechanical
damage, such as rubbing,
knocks, etc. The fruit must
be handled with extreme
care, from picking by hand
in the field to packing in
the warehouse, which
must be carried out within
24 hours. Repacking or
further handling is strictly
forbidden." [21]

Gallery[edit]

Plantation in
southAndalucia

Cherimoya seeds

See also[edit]
 (Annona reticulata)
 Atemoya (a cross
of A.
squamosa and A.
cherimola)
 Pawpaw (Asimina spp
.)
 Soursop (Annona
muricata)
 Sugar-apple (Annona
squamosa)
 White
sapote (Casimiroa
edulis) — sometimes
mislabeled as
cherimoya
 Wild soursop (Annona
senegalensis)

References[edit]
1. ^ Jump up
to:a b Germplasm
Resources
Information
Network
(GRIN) (1997-07-
11). "Taxon: Annon
a
cherimola L.". Taxo
nomy for
Plants. USDA, AR
S, National Genetic
Resources
Program, National
Germplasm
Resources
Laboratory,
Beltsville,
Maryland.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.
2. ^ Jump up
to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n
Morton, JF
(1987). "Cherimoya
, in Fruits of Warm
Climates, p 65-9".
Center for New
Crops and Plant
Products, Purdue
University
Department of
Horticulture and
Landscape
Architecture.
3. ^ Jump up
to:a b Popenoe H,
King SR, León J,
Kalinowski LS,
Vietmeyer ND, et
al.
(1989). "Cherimoya
". Lost crops of the
Incas: Little-known
plants of the Andes
with promise for
worldwide
cultivation.
Washington,
D.C.: National
Academy Press.
pp. 228–
239. ISBN 978-0-
309-07461-2.
4. Jump up^ van
Zonneveld M, et al.
(2012). "Mapping
Genetic Diversity
of Cherimoya
(Annona
cherimola Mill.):
Application of
Spatial Analysis for
Conservation and
Use of Plant
Genetic
Resources". PLoS
ONE. 7 (1):
e29845. PMC 3253
804 
. PMID 22253801.
doi:10.1371/journal
.pone.0029845.
5. Jump up^ Twain
M (October 25,
1866). "Kau and
Waiohinu in
Kilauea, June,
1866". The
Sacramento Daily
Union.
6. ^ Jump up
to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n
"Current
name: Annona
cherimola". AgroFo
restryTree
Database.
International
Center For
Research In
Agroforestry.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.
7. ^ Jump up
to:a b c d e f g EEB
Greenhouse Staff,
University of
Connecticut (2008-
04-10). "Annona
cherimola Mill.". Ec
ology &
Evolutionary
Biology
Greenhouses.
Ecology &
Evolutionary
Biology
Greenhouses.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.
8. ^ Jump up
to:a b c d e f g h i Pacifi
c Island
Ecosystems at
Risk (PIER) (2008-
04-09). "Annona
cherimola (PIER
Species
info)". PIER
species
lists. United States
Geological
Survey & United
States Forest
Service. Archived f
rom the original on
July 15, 2007.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17. Wiggins, I.
L.Porter, D. M.
1971. Flora of the
Galapágos Islands.
Stanford University
Press. 998 pp.
9. ^ Jump up
to:a b c d e f g h Flynn,
Tim (2002-05-
22). "Record Detail
ANNONACEAE An
nona
cherimola Mill.". He
rbarium
Database. National
Tropical Botanical
Garden.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.
10. Jump
up^ Champy P, et
al. (December
2005).
"Quantification of
acetogenins in
Annona muricata
linked to atypical
parkinsonism in
guadeloupe". Mov.
Disord. 20 (12):
1629–
3. PMID 16078200.
doi:10.1002/mds.2
0632.
11. Jump up^ Berrin,
Katherine & Larco
Museum. The
Spirit of Ancient
Peru: Treasures
from the Museo
Arqueológico
Rafael Larco
Herrera. New
York: Thames and
Hudson, 1997.
12. ^ Jump up
to:a b van
Zonneveld M,
Scheldeman X,
Escribano P, Viruel
MA, Van Damme
P, et al.
(2012). "Mapping
Genetic Diversity
of Cherimoya
(Annona
cherimola Mill.):
Application of
Spatial Analysis for
Conservation and
Use of Plant
Genetic
Resources". PLoS
ONE. 7 (1):
e29845. PMC 3253
804 
. PMID 22253801.
doi:10.1371/journal
.pone.0029845.
13. Jump
up^ Aluka. "Entry
for Annona
glabra Linn. [family
ANNONACEAE]".
African Plants.
Ithaka Harbors,
Inc.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.[permanent dead link]
14. ^ Jump up
to:a b Aluka. "Entry
for Annona
cherimola Mill.
[family
ANNONACEAE]".
African Plants.
Ithaka Harbors,
Inc.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.[permanent dead link]
15. ^ Jump up
to:a b c Bioversity
International. "Res
ult set for:
Annonaceae Anno
na cherimola". New
World Fruits
Database.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.[dead link]
16. Jump up^ Natural
Resources
Conservation
Service
(NRCS). "PLANTS
Profile, Annona
cherimola Mill.". Th
e PLANTS
Database. United
States Department
of Agriculture,.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.
17. Jump
up^ Australian
Plant Name Index
(APNI). "Search
results". Integrated
Botanical
Information System
(IBIS). Australian
Plant Name
Index (APNI).
Retrieved 2008-04-
17.
18. Jump
up^ Landcare
Research. "1 *A.
cherimola Miller,
Gard. Dict. ed. 8
(1768)". New
Zealand Plant
Names
Database. Landcar
e Research Allan
Herbarium and Ne
w Zealand Plant
Names Database.
Retrieved 2008-04-
17. Cherimoya is
cultivated in
warmer parts of the
North Id, especially
in the Bay of
Plenty. Frs form
regularly in the
North Id but
apparently never
form on Raoul.
19. Jump up^ Gupta-
Elera G, Garrett
AR, Martinez A,
Robison RA,
O'Neill KL (2010).
"The antioxidant
properties of the
cherimoya (annona
cherimola)
fruit". Food
Research
International. 44:
2205–
2209. doi:10.1016/j
.foodres.2010.10.0
38.
20. Jump
up^ "COUNCIL
REGULATION
(EC) No 510/2006
‘CHIRIMOYA DE
LA COSTA
TROPICAL DE
GRANADA-
MÁLAGA’". EU
DOOR.
Retrieved 24
March 2014.
21. Jump
up^ "COUNCIL
REGULATION
(EC) No 510/2006
‘CHIRIMOYA DE
LA COSTA
TROPICAL DE
GRANADA-
MÁLAGA’". EU
DOOR.
Retrieved 24
March 2014.

External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Annona
cherimola.

Look up cherimoya in
Wiktionary, the free
dictionary.

Wikibooks Cookbook has


a recipe/module on

 Cherimoya

 "Annona
cherimola Miller". Inte
grated Taxonomic
Information System.
Retrieved 17
March 2008.
 Forest Starr & Kim
Starr (2008-04-
09). "Images
of Annona
cherimola". Plants of
Hawaii -- Hawaiian
Ecosystems at Risk
(HEAR)
Project. United States
Geological
Survey & United
States Forest Service.
Retrieved 2008-04-17.
 Hannia Bridg (2001-
03-
05). "Micropropagatio
n and Determination
of the in vitro Stability
of Annona cherimola
Mill. and Annona
muricata L.".
Zertifizierter
Dokumentenserver
der Humboldt-
Universität zu Berlin.
 California Rare Fruit
Growers article on
cherimoya

Categories:
 Edible fruits
 Tropical fruit
 Annona
 Flora of the Andes
 Crops originating from the
Americas
 Crops originating from
Chile
 Crops originating from
Peru
 Crops originating from
Ecuador
 Flora of Peru
 Flora of Ecuador
 Flora of Colombia
 Flora of Chile
 Flora of Bolivia
 Flora of Argentina
 Garden plants of South
America
Navigation menu
 Not logged in

 Talk

 Contributions

 Create account

 Log in
 Article
 Talk
 Read
 Edit
 View history
Search
Go

 Main page
 Contents
 Featured content
 Current events
 Random article
 Donate to Wikipedia
 Wikipedia store
Interaction
 Help
 About Wikipedia
 Community portal
 Recent changes
 Contact page
Tools
 What links here
 Related changes
 Upload file
 Special pages
 Permanent link
 Page information
 Wikidata item
 Cite this page
Print/export
 Create a book
 Download as PDF
 Printable version
Languages
 Català
 Čeština
 Deutsch
 Español
 Esperanto
 Français
 Hornjoserbsce
 Italiano
 ‫עברית‬
 Nāhuatl
 Nederlands
 日本語
 Norsk bokmål
 Polski
 Português
 Runa Simi
 Русский
 Simple English
 Svenska
 Türkçe
 Українська
 ‫ייִדיש‬
 中文
Edit links
 This page was last edited on 21
May 2017, at 15:40.
 Text is available under
the Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike License;
additional terms may apply. By
using this site, you agree to
the Terms of Use and Privacy
Policy. Wikipedia® is a
registered trademark of
the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.,
a non-profit organization.