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# 1.

## The determination of the initial values 0 and 0 and ﬁnal

value is crucial to analyzing second-order circuits.
2. The circuit is second-order because it is described by a
second-order differential equation. Its characteristic equation is
2 2
2 0 0, where is the damping factor and 0 is the
undamped natural frequency. For a series circuit, 2 , for a
parallel circuit 1 2 , and for both cases 0 1
3. If there are no independent sources in the circuit after switching (or
sudden change), we regard the circuit as source-free. The complete
solution is the natural response.
4. The natural response of an circuit is overdamped, under-
damped, or critically damped, depending on the roots of the char-
acteristic equation. The response is critically damped when the roots
are equal ( 1 2 or 0 ), overdamped when the roots are real
and unequal ( 1 2 or 0 ), or underdamped when the roots are
complex conjugate ( 1 2 or 0 ).
5. If independent sources are present in the circuit after switching, the
complete response is the sum of the natural response and the forced
6. PSpice is used to analyze circuits in the same way as for or
circuits.
7. Two circuits are dual if the mesh equations that describe one circuit
have the same form as the nodal equations that describe the other.
The analysis of one circuit gives the analysis of its dual circuit.
8. The automobile ignition circuit and the smoothing circuit are typical
applications of the material covered in this chapter.

8.1 For the circuit in Fig. 8.58, the capacitor voltage at 8.3 When a step input is applied to a second-order
0 (just before the switch is closed) is: circuit, the ﬁnal values of the circuit variables are
(a) 0 V (b) 4 V (c) 8 V (d) 12 V found by:
(a) Replacing capacitors with closed circuits and
inductors with open circuits.
t=0
(b) Replacing capacitors with open circuits and
inductors with closed circuits.
2 4 (c) Doing neither of the above.
8.4 If the roots of the characteristic equation of an
12 V + 1H 2F circuit are 2 and 3, the response is:
3
(a) cos 2 sin 2
3
(b) 2
2 3
(c)
For Review Questions 8.1 and 8.2. 2 3
(d)
where and are constants.
8.2 For the circuit in Fig. 8.58, the initial inductor
current (at 0) is: 8.5 In a series circuit, setting 0 will produce:
(a) 0 A (b) 2 A (c) 6 A (d) 12 A (a) an overdamped response
(b) a critically damped response 8.9 Match the circuits in Fig. 8.61 with the following
(c) an underdamped response items:
(d) an undamped response (i) ﬁrst-order circuit
(e) none of the above (ii) second-order series circuit
(iii) second-order parallel circuit
8.6 A parallel circuit has 2 H and (iv) none of the above
0 25 F. The value of that will produce unity
damping factor is:
R L
(a) 0 5 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4
8.7 Refer to the series circuit in Fig. 8.59. What +
kind of response will it produce? s C L R is C
(a) overdamped
(b) underdamped
(a) (b)
(c) critically damped
(d) none of the above C1
R

1 1H R1 R2
is + L C2
s
C1 C2
1F
(c) (d)

R1 R2
For Review Question 8.7.
R1 C
is + C L
s
8.8 Consider the parallel circuit in Fig. 8.60.
L R2
What type of response will it produce?
(a) overdamped
(b) underdamped (e) (f)
(c) critically damped
(d) none of the above For Review Question 8.9.

## 8.10 In an electric circuit, the dual of resistance is:

(a) conductance (b) inductance
1 1H 1F (c) capacitance (d) open circuit
(e) short circuit

Answers: 8.1a, 8.2c, 8.3b, 8.4d, 8.5d, 8.6c, 8.7b, 8.8b, 8.9 (i)-c,
For Review Question 8.8. (ii)-b,e, (iii)-a, (iv)-d,f, 8.10a.

t=0

## Section 8.2 Finding Initial and Final Values 6 4

12 V + i
8.1 For the circuit in Fig. 8.62, ﬁnd: +
2H 0.4 F
(a) 0 and 0 ,
(b) 0 and 0 ,
(c) and .
For Prob. 8.1.
8.2 In the circuit of Fig. 8.63, determine: 1H
(a) 0 , 0 , and 0 , i
(b) 0 , 0 , and 0 , +
1
(c) , , and . 4u(t) A 4 4 F 6

iR 25 k 20 k
iL For Prob. 8.5.
iC
60 k
80 V + 1 F 2 mH 8.6 In the circuit of Fig. 8.67, ﬁnd:
t=0 (a) 0 and 0 ,
(b) 0 and 0 ,
(c) and .
For Prob. 8.2.
Rs R

## 8.3 Refer to the circuit shown in Fig. 8.64. Calculate: R +

Vs u(t) + C L
(a) 0 , 0 , and 0 , L

(b) 0 , 0 , and 0 ,
(c) , , and .
For Prob. 8.6.

40
Section 8.3 Source-Free Series RLC Circuit
+ IL
C
1
F 8.7 The voltage in an network is described by the
+ 4
differential equation
1
R 10 2u(t) A 8 H
2
+ 10 V
2
4 4 0
subject to the initial conditions 0 1 and
0 1. Determine the characteristic
For Prob. 8.3. equation. Find for 0.
8.8 The branch current in an circuit is described
8.4 In the circuit of Fig. 8.65, ﬁnd: by the differential equation
2
(a) 0 and 0 , 6 9 0
2
(b) 0 and 0 ,
(c) and . and the initial conditions are 0 0,
0 4. Obtain the characteristic equation
and determine for 0.
3 0.25 H 8.9 The current in an circuit is described by
2
i 10 25 0
+ 2
4u(–t) V + 0.1 F 5 4u(t) A If 0 10 and 0 0, ﬁnd for 0.
8.10 The differential equation that describes the voltage
in an network is
2
For Prob. 8.4. 2
5 4 0
Given that 0 0, 0 10, obtain .
8.5 Refer to the circuit in Fig. 8.66. Determine: 8.11 The natural response of an circuit is described
(a) 0 and 0 , by the differential equation
2
(b) 0 and 0 ,
2
2 0
(c) and .
for which the initial conditions are 0 10 and +
0 0. Solve for . 1F
10
8.12 If 20 , 0 6 H, what value of will make
an series circuit: t=0
(a) overdamped, (b) critically damped, 120 V + 4H
(c) underdamped?

## 8.13 For the circuit in Fig. 8.68, calculate the value of

needed to have a critically damped response. For Prob. 8.17.

60
8.18 The switch in the circuit of Fig. 8.72 has been closed
for a long time but is opened at 0. Determine
R 0.01 F 4H for 0.

1
i(t) 2 H 2
For Prob. 8.13.
12 V
8.14 Find for 0 if 0 6 V and 0 2 A in +
the circuit shown in Fig. 8.69. t=0
1
4 F
i(t) 0.02 F

## + For Prob. 8.18.

60 30 2H (t)
8.19 Calculate for 0 in the circuit of Fig. 8.73.

## 8.15 The responses of a series circuit are

12 6
20 10
30 10 30 V
t=0 25
20 10
40 60 mA + 3H
24 V 60 +
where and are the capacitor voltage and 1
F
inductor current, respectively. Determine the values 27
of , , and .
8.16 Find for 0 in the circuit of Fig. 8.70. For Prob. 8.19.

t=0
10 60 Section 8.4 Source-Free Parallel RLC Circuit
i(t) 8.20 For a parallel circuit, the responses are
20 20
1 mF 4 cos 50 10 sin 50 V
30 V + 40 20
65 cos 50 mA
2.5 H
where and are the capacitor current and
inductor voltage, respectively. Determine the values
of , , and .
For Prob. 8.16.
8.21 For the network in Fig. 8.74, what value of is
needed to make the response underdamped with
8.17 Obtain for 0 in the circuit of Fig. 8.71. unity damping factor ( 1)?

## An asterisk indicates a challenging problem.

8.27 Solve the following differential equations subject to
the speciﬁed initial conditions
10 0.5 H C 10 mF (a) 2 2
4 12 0 0 0 2
2 2
(b) 5 4 8, 0 1
0 0
For Prob. 8.21. (c) 2 2
2 3, 0 5
0 1
2 2
8.22 Find for 0 in the circuit in Fig. 8.75. (d) 2 5 10, 0 4,
0 2

## 5 8.28 Consider the circuit in Fig. 8.77. Find 0 and

0.
i
+
25u(–t) + 1 mF 0.1 H 40 10

+ +
2u(t) 0.5 H 1F C
+ 50 V
L
For Prob. 8.22.

8.23 In the circuit in Fig. 8.76, calculate and For Prob. 8.28.
for 0.

## 8.29 For the circuit in Fig. 8.78, ﬁnd for 0.

2 1H io(t)

2u(–t) A
t=0 +
30 V + 8 1
F o(t)
4

1H 0.04 F

+
For Prob. 8.23. 4 2

+
Section 8.5 Step Response of a Series RLC 50u(t) V
Circuit
For Prob. 8.29.
8.24 The step response of an circuit is given by
2

2
2 5 10 8.30 Find for 0 in the circuit in Fig. 8.79.
Given that 0 2 and 0 4, solve for .
8.25 A branch voltage in an circuit is described by 1H
t=0
2

2
4 8 24 +
3A 10 4F 5 4u(t) A
If the initial conditions are 0 0 0 ,
ﬁnd .
8.26 The current in an network is governed by the
differential equation
2
For Prob. 8.30.

2
3 2 4

subject to 0 1, 0 1. Solve for . 8.31 Calculate for 0 in the circuit in Fig. 8.80.
+ 8.35 Refer to the circuit in Fig. 8.84. Calculate for
0.
1 i
16 F

20 V + 1
H
4 2A
5 t=0
i(t)
3 t=0
4 H
For Prob. 8.31. 10
1
3 F
8.32 Determine for 0 in the circuit in Fig. 8.81.
5
2 10

t=0
+ For Prob. 8.35.
8V + + 12 V 1
F
5

## For Prob. 8.32.

30 0.5 F 0.25 H
8.33 Obtain and for 0 in the circuit in Fig.
8.82.
+

## i(t) 60u(t) V + 20 + 30u(t) V

5H 1

+
3u(t) A 5 0.2 F (t)
For Prob. 8.36.

+
2
20 V

For Prob. 8.33. 8.37 The switch in the circuit of Fig. 8.86 is moved from
position to at 0. Determine for 0.
8.34 For the network in Fig. 8.83, solve for for 0.

0.02 F 14

6 6 + 12 V
b
6 i(t) 2H 2
a
i(t) t=0
1
8 F
t=0 1
H 6
2

30 V +
+ 4A
10 V

## For Prob. 8.34. For Prob. 8.37.

8.38 For the network in Fig. 8.87, ﬁnd for 0. 8.42 Find the output voltage in the circuit of Fig.
8.91.
5

20 1H t=0

t=0 i
10 +
100 V + 5 1
F 10 mF
25 3A 5 1H o

## For Prob. 8.38. For Prob. 8.42.

8.39 Given the network in Fig. 8.88, ﬁnd for 0. 8.43 Given the circuit in Fig. 8.92, ﬁnd and for
0.
2A
i(t)

1H 1H
6 + +
1 1
4A 1 t=0 25 F 1 4 F (t)
2
t=0
6V +
For Prob. 8.39.

## Section 8.6 Step Response of a Parallel RLC For Prob. 8.43.

Circuit
8.40 In the circuit of Fig. 8.89, ﬁnd and for 8.44 Determine for 0 in the circuit of Fig. 8.93.
0. Assume 0 0 V and 0 1 A.
4
i t=0 i(t)
+
4u(t) A 2 0.5 F 1H 12 V + 5H
1
F 5 3A
20

## For Prob. 8.40. For Prob. 8.44.

8.41 Find for 0 in the circuit in Fig. 8.90. 8.45 For the circuit in Fig. 8.94, ﬁnd for 0.

i(t) 8 mH 10

i(t)

+ 30 V + 6u(t) A 10 mF 40 4H
12u(t) V 5 F 2k

## For Prob. 8.41. For Prob. 8.45.

8.46 Find for 0 in the circuit in Fig. 8.95. 8.50 In the circuit of Fig. 8.99, ﬁnd for 0.

i
t=0
+
io t=0 6
R L C 1
F
25
20 V + 1
H
4

## For Prob. 8.46.

For Prob. 8.50.

Section 8.7 General Second-Order Circuits 8.51 If the switch in Fig. 8.100 has been closed for a long
time before 0 but is opened at 0, determine:
8.47 Derive the second-order differential equation for
(a) the characteristic equation of the circuit,
in the circuit of Fig. 8.96.
(b) and for 0.

t=0
C1 R2

ix +
+
+ R1 C2 R 8
s o
16 V + 12

1 1H
36 F
For Prob. 8.47.

## For Prob. 8.51.

8.48 Obtain the differential equation for in the circuit
in Fig. 8.97. 8.52 Obtain 1 and 2 for 0 in the circuit of Fig. 8.101.

3
R1 L
i1 i2
+
+ R2 C 4u(t) A 2 1H 1H
s o

## For Prob. 8.48.

For Prob. 8.52.

8.49 For the circuit in Fig. 8.98, ﬁnd for 0. 8.53 For the circuit in Prob. 8.5, ﬁnd and for 0.
Assume that 0 4 V and 0 2 A. 8.54 Find the response for 0 in the circuit in
Fig. 8.102. Let 3 , 2 H, and 1 18 F.

2 R

+ i R
i 10u(t) V + C L
0.1 F 0.5 F
4

## For Prob. 8.49. For Prob. 8.54.

Section 8.8 Second-Order Op Amp Circuits C2
8.55 Derive the differential equation relating to in
the op amp circuit of Fig. 8.103. R1 R2
s
– o
R2
C1 R4
C2

C1
R1 R3
s
+ o

## 8.56 Obtain the differential equation for in the

network of Fig. 8.104. 8.59 In the op amp circuit of Fig. 8.107, determine
for 0. Let in V, 1 2 10 k ,
1 2 100 F.
C2

R2 C1
C1
R1
s R2
+ o

C2
R1
in
For Prob. 8.56. + o

## 8.57 Determine the differential equation for the op amp

For Prob. 8.59.
circuit in Fig. 8.105. If 1 0 2 V and
2 0 0 V, ﬁnd for 0. Let 100 k
and 1 F.
Section 8.9 PSpice Analysis of RLC Circuit
R 8.60 For the step function , use PSpice to ﬁnd
the response for 0 6 s in the circuit of
C Fig. 8.108.
C
+ 1
+ 2
R 2 1H
+
+ +
+
+ 1F (t)
o s

## For Prob. 8.60.

For Prob. 8.57.

8.58 Given that 2 V in the op amp circuit of Fig. 8.61 Given the source-free circuit in Fig. 8.109, use
8.106, ﬁnd for 0. Let 1 2 10 k , PSpice to get for 0 20 s. Take
3 20 k , 4 40 k , 1 2 100 F. 0 30 V and 0 2 A.
8.66 Find the dual of the circuit in Fig. 8.113.
i
+
1 10 H 2.5 F

10 20 30
60 V 120 V
For Prob. 8.61.
+

## 8.62 Obtain for 0 4 s in the circuit of Fig. 4H 1F 2A

8.110 using PSpice.

0.4 F 1H 6

## + 8.67 Draw the dual of the circuit in Fig. 8.114.

13u(t) A 6 (t) 20 + 39u(t) V

5A

## For Prob. 8.62.

2 3
8.63 Rework Prob. 8.23 using PSpice. Plot for 1F 0.25 H 1
0 4 s. + 12 V
Section 8.10 Duality
8.64 Draw the dual of the network in Fig. 8.111.
For Prob. 8.67.

## 20 Section 8.11 Applications

8.68 An automobile airbag igniter is modeled by the
circuit in Fig. 8.115. Determine the time it takes the
4A 5 mH 10 mH 2 F voltage across the igniter to reach its ﬁrst peak after
switching from to . Let 3 , 1 30 F,
and 60 mH.

## For Prob. 8.64.

A B

t=0
8.65 Obtain the dual of the circuit in Fig. 8.112. Airbag igniter
12 V + C L R

## 12 V + 10 For Prob. 8.68.

0.5 F
+ 24 V
8.69 A passive interface is to be designed to connect an
4 2H electric motor to an ideal voltage source. If the
motor is modeled as a 40-mH inductor in parallel
with a 16- resistor, design the interface circuit so
that the overall circuit is critically damped at the
For Prob. 8.65. natural frequency of 60 Hz.
8.70 A mechanical system is modeled by a series t=0 R1
circuit. It is desired to produce an overdamped
response with time constants 0.1 ms and 0.5 ms. If a + +
series 50-k resistor is used, ﬁnd the values of o C1 R2 C2 (t)
and .
8.71 An oscillogram can be adequately modeled by a
second-order system in the form of a parallel
For Prob. 8.72.
circuit. It is desired to give an underdamped voltage
across a 200- resistor. If the damping frequency is
4 kHz and the time constant of the envelope is 8.73 Figure 8.117 shows a typical tunnel-diode oscillator
0.25 s, ﬁnd the necessary values of and . circuit. The diode is modeled as a nonlinear resistor
with , i.e., the diode current is a
8.72 The circuit in Fig. 8.116 is the electrical analog of
nonlinear function of the voltage across the diode.
body functions used in medical schools to study
Derive the differential equation for the circuit in
convulsions. The analog is as follows:
terms of and .
1 Volume of ﬂuid in a drug
2 Volume of blood stream in a speciﬁed i
region R L

## 1 Resistance in the passage of the drug from ID

the input to the blood stream + +
s
+ C
2 Resistance of the excretion mechanism, D
such as kidney, etc.
0 Initial concentration of the drug dosage
Percentage of the drug in the blood stream
For Prob. 8.73.
Find for 0 given that 1 0 5 F,
2 5 F, 1 5 M , 2 2 5 M , and
0 60 V.