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 In 1897, Joseph John Thomson had performed experiments which

determined the mass to change ratio (m/e) of particles produced at
the cathode.
 He performed the Cathode Ray Tube experiment.
 This experiment suggests that the cathode ray is made up of
negatively-charged particles. Thomson called these sub-atomic particles electrons.
 In 1906, Thomson received a Nobel Prize in Physics due to his contribution in proving
the existence of electron and calculating their mass to the change in ratio which has a

value of 𝟏. 𝟕𝟔 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟏𝟏 𝑪/𝒌𝒈

 In 1908, Robert Millikan identified the mass of electron through oil-

drop experiment.
 In his set-up , oil was introduced in the apparatus through an
atomizer which looks like the nozzle of a perfume spray.
 In 1923, Millikan was awarded with a Nobel Prize for calculating the mass of electron
which is
𝟗. 𝟎𝟗 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟐𝟖 𝒈


 In 1895, German Physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered X-


 He received Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901

 In 1895, Henri Becquerel, a

French scientist conclude that uranium ores also emit radiation.
 His student, Maria Skladowska Curie, suggested that the
phenomenon be called “radioactivity”.
 In 1903, Becquerel received a Nobel Prize in Physics.

 Marie Curie further studied radioactivity.

 She was recipient of two Nobel Prizes, one in Chemistry for her
discovery of Polonium and Radium in 1911, and a Nobel Prize in
Physics at the same year together with her husband Pierre Currie.
 Pierre Curie was a French physicist who did important research on
radioactive substances and piezoelectric effects, also played a big role in many of
his wife’s discovery.


(α) Alpha Rays (β) Beta Rays (Ɣ) Gamma Rays

Positively –charged with Made of electron hence Uncharged and possess
high energy and low are negatively-charged. the highest energy and
penetrating power These rays are more penetrating power
penetrating than alpha among the three.
rays and possess higher

 In 1910, Thomson student, Ernest Rutherford with Ernest

Marsden and Hans Geiger

discovered proton through gold foil experiment.


 In 1932, James Chadwick, an English Physicist discovered neutron

through bombarding Beryllium with alpha particles which emitted
an electrically neutral ray with larger mass than protons.
 A neutron is uncharged but contributes to the mass of the atom.
All particles- protons, neutrons, electrons – have place in the atom.
The neutrons and protons are contained in the nucleus of atom,
which constitutes the mass of an atom. The electrons are arranged
around the nucleus which is an empty space. The motion of
electrons determined to the size of an atom.


I. Choose correct answer from the names in the box. Write only the letter on the

space provided before each number.

a. John Dalton g. Marie Currie

b. Wilhelm Roentgen h. Robert Millikan
c. James Chadwick i. Eugene Goldstein
d. Ernest Rutherford j. J.J. Thomson
e. Henry Becquerel k. Democritus
f. Pierre Currie l. Aristotle
_________1. The ancient philosopher who believed that matter can infinitely be divided into pieces
without reaching a terminal smallest possible article.

_________2. The physicist who discovered radioactivity by accidentally exposing a film in his
cabinet by putting uranium ore on top of it.

_________3. The physicist who discovered the electron.

_________4. The pioneer of the “Gold-foil Experiment”.

_________5. Discover of neutrons.

_________6. The philosopher who first recognized that elements exist and proposed that the four
basic elements: fire, water, earth and air exist.

_________7. The scientist who won the Nobel Prize by determining the mass of electron using Oil-
drop experiment.

_________8. The proponent of atomism.

_________9. The person who calculated the mass to charge the ratio of an electron.

_________10. The person who coined the term “electron”

_________11. The scientist who noticed that cathode rays caused glass and metals to emit unusual
rays, darkened photographic rays and caused fluorescence

_________12. The proponent of the atomic theory.