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1 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996

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Open Access & Print, Peer-reviewed and Refereed Multidisciplinary


Journal

International
Journal of Social Sciences
& Humanities
(IJSSH)
ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X
Volume 5 Issue 9 June 2019

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2 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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3 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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Editorial Board

Chief Patron
Dr. R.B. Heda
President, The B.G.E. Society, Akola, India

Advocate M.G. Mohta


Hon. Secretary, The B.G.E. Society. Akola, India

**All the Executive & Life Members of the B.G.E. Society, Akola, M.S. India

Editor - in - Chief
Dr. S.G. Chapke,
M.Com., M.B.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Principal, Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola, India

Executive Managing Editor


Dr. Varsha S. Sukhadeve
M.Com., M.A.(Eco), M.B.A., M.Phil., NET, Ph.D., D.Litt.
Professor & H.O.D., IQAC Co-ordinator,
Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola , India

Review Editors
Dr. Jetti Pandu Ranga Rao
M.Com., M.B.A., M.Phil, NET, Ph.D.
Asso. Prof. P.R. Government College (A) Kakinada

Rama Bhadra Rao Maddu


R&D Director, Nova College of Engineering & Tech

Assistant Editors
Dr. W.K. Sarwade
M.Com.,M.B.A., Ph.D.
Dean, Faculty of Management, Controller of Examination,
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,
Aurangabad. India

Dr. G.G. Gondane


M.Com., M..A( Eco),DBM, SET, Ph.D.
Associate Professor & H.O.D. Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola, India

International Editorial Board


Prof. Natalya ( Natasha)
Dean & Director
Business Programme, Cameron School of Business, Delcoure University of St. Thomas
Houston, Texas
4 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

Prof. Ferdous Farazi


Binti School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University, Tokyo

Prof. Michael Graff


Department of Economics
School of Humanities & Social Sciences
Jacobs UniversityBremang Gmbh Gremen, Germany

Prof. S.S. Thrikawala


Dept. Of Commerce & Financial Management
University of Kelaniya
Srilanka

Prof. Frantidek Bozek


University of Defence, Kounicova, Czech Republic

Prof. M.W. Wikramarachachi


Former dean, Faculty of Commerce & Finance, Sri Jalvardhanepura University, Srilanka

Prof. Seperantasofia Milancouici


Western University, Vasile Goldl Sarad, Romania

Dr. Tekki Sriniwasa Rao


Professor, Commerce & Management, National University, Malaysia

Dr. Rataporn Deesomsak


Professor in Finance
Durham Business School Durham university DHI-3lb
U.K.

Dr. Dinesh Ramdhony, Senior Lecturer in Accounting,

University of Mauritius, Faculty of Law & Management, Reduit- 80837, Mauritius

National Editorial Board


Dr. Manoj Edqard, Professor,

School of Management Studies, Cochin University of Science & Technology, Kochi,


Kerala

Dr. Muninarayanaappa
Professor of Commerce
Bangalore Central University, Central College Campus Bangalore.

Dr. P. Veeraiah
Professor, Business & Commerce, PSS, Central Institute of Vocational Education, Bhopal, A
Constituent Unit of NCERT,
5 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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Dr. K. S. Rao
Professor, Commerce & Management
Andhra University, Vishakhapatanm.

Dr. B. Ramesh, Professor, Dept of Commerce & Management


Goa University, Goa.

Dr. Ashalata Raman


Associate Professor & H.O.D. ( Language)
Languages, Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola, India

Dr. Anant Deshmukh


Professor, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur

International Advisory Board


Mubark Ibrahim Khillo
Economic Expert
Director General of Planning
Ministry of Justice, Sultane of Oman
e-mail: killo65@hotmail.com

Kijpokin Kasemsap
Engineering Manager
Formica Co.Ltd. , Thailand
e-mail: kijpokin.kasemsap@formica.com

Prof. Yong Chen Chen


Professor of Commerce, University of Malaysia
Kual Lumpur, Malaysia

National Advisory Board

Prof. K. Ramkrishna Reddy


Vice-Chancellor
Shri Krishna Devaraya University, Anantpur.

Prof. Mohd. Akbar Ali Khan


Vice – Chancellor
Telangana University,
Nizamabad, A.P.

Prof. B.R. Ananthan


Vice-Chancellor
Rani Channamma University, Belgum
6 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

Dr. Baban Taywade


Former Dean, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur
Principal, Dhanwate National College, Nagpur

Prof. Venkatratnam
Vice-Chancellor
Kakatiya University, Warangal

Dr. D.Sreeamulu
Joint Director & Professor of Management, Prof. G.Ram Reddy Centre for Distance
Education, Osmania University, Hydrabad
e-mail:dsreeram25@rediffmail.com

Dr. V.S. Ainchwar


Vice- Chancellor
Gondavana University
Gadchiroli

Dr. Shyam Kale


Dean, Faculty of Commerce, SGB Amravati University, Amravati

Prof. M. Yadagiri
M.Com., M.B.A, M.Phil.,Ph.D.
Head , Dept. Of Commerce & Dean Faculty of Commerce & Business Mgt.
Telangana University, Dichpally, Nizamabad

Dr.Vinayak Deshpande
Vice Chancellor, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur.
7 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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Index
S.NO. TITLE OF THE PAPER AUTHOR(S) PAGE
NO.
1 Impact of MGNREGA on Rural Livelihood *Ms. Pooja D. 9-14
Rangwani

2 Women Empowerment : Challenges and * Dr. Hemlata D.Mor 15-22


Prospects
3 “A study of organizational culture and its *Miss Bhawana 23-35
Shyamlal Kotwani,
impact on employees’ performance with
**Dr. Varsha S.
specific reference to the Bharat Sanchar
Sukhadeve,
Nigam Limited (BSNL), Akola.”

4 A Study on the Consumer Buying Behaviour *Ms. Harsha S.Parecha, 36-40


of D-Mart Shopping Center with Special **Dr. Mahesh C. Dabre
Reference to Amravati City.

5 Preference of customers for adoption of *Miss. Pooja K. Shetiza, 41-48


**Dr. R.D. Sikchi,
Mobile Wallets - Post Demonetization Study

6 Marketing and Distribution Strategies in *Kalpana R. Laddha, 49-54


Patanjali Herbal Product

7 Research paper presentation on “study of *Dipalee P.Shah 55-65


value added services (vas) in banking sector”

8 Suitability Of Some Training Techniques In *Dr. J. Pandu Rangarao 66-73


Banking Sector
9 A Study on Approach of Graduates’ *Prof. Shashikant .G. 74-83
Employability and Entrepreneurial Skills and Thorat
**Dr. G.G. Gondane,
filling the gap between Industry and Institute
8 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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by promoting Skill Development,


Employability and Entrepreneurship.
10 “Revolution and convergence of *miss.sneha sheshrao 84-90
gawai,
communication technologies in commerce
**dr.varsha s.
education: - it’s impact on the youth of akola
Sukhadeve
city”

11 Solar energy: A Need of Time *Medha Gajanan 91-96


Kulkarni

12. Corporate Social Responsibility And *Dr. K. Narendra 97-102


Kumar,
Sustainability
**Mrs.P.Kalpana,

13. A study of technology innovations in banking *Miss Shubhangi 103-108


Dongre
sectors and its impact on services.
**Dr. J.m. Kale.

14. Foreign Direct Investment In Retail Sector In Miss. Sulbha Gulabrao 109-112
Wankhede
India
15. Historical Development Of Crochet Lace At M. Hari Prasad 113-117
Narsapur
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Impact of MGNREGA on Rural Livelihood


Ms. Pooja D. Rangwani
Asst.Professor,Shri Brijlal Biyani Science & Commerce College, Amravati
E-mail id : pooja.rangwani31@gmail.com, M-9763364022

Abstract - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) aims
to provide for enhancement of livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the
country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in every
financial year to every household whose adult member volunteers to do unskilled manual
work. One of the major objectives of the scheme is to improve the income levels and enhance
the quality of life of village folks who are thus far eking out with meager income, constraints
of low wages, frequent interruptions in wage earnings etc. by providing 100 days of wage
employment at prescribed minimum wages applicable in the region. In view of the above the
present study was conducted in six thasisls of Akola based on sample of 510 respondents with
the objectives - to study the effect of MGNREGA on the daily wage rate in the villages and to
study the synergy between MGNREGA and rural livelihoods, with special reference to
Agriculture.
Considering the increased figures of daily wage rate, it is clear that the MGNREGA
provides wages to meet day to day expenses.MGNREGA does provide basic income assurance
to a large number of beneficiaries. Net household income or income as a fraction of household
income is considered as an indicator of the relevance of the scheme for the poor.
Introduction
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) aims to
provide for enhancement of livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the country
by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial
year to every household whose adult member volunteers to do unskilled manual work.
A unique feature of Mahatma Gandhi NREGA is its demand-driven character. It
described the steps required for setting up systems that accurately record demand for work by
wage-seekers. But before we begin to record demand, we need to make a prior assessment of
the quantum of work likely to be demanded as also ascertain the timing of this demand.
Concomitantly, we need to prepare a shelf of projects that would allow us to meet this demand.
This matching of demand and supply of work is the process of planning under MGNREGA
and this is to be achieved through the preparation of a Labour Budget, which has two sides –
one, assessment of quantum and timing of demand for work and two, preparing a shelf of
projects to meet this demand in a timely manner.
One of the major objectives of the scheme is to improve the income levels and enhance
the quality of life of village folks who are thus far eking out with meager income, constraints
of low wages, frequent interruptions in wage earnings etc. by providing 100 days of wage
employment at prescribed minimum wages applicable in the region.
Objectives
• To study the effect of MGNREGA on the daily wage rate in the villages.
• To study the synergy between MGNREG
• A and rural livelihoods, with special reference to Agriculture.
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The present study was carried in six tahsils of Akola district of Maharashtra. From
each thasil five villages were selected for the study based on higher number of beneficiaries
under MGNREGA working in a selected village. Thus, total thirty villages and six tahsils
were selected from Akola district.
The list of beneficiaries who worked under MGNREGA since 2007 was obtained from
Zillah Parishad /Gram Panchayat/Panchayat Samiti of the selected villages and from each
selected village Seventeen beneficiaries were selected randomly to constitute a sample size of
510 beneficiaries. Extent of economic analysis of MGNREGA on income and livelihood
security.
In the context of present study of impact of MGNREGA on rural livelihood. Index of
impact on rural livelihood was computed by summing up the independent index values of
percent change in human capital, physical capital, natural capital, social capital, financial
capital and vulnerability and dividing it by six (no. of indices).
Impact on Rural Livelihood (IRL) index = ΔHCI + ΔPCI +ΔNCI +ΔSCI +ΔFCI + (ΔV)
-------------------------------------------------------------
6
Employment Generation
One of the objective of present study was to know about the employment generated
from MGNREGA. The period selected for the study was 2007-08 to 2014-15, since the starting
of MGNREGA .Hence the period of 8 years has been selected as the MGNREGA is the
employment guarantee scheme for 100 days. The number of days selected were – upto 60 days
60-80 days, 80-100 days and above 100 days. The employment generated in Akola district for
selected MGNREGA members during the study period is presented in the following table 1.
Table 1
Distribution According to Employment Generation in MGNREGA during 2007-08 to 2014-15
S.N Year Upto 60 Upto 80 Upto 100 Above 100 Total
F % F % F % F % F %
1 2007-08 11 2.15 241 47.25 258 50.58 0 0 510 100
2 2008-09 49 9.60 179 35.09 282 55.29 0 0 510 100
3 2009-10 57 11.18 172 33.73 281 55.09 0 0 510 100
4 2010-11 61 11.96 168 32.94 281 55.09 0 0 510 100
5 2011-12 59 11.57 182 35.69 267 52.35 2 0.39 510 100
6 2012-13 69 13.52 150 29.41 291 57.05 0 0 510 100
7 2013-14 23 4.51 164 37.16 322 63.14 1 0.19 510 100
8 2014-15 30 5.88 150 29.41 326 63.92 4 0.78 510 100

On going through the table , the employment generated upto 60 days over the study
period was reported only by 2.15% to 13.5% members. Similarly the employment generated
above 100 days was reported by 0.19% to 0.78% members. Majority of the members ranging
between 50.58% to 63.92% described that employment generation was upto 100 days. The
employment generation for 80 days during the study period was reported by 29.41% to 47.25%
MGNREGA members.
The above percentage distribution concludes that more than 90% MGNREGA members
accepted that the employment generated was for 80 to 100 days.
The findings suggested by Kenchanagouda (2007) revealed that fourty per cent of the
beneficiaries received 50 to 100 man days of employment, while 42.00 per cent got
employment for 100 to150 man days under “Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY) in
Gadag district of Karnataka”.
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Table 2
Distribution of Daily Wage Rate from year 2007 to 2015
Sr.No Year Daily Wage Rate in Rs.
1 2007-08 45
2 2008-09 45
3 2009-10 68
4 2010-11 100
5 2011-12 127
6 2012-13 145
7 2013-14 168
8 2014-15 181

Source of Income for Livelihood Family

MGNREGA aims to provide a steady source of income and livelihood security for the
poor, vulnerable and marginalized which covers sources of income for livelihood of families
of MGNREGA beneficiaries with the help of following table 3.
Table 3
Distribution according to Source of Income for Livelihood of Family
Sr Particulars No 5000- 10000- 15000- 20000- 25000- 30000 &
Income 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Above
1 Wages B F 12 92 148 160 83 13 2
% 2.35 18.04 29.09 31.37 16.27 2.55 0.4
A F - 14 74 158 70 98 96
% - 2.75 14.51 30.96 13.73 19.22 18.83
2 Farming B F 282 115 74 33 2 2 2
% 55.29 22.55 14.51 6.48 0.39 0.39 0.39
A F 280 57 88 50 7 8 20
% 54.90 11.18 17.55 9.80 1.37 1.57 3.93
3 Livestock B F 399 106 3 2 - - -
% 78.24 20.78 0.59 0.39 - - -
A F 397 111 2 - - - -
% 77.84 21.77 0.39 - - - -
4 Business B F 483 - - 27 - - -
% 94.71 - - 5.29 - - -
A F 480 - - 30 - - -
% 94.12 - - 5.88 - - -

The above table depict the before and after status of sources of income for livelihood
of families of rural household including various sources such as wages, farming, livestock, and
business. According to the above table, income of beneficiaries in the form of wages states that
2.35% of members were having no income before participation in MGNREGA i.e they were
unemployed, after participation the ratio of unemployment turned to zero in case of wages.
Before participation, 29.09% of respondents were earning from wages Rs.10,000/- to
Rs.15000/- and afterwards 30.96% of members were earning Rs.15000/- to Rs.20,000/-. Before
this scheme, 16.27% of members were earning Rs.20,000 to Rs.25000/- from wages and after
getting benefitted from this scheme , it increased to 19.22% of members earning Rs. 25000/-
to Rs, 30,000/- from wages. Before participation, just 0.4% respondents were earning above
Rs. 30,000/- from wages and afterwards the score increased to 18.83%.
Regarding farming as a source of income for livelihood evident that before
participation, 55.29% of respondents had no income from farming, in other words, farming was
not source of income for them and after participation, the ratio decreased to 54.90%. Before
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this scheme, 14.51% of respondents were earning Rs. 10,000/- to Rs. 15000/- from farming,
afterwards the score improved to 17.25%, 6.48% of members were earning Rs. 15000/- to Rs.
20,000/- from farming before implementation of this scheme, after its implementation, the ratio
turned to 9.80%. 0.39% of beneficiaries were earning Rs. 20,000/- to Rs. 30,000/- before
participation and after involving in this scheme, the ratio increased to 1.57%. Just 0.39% of
members were earning above Rs.30,000/- from farming before existence of this scheme and
afterwards the figures changed to 3.92%.
The another source of income for livelihood of MGNREGA respondents indicated in
above table is livestock which states that before existence of this scheme , 77.84% of
respondents has no income form livestock may be because of livestock was not the source of
income for them and after existence of this scheme , the figures reduced to 77.84% , 20.785 of
respondents were earning Rs. 5000/- to Rs. 10,000/- from livestock before participation in this
scheme and after participation, the scores changed to 21.77%.
The status of business as source of income for livelihood of families of rural household
of area covered in the study in the above table depict that more than 94% of respondents don't
have income from business i.e business is not a source of income for majority of them and
remaining 5.29% of respondents were earning Rs. 10,000/- to Rs.15000/- from business before
participation and 5.88% of members were earning Rs. 15000/- to Rs. 20,000/- from business
after participation.
It is clear from above date collection that, majority of respondents are wage earners
with minimum earning of Rs.10,000/- to Rs. 15000/- and maximum earning of Rs. 15000/- to
Rs.20,000/- annually. second priority level is of Farming with same minimum and maximum
earnings level as for wage earners. And for Livestock and Business as source of income, the
rural people are less interested in the distribution of upto 20% for Livestock and upto 5% for
Business.
Ahuja et al. (2011) also observed positive impact of MGNREGA in terms of growth in
income, employment security, migration, debt repayment, socio-economic status after
participation in MGNREGA works.
Overall evidence suggest that MGNREGA does provide basic income assurance to a
large number of beneficiaries. Net household income or income as a fraction of household
income is considered as an indicator of the relevance of the scheme for the poor. A study
observed that the share of MGNREGA in the income of the poor in Maharashtra is 7%.
The difference in change of livelihood security index were worked out and their mean
and SD values are presented in the given table 4 below.
Table 4
Distribution of MGNREGA Women according to Livelihood Security Index (Prem Narayan
Method)
Sr No Particulars Frequency Mean SD
1 Most Developed(0 to 0.40) 30(5.88) 0.36 0.03
2 Developed(0.40 to 0.60) 300(58.82) 0.50 0.05
3 Underdeveloped(0.60 to 0.80) 153(30) 0.68 0.05
4 Poorly Developed(0.80 & Above) 27(5.29) 0.92 0.22
Total 510

On going through the table, it is observed that MGNREGA women has achieved the
success in changing the index level of livelihood security and reaching into developed and most
developed indexed groups.
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Considering the livelihood security index, the above table shows the figures in such a
way that 5.29% of MGNREGA women are covered in poorly developed group, 30% of them
are covered in under developed group,58.82% of them are included in developed group and
5.88% of them belong to most developed group.
It is concluded from above statistical calculation that more than 50% of MGNREGA
women were successful in development of their livelihood security as majority of them were
covered in developed group of livelihood security index.
The mandate of the Act is to provide 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a
financial year (FY) to every rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled
manual work. As this scheme started in 2005 in India but in Maharashtra implemented in 2007,
accordingly under the area of study, in 2007-08 and 2008-09, daily wage rate was Rs. 45/- per
day, in year 2009-10 daily wage rate increased to Rs.70, Rs.72, Rs.68, Rs. 66, Rs.70 and Rs.72
for Barshitakli, Murtizapur, Badapur, Akot, Telhara and Patur respectively. Further more, in
year 2010-11, daily wage rate increased to Rs.100, in year 2011-12 daily wage rate increased
to Rs.127, in year 2012-13 daily wage rate increased to Rs.145/-, in the year 2013-14 daily
wage rate increased to Rs. 168/- and in the year 2014-15 daily wage rate raised to Rs. 181/-
Hence, considering the increased figures of daily wage rate, it is clear that above
hypothesis found to be true.
Majority of respondents are wage earners with minimum earning of Rs.10,000/- to Rs.
15000/- and maximum earning of Rs. 15000/- to Rs.20,000/- annually. second priority level is
of Farming with same minimum and maximum earnings level as for wage earners. And for
Livestock and Business as source of income, the rural people are less interested in the
distribution of upto 20% for Livestock and upto 5% for Business.
Hence, MGNREGA does provide basic income assurance to a large number of
beneficiaries. Net household income or income as a fraction of household income is considered
as an indicator of the relevance of the scheme for the poor. And therefore, hypothesis is proved
to be true.
MGNREGA provides the choice to demand work to a large number of rural households
and person in nine years of MGNREGA implementation.
Conclusion
 More than 90% MGNREGA members accepted that the employment generated was for
80 to 100 days.
 Majority of respondents are wage earners with minimum earning of Rs.10,000/- to Rs.
15000/- and maximum earning of Rs. 15000/- to Rs.20,000/- annually. second priority
level is of Farming with same minimum and maximum earnings level as for wage
earners. And for Livestock and Business as source of income, the rural people are less
interested in the distribution of upto 20% for Livestock and upto 5% for Business.
 MGNREGA does provide basic income assurance to a large number of beneficiaries.
Net household income or income as a fraction of household income is considered as an
indicator of the relevance of the scheme for the poor. A study observed that the share
of MGNREGA in the income of the poor in Maharashtra is 7%.
 More than 50% of MGNREGA women were successful in development of their
livelihood security as majority of them were covered in developed group of livelihood
security index.
14 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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References
 Kenchanagoudra, S. M. 2007. An analytical study on sampoorna grameen rozgar yojana
(sgry) in Gadag District of Karnataka State Ph.D. Thesis (Unpub.), Univ. Agric. Sci.,
Dharwad.
 Usha Rani Ahuja, D. Tyagi, S. Chauhan and K. R. Chaudhary. 2011. Impact of
MGNREGA on Rural Employment and Migration: A Study in Agriculturally-backward
and Agriculturally-advanced Districts of Haryana Agricultural Economics Research
Review.
15 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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Women Empowerment: Challenges and Prospects


Dr. Hemlata D.Mor
Asst.Professor,Smt.L.R.T College of Commerce ,Akola
E-mail id : hemlata.mor@gmail.com, M-9422860584

Abstract
Women are an internal part of every economy and Women’s Empowerment has been
an issue of immense discussions. All round development and harmonious growth of a nation
would be possible only when women are considered as equal partner in progress with men.
Efforts have been made on a regular basis across nations to address this issue and enhance
the socio-economic status of women. This working research paper attempts to understand the
concept of women empowerment and critically examine the efforts initiated towards
empowering women with special emphasis upon the Self Help Groups(SHGs) . It further aims
towards understanding the linkages between SHGs & women empowerment and proposing
suggestions to accelerate the empowerment. Empowerment of women is essential to harness
the women labor in the main stream of economic development. Empowerment of women is a
holistic concept. It is a multi- dimensional in its approach and covers economic, political,
social culture, personal and familial aspects. Of all these facets of women development,
economic empowerment is of utmost significance in order to achieve a lasting and sustainable
development of society. Provision of microfinance is an important means for attaining women
empowerment.

Keyword: Self Help Group (SHG), Women Empowerment.

Introduction:

In rural areas women living below the poverty line are unable to realize their potential.
Microfinance programs are currently being promoted as a key strategy for simultaneously
addressing both poverty alleviation and women‘s empowerment. The self help groups (SHGs)
of women as sources of microfinance have helped them to take part in development activities.
The participation of women in SHGs made a significant impact on their empowerment both in
social and economic aspects. Vast sections of the rural poor are even now deprived of the basic
amenities, opportunities and oppressed by social customs and practices. Several programs were
implemented by various governments and nongovernmental organizations to uplift them both
economically and socially. It has been an accepted premise that women were not given enough
opportunities to involve themselves in the decision making process of the family as well as in
the society. Hence, women were the main target groups under SHG program. Microfinance can
provide an effective way to assist and empower poor women.
The problems and constraints experienced by women entrepreneurs:
The greatest deterrent to women entrepreneurs is that they are women. Women are
looked upon as ―abla i.e. weak in all respects. In a male dominated society, women are not
treated equal to men that act as a barrier to woman‘s entry into business.
 Lack of self-confidence, will-power, strong mental outlook and optimistic attitude
amongst women creates a fear from committing mistakes while doing their piece of
work. The family members and the society are reluctant to stand beside their
entrepreneurial growth.
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 Women in India are even less educated, economically not stable nor self-dependent
which reduce their ability to bear risks and uncertainties involved in a business unit.
 Unlike men, women mobility in India is highly limited due to many reasons. A single
women asking for room is still looked with suspicion. Cumbersome exercise involved
in starting with an enterprise coupled with officials humiliating attitude towards women
compels them to give up their spirit of surviving in enterprise altogether.
 Indian women give more emphasis to family ties and relationships. Married women
have to make a fine balance between business and family. The business success also
depends on the support the family members extended to women in the business process
and management.
 The educational level and family background of husbands also influences women
participation in the field of enterprise.
 Absence of proper support, cooperation and back-up for women by their own family
members and the outside world people force them to drop the idea of excelling in the
enterprise field. Many women take the training by attending the Entrepreneurial
Development program without an entrepreneurial bent of mind. Women who are
imparted training by various institutes must be verified on account of aptitude through
the tests, interviews, etc.
 Lack of awareness about the financial assistance in the form of incentives, loans,
schemes etc. by the institutions in the financial sector. So the sincere efforts taken
towards women entrepreneurs may not reach the entrepreneurs in rural and backward
areas.
 Achievement motivation of the women folk found less compared to male members. The
low level of education and confidence leads to low level achievement and advancement
motivation among women folk to engage in business operations and running a business
concern.
Apart from the above discussed problems there may occur other series of
serious problems faced by women entrepreneurs as improper infrastructural facilities, high cost
of production, attitude of people of society towards the women modern business outlook, low
needs of enterprise. Women also tend to start business about ten years later than men, on
average. Motherhood, lack of management experience, and traditional socialization has all
been cited as reasons for delayed entry into entrepreneurial careers.
Objectives:-
1) To study the socio economic characteristics of selected respondents.
2) To study the challenges before SHG members
3) To study the constraints by SHG members
Methodology:
The present study was based on primary data .The primary data were collected from
field survey through filled in questionnaire and direct interview method. 50 Self groups were
selected at random in Akola district. The data collected were tabulated .Percentage were
worked out for the tabulated data. Statistical methods used and correlation were also computed.
Analysis of data and interpretation of results were done.
Results and Discussion:
Following table presents distribution of the respondents according to their age,
education, training, duration of training and opinion on exhibition.
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Table1: Distribution of the respondent according to their personal and exhibition activity
characteristics
Characteristics Frequency Percentage
Age
15-25 3 6%
25-35 16 32%
35-45 20 40%
Above 45 11 22%
Education
Illiterate 3 6%
Primary 20 40%
SSC 11 22%
HSSC 10 20%
Graduate 6 12%
Training
As per skill 41 82%
Not as per skill 9 18%
Duration of Training
1-5 days 34 68%
5-10 days 4 8%
10-15 days 2 4%
15-20 days 10 20%

Exhibition Agree Disagre Netura


e l
Exhibition is effective media 45(90 5(10%) -
for product sale %)
Exhibition can sale all the 43(86 6(12%) 1(2%)
products %)
Product stand in competition 40(80 7(14%) 3(6%)
%)
Source: Field Survey
Table 1 represents the distribution of respondents according to their age, education, training
and exhibition. As this variables are related to the working of SHG. The distribution of
respondents according to age indicates that about ¾ of the SHG members belong to the age
group of 25 - 45 i.e. middle age group. They are married and having the responsibility of their
family. The education level of the respondent indicate that they are belonging to all categories
of education as 40% of the respondent members have their education level up to primary, 42%
having education SSC/HSSC. The satisfactory thing for SHG group members is that 12% of
them have completed graduation which can leave the SHG upliftment of rural poor’s .The
working of SHG is based on profession selected which helps the group and members in
particular to have definite monthly income. It is based on skilled based training.82% of the
respondent agreed that they receive training as per their skill, however their duration of training
is less than their expectation. The respondent’s expectation was to have at least one month
training as per their skill. Nearly 76% of the respondents receive training for about 1 week.
None of the SHG agreed that the training is sufficient to stand in the competition. Program
coordinators and the group leaders are making efforts to sell the SHG products through
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exhibition.90% of the respondents agree that the exhibition is the effective media for the sale
of products and the production can be sold through the exhibition. If the required skill is
acquired product can stand in competition.
Table No.2: Distribution according to caste

S.No. Caste Number of Percentage


Respondents
1. NT 54 13.5%

2. Schedule Tribe 78 19.5%

3. Schedule Caste 113 28.25%

4. OBC 155 39.75%

Total 400 100


Source: Field Survey
Table 2 presented above shows the category to which selected respondents belongs.
38.75% of the selected SHG respondents belong to the OBC category while 28.25% belongs
to NT and 19.5% belongs to Schedule Tribe and 13.5% of the respondents belongs to Schedule
Caste. It clearly indicates that these SHG are working for economically backward classes for
their upliftment.
Table No.3: Distribution according to Family Size
S.No. Family Size Number of Percentage
Respondents
1. Up to 3 members 29 7.25 %

2. 3-5 134 33.5 %

3. 5-8 177 44.25 %

4. 8 and above 60 15 %

Total 400 100


Source: Field Survey
Table 3 presents the distribution of families of SHG member according to the
family size .On going through the table it is observed that about 59% the families are joint
family while 40-25% of the families are nuclear family as revealed from their family size.
33.5% of the SHG member family size ranges between 3-5, while 44.25% of the SHG members
belong to the family size of 5-8. 15% of the SHG member belongs to large families with family
size with 8-12 years. Majority of the SHG members have 3-8 members in the family.
Table No.4 : Distribution according to Present Financial Status
S.No. Financial Status Number of Percentage
respondents
1. BPL(Below 207 51.75%
Poverty Line)
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2. APL(Above 193 48.25%


Poverty Line)
Total 400 100
Source: Field Survey
Table 4 above inferred the financial status of the selected SHG members.51.75% of the
respondents is below poverty line i.e BPL and 48.25% of the respondents are above the Poverty
line i.e APL. It concludes that uniform weight age has been given to both the categories.
Table No.5: Impact of Change in Socio Economic Status of SHG Members
No. of Respondents (Percentage )
S. Question Fully Disagree Neutral Agree Fully Total
NO Disagree Agree
1. Recognition in 12(3) 0(0) 0(0) 190(47.5) 198 (49.5) 400
family
2. Mobility 10(2.5) 7(1.75) 7(1.75) 4(1) 372(93) 400
3. Interaction with 17(4.25) 7(1.75) 13(3.25) 231(57.75) 132(33) 400
outsiders
4. Access to credit 19(4.75) 1(0.25) 19(4.75) 138(34.5) 223(55.75) 400
sources
5. Asset Building 8(2) 6(1.5) 24(6) 99(24.75) 263(65.75) 400
6. Nutrition 12(3) 5(1.25) 19(4.75) 100(25) 264(66) 400
awareness
7. Girl Child 11(2.75) 3(0.75) 35(8.75) 130(32.5) 221(55.25) 400
Development
awareness
8. Decision Making 6(1.5) 0(0) 16(4) 123(30.75) 255(63.75) 400
related to Child
centred
9. Participation in 8(2) 7(1.75) 28(7) 103(25.75) 254(63.5) 400
Development
Program
10. Status in the 6(1.5) 8(2) 30(7.5) 138(34.5) 218(54.5) 400
Society
Source: Field Survey
Table 5 shows change in the socio economic status of SHG members was studied with the help
of questions in the 5 point scale. In response to the recognition and importance in the family,
97% of the SHG members have partially or fully agreed that their importance and recognition
in family have increased after joining SHG.
94% of the SHG members agreed that their mobility has been increased drastically after
joining SHG. In response to interaction with outsiders 90.75% of the SHG members partially
or fully accepted that it has become possible to have straight dialogue with the outsiders while
earlier it was not possible for them even to talk with elders in the family. SHG made change in
it.
The credit sources and their proper utilisation were beyond the thought of family. SHG
joining changed it drastically & 90.25% SHG members agreed the fact that the access to the
credit and it sources was possible only because of SHG.
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Asset building was never thought by the SHG members as they were struggling for their
bread and butter which were a dream for them. SHG joining introduce the idea and possibility
of asset building partially or fully agreed as expressed by 90.5% of the SHG members and
hence they are not only thinking but also implementing in practical.
In the opinion of 91% of the respondents the nutritional awareness was partially or fully
increased amongst them. Hence they are planning and implementing the nutritional fruits for
their family especially to their children.
Daughters where the neglected part in the family as it was felt that she is the property
of someone else and thus they are care takers for certain period. Hence their proper growth and
nutritional requirement were never thought. SHG joining has made aware fully or partially to
the SHG member about the proper growth of daughter, their nutritional requirement according
to their health and planning diet accordingly as expressed by 88.75% of the SHG respondents.
The decision about the daughter education was the most neglected part of the family
SHG joining increased the importance of women in the family which resulted in decision
making about their daughter ‘s education as felt partially or fully by 94.5% of the SHG
members .
The question on participation in development programs was asked to the SHG members
as the development Programmes are mostly the social activities. Therefore it was necessary to
know about the awareness and participation in the development programme. As pinioned by
88.25% of the women respondents, their participation is partially or fully agreed in these
program which was never thought of before joining SHG.
Elevation of status in the society was partially or fully agreed by 89% of the women
respondents as they were not having any position in the society earlier of joining the SHG.
Joining SHG has given them an identity which became not only the source of income but
elevated position in the society also.
Increase in personal income reflected in tendency of spending and therefore she could
spend on the family needs, daughter’s education, hygiene and health and also on the religious
program which elevated the status in religious activity also. As such the participation in
religious activities was also increased.
Self employment as a concrete source of income, family elevation, daughters education,
participation in social and religious activities overall resulted in changing in social attitude
towards her.. The overall attitude of the society towards her has been completely changed and
she feels comfortable in the society and family.
The above discussion concludes that joining SHG has made elevation in the status of
women member on the scales of socio economy which resulted change in the socio economic
status of the SHG members as agreed and accepted by 80% to 97% of the women members.
Table:6 Correlation between selected traits of SHG members .
Parameters Values
Age and Education -0.48263
Age and family size -0.38305
Age and social activity 0.343929*
Education and family 0.359475*
Marital status and social activity 0.364843*
Social activity and training activity 0.76030**
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** indicates 1% level of significance


* indicates 5% level of significance
Source: Field Survey
Table 6 represents the results of correlation studies indicates that there is a
significant positive correlation between age of the respondent and information about SHG,
education of the respondent and family information, marital status and social score as well as
social score and training activities .Senior SHG members have well acquainted with SHG.
Educated members of the SHG have better family background. Married SHG members have
their identity and status in the society and thus could manage the desired training. The negative
correlation between the age and education as well as age and family information indicates that
senior SHG members have lower level of education and are also related from the families with
lower family background.
Table 7: Problems faced by respondents
Problems faced by respondents Frequency Percentage
Formulation of group 45 90%
Repayment of loan 30 60%
High rate of interest 27 54%
Too many formalities 38 76%
Source: Field Survey
Table 7 represents the major problems faced by the respondents .Nearly 90%
respondents face the problem in formulation of the group. Nearly 60% face the problem in
repayment in loan. More than 50% respondent face the problem paying high rate of interest.
Nearly ¾ th respondents agreed that there is too many formalities and thus are the major
constraints.
Suggestions:
The following efforts can be taken into account for effective development of women
entrepreneurial.
1. Training Programme on management skill should be provided to rural women of SHG’s.
2. Counseling through the aid of committed NGOS, Psychologists, managerial experts &
technical Personnel should be provided.
3. Making provisions of marketing & sales assistance from Government part.
Conclusion: -
The SHG members belong to lower level education and have low to medium socio
economic status. SHG joining has elevated the status and respect of their members in their
family.SHG members feel that one or the other change has been brought by the SHG in their
life. Joining SHG has elevated financial status of their members. The overall mentality of SHG
members has been changed. The SHG members are not fully satisfied about the working of
SHG’s and also duration of training. The major constraints faced by the SHG members are use
of exhibition to sell the produce and the quality of product.
References:
 G.T. Govindappa, Rural women entrepreneurship- Constraints and strategies,
Kurukshetra
 M.A Lokhande; Socio economic impact of micro financing through SHG’s in
marathawada region, the Indian Journal of commerce
 Dr. Anita Mehta and Dr. Mukund Chandra Mehta (2011) ‘Rural Women
Entrepreneurship in India:-Opportunities and challenges’
22 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

 Sujata Kumari and Vandana Kaushik (2010) ‘Problems Faced by Rural Women
Entrepreneurs of Rajasthan’, Kamla-Raj 2010
 Does microfinance empower women ,Ranjula Bali Swaina and Fan Yang Wallentin
(September 2009)
 www.google.co.in
 www.wikipedia.com
 www.gifre.org
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A study of organisational culture and its impact on employees performance


with specific reference to the bharat sanchar nigam limited (bsnl), akola.
Miss Bhawana Shyamlal Kotwani Dr. Varsha S. Sukhadeve
M.com, M.A. (Eco.), NET, SET. Professor & H.O.D,
Faculty of Dept. of Management Studies Dept. of Management Studies and Research,
and Research, Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola.
Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola

.
Key Words:- Organisational culture, Employee performance, job satisfaction, values,
cooperative environment, team-work,
Introduction:
Organisational culture provides a framework with respect to the behaviour of
employees in their workplace. Depending on the type of culture that is created in an
organisation, it can have a positive or negative effect on employee performance. Let’s look at
a few organisational situations that result in either positive or negative employee performance.
An organisational culture where employees are considered an integral part of the
growth process of the organisation fosters employee commitment towards the organisation.
They align their goals and objectives with those of the organisation and feel responsible for
overall well-being of the organisation. As their efforts are in turn appreciated by the
management and suitably rewarded, they have immense job satisfaction. In such organisational
cultures, the employees are committed to achieving their goals and thus have a positive effect
on the overall performance of the organisation.
In organisations where the managers are not facilitators but taskmasters, employees live
with fear and distrust and work is nothing but a dreary chore. Since they are not involved in
the overall organisational goals, they do not understand the implications of their tasks and
hence may not be committed to achieving them. An organisation where there is no cooperation
between different departments ends up having employees working in silos or working towards
undermining the efforts of the other departments which is detrimental to the overall health of
the organisation.
Organisational culture to a large extent determines the performance of the employees.
Therefore, it is in the interest of the organisations to eliminate negative factors that slow down
employee performance in order to foster a positive workplace environment or a positive
organisational culture.
The analysis was done through simple percentage analysis & weightage average
method. From the analysis, it was found that the employees of BSNL were much satisfied with
their interpersonal relationships, co-ordination & integration between various departments of
the organisation, and also the rewards & incentives given by their management.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:
The present study attempts to focus on the opinion of the entire respondents on the culture
prevailing in BSNL, Akola SSA. It covers the Akola urban and rural division.
 To access the existing culture of the organization & to find its impact on
employee’s performance.
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 To analyse the overall performance of the employees.


 To learn the employees relationship with their peers.
 To understand how the employer encourage participation in decision making.
 To find out the employees motivational factor.
 To explore how organizational culture influence job satisfaction & its
subsequent impact on employee performance.

RATIONALE OF THE STUDY:-


The researcher is interested to conduct to research on “A study of Organisational
Culture and its impact on employees performance with specific reference to the Bharat
Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), Akola.”
The research area chosen aims to understand the organisational culture and its impact
on the performance of BSNL employees of Akola SSA. The expected outcomes can be
projected in the service organisations based on the relevance of the research results, since the
importance of culture study , and their contribution to the organisations are significant for the
current competitive situations. Employees perceptions towards organisation plays crucial role
in the effectiveness of the organisational outcomes.

HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY:-


 Organisational culture creates positive impact on performance of
employees.
 Organisational culture directly related to management & regulatory
functions of BSNL AKOLA.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:-
1. It Helps the management:
 To understand the causes of performance problems.
 To understand how to assess the effectiveness of motivational practices in the
organisation.
2. This study focuses how on today’s turbulent, often chaotic environment, commercial
success depends on
employees making use of their talents in full.
3. The management can create the work environment in which their employees will thrive.
4. The management can:
 Enhance the professional perception of the employees.
 Foster a team oriented cooperative environment.
 Enhance employee relationship.
 Provide constructive feedback to employee performance
 Encourage the employees to change their negative behaviour pattern.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:-
It is the basic plan that guides the researcher in conducting the research project. This
research topic is classified as descriptive research.
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a) Area of Research:- This research would be conducted in Akola SSA. The Akola SSA
comprises of two revenue districts namely Akola and Washim.
b) Period of Research:- The period for this research work would be of 5 years i.e. from 1st
April, 2014 to 31st March, 2019.
C) Universe:- Employees (Junior level Executives) of BSNL, Akola SSA.
d) Sample size:- The sample size for this research work would be of 100 respondents.
e) Method of Data Collection:- The data for this study was collected from both primary and
secondary sources.
Primary Data:- The primary data used for this study is gotten from the employees of
BSNL, Akola. This survey method is used considering the size of the universe and time factor.
Secondary Data:- The secondary data were collected from published textbooks,
journals, articles and other online sources.
f) Tools for Data Analysis:- As the questions generate direct information the data were
analyzed using Statistical tools such as:
1. Simple Percentage
2. Weightage average
3. The Chi square statistical method was used to analyse state hypotheses of the
research.

AN OVERVIEW OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE:


Organisational culture has assumed importance since the 21st century, because
of its impact on employee performance and job satisfaction. It is imperative in every
organisation to understand its own dynamic culture so that managers can capitalize on the
insights generated by the cultural perspective to weild greater control over their organisations.
Organisation culture can be described as a thought or scheme in the field of management and
Organisational studies which depicts and describes the psychology, behaviours, experiences,
beliefs and values of an Organisation. These morals, values, ethics and ideals could be personal
as well as cultural (Harrison & Stokes, 1992).
Organisational culture has the potential to affect a range of Organisationally and
individually desired outcomes. According to Ritchie (2000), Organisational culture affects
such outcomes as productivity, performance, commitment, self-confidence, satisfaction and
ethical behaviour. Similarly, more recent writers have stated that Organisational culture
impacts on any Organisation, its employee performance and job satisfaction and ultimately its
financial performance.
Furthermore, it has also been noted that Organisational culture helps management to
find out the suitable strategies and policies which can drive employees to contribute themselves
and to Organisational performance. With the ever changing technology and fast paced business
arena, Organisations today are grappling to find new and innovative ways of improving
performance with the minimal addition of cost. Many Organisations have now turned to
explore the sociological aspect of the business in order to improve profitability. Culture is one
aspect that is not tangible, yet it plays a very important role to the success of any Organisation.
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WHAT IS ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE?


There is no single definition for Organisational culture. The topic has been studied from
a variety of perspectives, ranging from disciplines such as anthropology and sociology, to the
applied discipline of Organisational behaviour, management sciences to Organisational
commitment. In the course of this research, we are going to look at some definitions given by
some authors from the applied sciences discipline.
Moorhead and Griffin (1995), authors of books of Organisational culture, feel
compelled to develop their own definitions of culture. These may vary from the very broad
definitions to the highly specific. Most definitions refer to some sort of values, beliefs, and
attitudes that are held by individuals and the Organisation.
Mullins (1999) defines Organisational culture as the collection of traditions, values,
beliefs, policies and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything one does and
thinks in an Organisation.
Collins and Porras (2000) state that Organisational culture refers to a system of shared
meaning held by members that distinguish one Organisation from other Organisations. They
believe that shared meanings are a set of key characteristics, and that the organisation values
and the essence of an Organisation’s culture can be captured in seven primary characteristics.
These characteristics are :
 Innovation and risk-taking: This has to do with the degree to which employees are
encouraged to be innovative and take risks;
 Attention to detail: The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision
analysis attention to detail;
 Outcome Orientation: The degree to which management focuses on results or
outcomes rather than on techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes;
 People orientation: The degree to which management decisions takes into
consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the Organisation;
 Team Orientation: The degree to which activities are organized around teams rather
than individuals;
 Aggressiveness: The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than
easy going.
 Stability: The degree to which Organisational activities emphasize maintaining the
status quo in contrast to growth.
Each of these characteristics exists on a continuum from low to high. Appraising
the Organisation on these seven characteristics gives a composite picture of the
Organisations culture.
LEVELS OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
Organisational culture exists on several levels, which differ in terms of visibility
and resistance to change. When it comes to changing the culture of the Organisation, it becomes
difficult to determine which the more are, and which are the less important elements that help
shape an Organisations culture. Hofstede (1990) developed a four-layered hierarchical model
of culture which helps to identify and categorize the constituent elements of culture.
 Shared assumptions: This is the least visible or deepest level is that of basic,
which represents beliefs about reliability and human nature that are taken for
granted.
 Cultural Values: This is the next level of culture is that of, which represents
collective beliefs, assumptions and feelings about what things are good, normal,
rational and valuable. Cultural values might be very different in different
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organisations; in some, employees may care deeply about money, but, in others,
they may care more about technological innovation or employee well-being.
 Shared behaviours: These are more visible and somewhat easier to change
than values. The reason is that people may be unaware of the values that bind
them together.
 Cultural symbols: The most superficial level o f Organisational culture
consists of symbols; theses are words (jargon or slang), gestures and pictures or
other physical objects that carry a particular meaning within a culture.
THE CREATION OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE
Meewan (2001) postulates that as a concept, culture is inseparable from the notion
of human society. Cowling and James (1994) support McEwan in the postulation that an
Organisation cannot be separated from the culture of society. To try and change the prevailing
culture within an organisation, one has to take cognizance of the relevant societal culture.
Robbins, on the other hand, argues that a company’s Organisation culture does not pop out of
thin air and, once it is established, it does not fade away. An organisation’s current customs,
traditions and general way of doing things are largely due to what it has done before and the
degree of success it has had with these endeavours. Robbins further emphasizes that the
founders of an Organisation have a major impact on that organisation’s early culture. They
have a vision of what the organisation should be, and they are unconstrained by previous
customs and ideologies. The process of culture creation occurs in three ways:
 First, founders only hire and keep employees who think and feel the way they do;
 Second, they indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and
feeling; and
 Finally, the founders own behaviour acts as a role model that encourages employees to
identify with them and thereby internalize their beliefs, values and assumptions. When
the organisation succeeds, the founder’s vision becomes seen as a primary determinant
of that success. At this point, the founder’s entire personalities become embedded in
the culture of the organisation. Robbins further explains that culture is transmitted to
employees in a number of forms, the most important being, stories, rituals, symbols and
languages.
1. Stories:
Robbins quotes the story of the Ford Motor Company. When Henry Ford II was the
chairman, he continuously reminded his executives, when they got too arrogant, that, it’s my
name on that building. The message was clear; It was Henry Ford II that ran the company.
Robbins believes that culture is learned by employees who listen to other employees or
managers who relate stories about how earlier managers, or even founders of companies,
treated their customers, or how they handled tricky situations that arise in the company. Stories
such as these circulate through many organisations, consequently transmitting the culture from
year to year.
2. Rituals:
Rituals are repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values
of the organization, which goals are more important, which people are important, and which
are expendable. Certain Organisations hold rituals in the form of annual award ceremonies,
in recognition of outstanding services or in recognition of success at achieving certain targets
set by the organisation, e.g. sales targets.

3. Material Symbols:
According to Robbins, the layout of corporate headquarters, the types of automobiles
top executives are given, are all examples of material symbols. Others include the size of
offices, the elegance of furnishings, executive perks, and dress attire. The material symbols
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convey to employees who are important, the degree of egalitarianism desired by top
management, and the kinds of behaviour that is appropriate.
4. Language:
Many Organisations and units within Organisations use language as a way to identify
members of a culture or a sub-culture. By learning this language, members attest to their
acceptance of the culture and, in doing so, help to preserve it. Organisations over time often
develop unique terms to describe equipment, offices, key personnel, suppliers, customers, or
products that relate to their business.

EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE:
Employee performance is a term typical to the Human Resource field where employee
performance can refer to the ability of employees to achieve organisational goals more
effectively and efficiently. It involves all aspects which directly or indirectly affect and relate
to the work of the employees. It is one measurement of work results in determining individual
attributes such as ability and experience, Organisational supports such as resources and
technology and work effort, the point at which individual level of motivation comes directly to
be involved. Employee performance can also be seen as an aggregate value to an organisation’s
set of behaviours that an employee contributes both directly and indirectly to Organisation
goals.
Grinzberg has used the term employee performance to refer to an employee’s response
to demands that are made on him by the employer or Organisation which he is part of. Porter
and Lawler explained and measured the employee performance in the organisation by his
abilities, traits and his role perception. Meanwhile, environmental factors also play an
important in the performance of an employee. It can have an influence an employee’s ability
and also have an influence on the task direction or perception.

THE IMPACT OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE ON EMPLOYEE


PERFORMANCE
Early studies have indicated that there exists the relationship between organisational
culture and employee performance. Organisational culture is inherently connected to
organisational practice; therefore employee performance is conditional on organisational
culture. According to Hellriegel and Slocum, organisational culture can enhance performance
on a large scale. According to them, the culture of an organisation allows the employees to be
acquainted with both the firm’s history as well as current methods of operation and this specific
direction endows the employees with guidance about expected and accepted future
organisational behaviours and norms.
Furnham and Gunter states that organisational culture functions as the internal
integration and coordination between firm’s operations and its employees. Internal integration
has to do with the societal interaction of new members with the existing ones, creating
boundaries of the organisation feelings of identity among personal and commitment to the
organisation. A strong organisational culture supports adaption and develops employee
performance by motivating employees towards a shared goal and objective, and finally shaping
and channelling employee’s behaviour to that specific direction.
Furthermore, the type of organisational culture created in an organisation determines the
impact it can have on employee performance. It can have either a positive or a negative impact.
29 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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PROFILE OF BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED (BSNL):-

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (known as BSNL) is a public sector communications


company in India. It is the largest telecommunication company in India and the seventh largest
in the world. Its headquarters are at Bharat Sanchar Bhawan, Harish Chandra Mathur Lane,
Janpath, New Delhi. It has the status of Mini-ratana, a status assigned to reputed Public Sector
companies in India.
BSNL is India’s oldest and largest Communication Service Provider (CSP). It has
footprints throughout India except for the metropolitan cities of Mumbai and New Delhi which
are managed by MTNL. BSNL has installed Quality Telecom Network in the country & now
focusing on improving it, expanding the network, introducing new telecom services with ICT
applications in villages and winning customer’s confidence.
BSNL serves its customers with a wide bouquet of telecom services namely Wire line,
CDMA mobile, GSM mobile, Internet, Broadband, Carrier service, MPLS-VPN, VSAT, VoIP,
IN Services, FTTH, etc.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:


Percentage Analysis of Data
Sr. Particulars Strongly Slightly Disagree
Agree Neutral
No. Agree Disagree
1 Highly involved in their work. 53 24 14 9 0

Organisational culture directly


2 related to Management & 47 34 15 4 0
Regulatory functions.
Others cooperate to get work 0
3 12 65 23 0
done.
30 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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Members have a good 0


4 22 41 32 5
interpersonal relationship.
Employee consulted on important 0
5 15 26 50 9
matters.
Effective utilization of skills and 4
6 9 56 26 5
abilities by the company.
Capabilities are viewed as
7 important source of competitive 18 39 27 6 10
advantage.
Work related suggestions are 7
8 13 44 30 6
valued
The Organisation values 0
9 13 50 28 9
diversity.
Organisation has clear and 4
10 22 35 33 6
consistent set of values.
While disagreements occur the
11 employee work hard to achieve 17 58 19 2 4
solutions.
Easy for the employee to reach
12 consensus even on difficult 12 49 31 8 0
issues.
Feel happy to work with people
13 from other parts of the 44 35 13 8 0
organisation also.
It is easy to coordinate with
14 different departments of the 41 46 11 0 2
Organisation.
Organisational culture creates
15 positive impact on performance 42 47 11 0 0
of employees.
Employees continually adapt to
16 new and improved ways to do 33 46 16 4 1
work.
Company’s current activities 0
17 22 45 23 10
reflect a strong focus on clients.
Employees given a real
18 opportunity to improve their 31 41 15 5 8
skills in the organisation.
Employees view failure as an
19 opportunity for learning and 25 52 18 1 4
improvement.
Organisation has a clear mission
20 that gives meaning and direction 20 48 23 2 7
to their work.
Employees are clear with the
21 organisation’s long term purpose 29 46 17 2 6
and direction.
Employees have clear idea about 2
22 32 49 15 2
the company’s goal.
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Employees continuously track


23 their progress against the stated 26 48 22 3 1
goals.
Employees have a shared vision 3
24 46 30 17 4
about the future of organisation.
Organisation’s vision creates 5
25 25 57 10 3
motivation for the employees.

WEIGHTED AVERAGE:-
Opinion about the organisational factors with respect to employee’s behavioural aspects:
Sr. Weightage
Factors Score
No.

1 I am highly involved in my work. 4.21

2 I have the ability to manage my own work. 4.24

3 The people I work with cooperate to get work done. 3.89

My team members have a good interpersonal relationship with 3.80


4
me.
5 My boss consults me on important matters. 3.47

6 My skills and abilities are utilized effectively by the company. 3.61

My capabilities are viewed as an important source of 3.49


7
competitive advantage.
8 My work related suggestions are valued. 3.50

9 The Organisations values diversity. 3.67

10 There is a clear and consistent set of values. 3.65

When disagreements occur, I work hard to achieve “win-win 3.82


11
“solutions.
12 It is easy for me to reach consensus, even on difficult issues. 3.65

I feel happy to work with people from other parts of the 4.07
13
Organisation also.
It is easy for me to coordinate with different departments of the 4.24
14
Organisation.
15 I respond well to the Organisational changes. 4.31

16 I continually adopt new and improved ways to do work. 4.06

The company’s current activities reflect a strong focus on 3.79


17
clients.
I am given a real opportunity to improve my skills in this 3.82
18
organisation.
19 I view failure as an opportunity for learning and improvement. 3.93

There is a clear mission that gives meaning and direction to my 3.75


20
work.
32 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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I am clear with the Organisation’s long term purpose and 3.90


21
direction.
22 I have clear idea about my company’s goal. 4.07

23 I continuously track my progress against the stated goals. 3.95

I have a shared vision of what the Organisation will be like in 4.12


24
the future.
25 Organisation’s vision creates motivation for me. 3.94

INTERPRETATION:-
From the above table, it is clear that most of the respondents gave more weightage for
the statement “I respond well to the organisational changes”.
Secondly, respondents give more weightage for two statements, “I have the ability to
manage my own work” & “It is easy for me to coordinate with different departments of the
organisation”.
Third weightage for statement “I am highly involved in my work”.
Fourth weightage for the statement, “I have a shared vision of what the organisation will
be like in the future”.
The fifth position is for two statements, “I feel happy to work with people from other
parts of the organisation also” & “I have clear idea about my company’s goal”.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING:-
Hypothesis testing are very crucial in a research. This is so because until a hypothesis
has been tested and checked against available data, it is nothing more than a guess.
The Chi square test of goodness of fit is used to test the formulated hypotheses.
Chi Square formula: X^2 = Ʃ (fo – fe)^2
Fe
Where: X^2 = Chi square fo = Observed frequency
Ʃ = Summation fe = Expected frequency
Hypothesis I:
H0: Organisational culture does not create positive impact on performance of employees.
Hi: Organisatinal culture creates positive impact on performance of employees.
In testing hypothesis 1, Q.15 of the statements was used.
Q.15: Organisational culture creates positive impact on performance of employees?
The data from the table would be used to evaluate the above hypothesis using Chi Square test.
Sr. No. of Percentage
No. Respondents
1 Strongly Agree 42 42.0

2 Agree 47 47.0

3 Neutral 11 11.0

4 Slightly 0 0.0
Disagree
5 Disagree 0 0.0

Total 100 100.0


33 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

Organisational culture creates positive


impact on performance of employees.
50
40
30 No. of
20 Respondents
10
0

Computation of X^2
Opinions Fo fe (fo-fe) (fo-fe)^2 (fo-fe)^2
fe

Strongly agree 42 33.33 8.67 75.1689 2.255

Agree 47 33.33 13.67 186.8689 5.606

Neither agree nor 11 33.33 -22.33 498.6289 14.960


disagree (Neutral)
Total 100 22.821

Calculating degree of freedom = (R-1) * (C-1)


Where: R = Total no. of Rows
C = Total no. of Columns
Degree of freedom = (3-1) * (2-1) = 2
Tabulated X^2 at 0.001 level of significance of 2 degree of freedom = 14.574
Decision:- Since the table value 14.574 is lower than the calculated value of 22.821, we
reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis and conclude that the
Organisational culture create positive impact on performance of employees.

Hypothesis II:-
Ho: Organisational culture is not directly related to management & regulatory functions
of BSNL, Akola.
Hi: Organisational culture directly related to management & regulatory functions
of BSNL, Akola.
In testing hypothesis 2, Q.2. of the Statements was used.
Q.2.: Organisational culture directly related to management & regulatory functions of BSNL,
Akola.
The data from the table would be used to evaluate the above hypothesis using Chi Square
test.
Sr. Opinion No. of Percentage
No. Respondents
1 Strongly Agree 47 47.0

2 Agree 34 34.0

3 Neutral 15 15.0
34 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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4 Slightly 4 4.0
Disagree

5 Disagree 0 0.0

Total 100 100.0

Organisational culture directly related to


management & regulatory functions.
60 No. of
40 Respondents
20
0

Computation of X^2
(fo-fe)^2
Opinions Fo Fe (fo-fe) (fo-fe)^2 fe

Strongly agree 47 25 22 484 19.36

Agree 34 25 9 81 3.24

Neither agree nor 4


15 25 -10 100
disagree (Neutral)
Slightly disagree 4 25 -21 441 17.64

Total 100 44.24

Calculating degree of freedom = (R-1) * (C-1)


Where: R = Total no. of Rows
C = Total no. of Columns
Degree of freedom = (4-1) * (2-1) = 3
Tabulated X^2 at 0.001 level of significance of 3 degree of freedom = 25.802
Decision:- Since the table value 25.802 is lower than the calculated value of 44.24, we
reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative and conclude that the Organisational
culture directly related to management & regulatory functions of BSNL, Akola.

CONCLUSIONS:-
The study shows that hosted culture dimensions affect the organisational performance
in telecom companies. There are several factors which influence the organisational
performance but this research consider the hosted culture dimensions only. Organisational
culture plays an important role in achieving the organisational objective. Result shows that
there is high uncertainty avoidance in the organisation & higher the uncertainty avoidance,
better will be organisational performance.
The study about the Organisational culture and behaviour on employees reveals that the
workers were satisfied with their ability, co-operation, team work, involvement, supervisors,
utilization of their skills and rewards etc. They are highly with the current culture of BSNL.
35 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

Because of this favourable culture the employees show positive behaviour like high
involvement, highly commitment to the Organisation, highly motivated and highly flexible to
the Organisational changes etc.

SUGGESTIONS:-
The following recommendations are giving the findings of the study:-
 Every individual has different culture and beliefs that he works with and when he
joins an Organisation that has a completely different culture & beliefs from his
own, he should be allowed to internalize himself first with the Organisation’s
culture & values to know whether he can cope up with them or not. It is the ability
of the employee to cope with the Organisations culture that will determine how
he will perform on his job.
 In cases where an Organisational culture must be changed, employees must first
of all be notified and made to learn the modification of the old culture as this will
affect their performance.
 Organisations should also develop a culture that encourages employees to be
innovative & creative & also see the employees as humans and not as machines.
 In training programmes, practical sessions must receive greater emphasis.
 Lastly, Organisational culture must be binding on all members and staff of the
company as this will encourage uniformity among members of the Organisation
& thus enhance commitment and group efficiency.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:-
a) Aswathappa, Reddy, K., & Sudarsana. G. (2009), Organisational Behaviour.
Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House.
b) Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s Consequences, Sage London.
c) Robbins S.P. (2005) Organisational Behaviour, 11th edition, Prentice-Hall of
India.
d) Schein, E. H. (1990). Organisational Culture. American psychologist, 43 (2), 109-
119.
e) Kothari C.R., Research Methodology, Wishwa Prakashan, New Delhi,
1985(Reprint 2003).
f) Alhabri, M. A., et al. (2013). Impact of Organisational culture on employee
performance. International Review of Management and Business Research, 2(1),
168-172.
g) Robbins, S. P., 2001. Organisational Behavior, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
h) Singh Kavita, Organisational change and Development, Excel Books Private
Limited.
i) Senge, Peter M. (1990), The fifth Discipline: The Art and Pracyice of Learning
organisation, New York: Doubleplay.
j) Sinha, Dharni P. (1986), T-Group, Team Building and Organisational
Development, New Delhi, India:ISABS.
k) French, Wendell L., and Cecil H.(1996), Development: Behavioral science
Interventions for organization Improvement (5th Edition), New Delhi, India: Hall
of India
l) BSNL Portal- www.bsnl.co.in
m) www.google.co.in
36 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

A Study on the Consumer Buying Behaviour of D-Mart Shopping Center


with Special Reference to Amravati City.
Ms. Harsha S.Parecha Dr. Mahesh C. Dabre
M.Com, M.Phil., M.A. (Eco), Ph.D. Scholar, M.Com, M.A. (Eco), M. Ed., MBA,
Smt. L. R. T. College of Commerce Akola, M.Phil., G.D.C. & A., SET, Ph.D.
Maharashtra, India. Associate Professor
harshaparecha@gmail.com Smt. L. R. T. College of Commerce
Akola,
Maharashtra, India.
maheshdabre@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
D-Mart has become the center of attraction of Amravati city. This research study is carried out
by keeping in mind D-Mart shopping center which was set up in the year 2006 in Amravati
city. As D-Mart was gaining popularity as well as good business in the city another branch of
the same shopping center was establish in the year 2014. As it is gaining popularity, the things
related to it got caught my attention. Basically D-Mart achieved a huge success all over India
and so as in our city. Thus, the authorities decided to open another branch in the same city.
Descriptive research method is used in the present study. The primary focus of the study was
on the perception of people towards this mall. It is observed throughout the study, people have
developed a trust over D-Mart. They have build trust with this supermarket rather than any
other shopping place in Amravati. It seems where other marts are running their business with
losses or even shutting down their mart. On the other hand, D-Mart is growing and flourishing
in quantity as well as quality. Buyers have shown positive attitude towards D-Mart shopping
center. That is why, they visit it number of times. It was also discovered during the study that
people from various small areas around Amravati come to buy from D-Mart. The reason is
very clear as they get all sorts of products under one roof. There are other numerous factors
which attract the buyers like discounts, quality products, offers like buy one get one free,
products of various brands, etc. D-Mart also provide various new products which no other
retailer or mall provides to the customers. So, this research paper deals with the buying
behaviour of consumers of D-Mart shopping center.
KEYWORDS- perception, behaviour, attitude, discount, supermarket.

1. INTRODUCTION
D-Mart is a chain of Hypermarket and Supermarket in India. It is owned and operated by
Avenue Supermarkets Ltd. (ASL) and founded by Mr. Radhakishan Damani in the year 2002,
15th May.
D-Mart has become one of the major malls in Amravati city. The consumers hardly go on any
other retail store to buy things rather than D-Mart at present. Malls and shopping center have
become the places consumers frequently visit. According to Kavita Kanabar (2012) the mall
culture has gained acceptance and consumers are repeating their visits for successive purchases
marked by the increase of regular users at malls. Unlike the traditional retail store, D-Mart is a
mall where almost sort of products are available. Consumers are free to view and examine all
the products before buying which they don’t get to do in any retail store. Thus, they have
developed feeling of dissatisfaction against retailers. Anil Barbole and Varsha Borade (2012)
mentioned in their study about customer’s dissatisfaction towards the retailers. They also
conducted that supermarkets are trying to know their customers and thus give a tough
competition to the retailers.
37 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

The study deals with the buying behaviour of the local consumers from D-Mart. Consumers
have a positive attitude towards D-Mart due to the numerous benefits it provides. It has almost
all sorts of products under one roof. It not only provides variety of goods but also at the best
affordable prices. Factors like offers, brands, quality, proper response, personalization adds to
the positive behavioural outcome of the customers. Zanual Bhutoo and Vikram Singh (2012)
mentioned in their study that there are dimensional factors also which affects the behaviour
like personalization, responsiveness, flexibility, parking space, privilege to regular customers.
Payment mechanism is one of the factors which play a crucial in buying from the malls or
supermarkets (Ashutosh Sandhe, 2012). Thus, the present study takes into consideration these
factors to assess the behaviour of the consumers.
D-Mart is a three storey building apart from its godowns, which is systematically categorized
in three sections foods items clothing, and plastic and stationary. There is a linkage between
the store attributes and the preference of customers. (Sanjev Verma, 2007). As compared to the
time of its opening in Amravati, D-Mart has increased the variety of products a lot. It now
provides a wide range of products than any other mall in Amravati. The most important
objective behind its establishment is to provide good quality products at best affordable value.
And our study provides the feedback which shows they are successfully achieving their core
objective.
Along with providing comfortable and convenient shopping experience to people D-Mart has
a simple and easy policy for return and exchange. They prefer to deal with this manually in the
particular branch. Thus, they don’t entertain the queries asked via email or any other medium.
Apart from Maharashtra, D-Mart has its branches in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat,
Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Punjab.
Its headquarters is situated in Powai, Mumbai. D-Mart executives informed that the smooth
functioning possible due to the chain’s operating model. This operating chain pays its supplies
within 48 hours of delivery.
It was found by keeping in mind the middle income group people, but today people belonging
from all income groups prefer to buy from it. Our present study has shown people from high
income group also shop from D-Mart in Amravati city. As of June 2019, it had 181 stores
across the country. The company aims to establish more branches in the near future to address
the growing needs of the Indian family.
2. OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH
The objective of the present study is to assess the behaviour of the consumers’ towards the well
known shopping centre D-Mart in Amravati city. The behavioural outcomes can be assessed
by the following objectives.
1. To study the buying behaviour of consumers of D-Mart Mall in Amravati city.
2. Consumers’ reaction towards products, its quality and facilities provided by D-Mart.
3. To find out the availability of varieties of products.
4. To know the satisfaction level of consumers’.

3. HYPOTHESIS OF THE RESEARCH


Various factors like quality of product, affordability, offers, discounts, durability etc have a
positive impact on consumers’ vising D-Mart. Also it’s being the only mall that is growing and
38 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

flourishing consumers’ have developed trust over a period of time. Thus, the study
hypothesizes the following:
H1: Consumers frequently buy goods from D-Mart due to its high quality, discount rates and
easy return policy.
H2: Various different goods are available of different brands under one roof.
H3: Consumers are highly satisfied with D-Mart in Amravati city.
4. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH
1. D-Mart can use this study and consumers feedback to increase their business in the
emerging cities like Amravati, Akola, and Nagpur etc.
2. The study is limited to D-Mart consumers of Amravati city only.
3. Disturbance in the mall and consumers were quite busy buying goods also adds to the
limitations of this study.
5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
As the study aims at the buying behaviour of consumers, the population for the proposed study
is individuals from Amravati city who has visited D-Mart at least once. Descriptive Method is
chosen for the present research study. Along with it, Simple Random sampling method is
adopted. Randomly individuals were asked to fill in the questionnaire. Small interviews with
customers as well as executives and employees of D-Mart have also been conducted. In such a
way, primary data was collected from the D-Mart employees and customers from various
different locations. The source for secondary data was journals, national and international
publications, newspaper, internet etc. Hence, the present study consists of both primary and
secondary data. 100 customers of D-Mart have taken as sample size for this study. Customers
of D-Mart shopping center from different areas and location were selected randomly to provide
their feedback through questionnaire and interview.
6. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Table No. 1: Demographic profile of respondents
Characteristics No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
Gender
Male 48 48 %
Female 52 52 %
Age
18-25 24 24 %
26-35 39 39 %
36-45 21 21 %
46 and above 16 16 %
Marital Status
Single 33 33 %
Married 67 67 %
Education
Graduate 34 34 %
Post Graduate 24 24 %
Professional 42 42 %
Table 1 analyzes the demographic profile of the respondents. The study has 48 Male
respondents and 52 Female respondents. The age of respondents, 24 respondents were aged 18
39 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

to 25, 39 respondents were aged 26 to 35, 21 respondents were aged 36 to 45 while remaining
16 respondents were aged above 46. Out of all 100 respondents, 67 respondents were married
while 33 respondents were single. The educational qualification of the respondents was 34
respondents were Graduate, 24 respondents were Post Graduate and 42 respondents were
Professionals.
7. RESULTS AND FINDINGS
Table No. 2: Hypothesis (H1)
Why do you often buy goods from D-Mart shopping center?
High Quality Discount Rates Easy Return Policy
34 47 19
According to the research conducted consumers often buy goods from D-Mart. 34%
respondents buy due to the high quality it provides, 47% respondents buy because of the offers
and discount while 19% respondents buy goods as the return policy of D-Mart is very easy and
convenient.
Table No 3: Hypothesis (H2)
Do you agree various goods and of different brands are sold by D-Mart under one roof?
Agree Disagree
86 14
In the research conducted, 86% of respondents agreed and 14% of respondents did not agree
that D-Mart sale various different types of good along with different brands under one roof.
Table No. 4: Hypothesis (H3)
Are you satisfied with D-Mart of Amravati?
Highly satisfied Less satisfied Not satisfied
79 13 8
According to the study table 4 states that 79% of respondents are highly satisfied, 13% of
respondents are less satisfied and 8% respondents are not satisfied with the D-Mart shopping
center of Amravati city.
8. CONCLUSION
D-Mart executives and staff were very supportive throughout my research work. The
consumers have shown positive attribute towards this shopping center. They have built a
relation of trust over these years with this shopping center. The huge chain of this mart has
shown stability and sustainability. Consumers’ frequently visit D-Mart to buy various things.
People visit once or twice a week and make bulky purchase. The factors which have developed
positive attitude are mentioned in the prescribed study. D-Mart has also affected on the sales
of retailers of the city. Retail stores did not reach the heights of consumer’s satisfaction as D-
Mart. Consumers show positive perceptions towards the working style, product range and the
facilities provided by D-Mart mall. Overall to conclude it becomes mandatory to mention that
consumers have played a crucial role in the success of D-Mart.
9. REFERENCE
1) Baker, J., Grewal, D., & Parasuraman, A. (1994). The Influence of Store Environment on
Quality Inferences and Store Image. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol 22
(4). ISSN 1552-7824, 328-339.
2) Barbole, A. N., & Borade, V. (2012). The Impact of a Customer Buying Attitude on Various
Grocery Products in Supermarkets in the city of Sholapur. International Conference on
Management, 1-4.
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ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

3) Bhardwarj, S., Sharma, R., & Agarwal, J. (2011). Perception of Consumers towards
Shopping Mall: A Study with Reference to Aligarh and Mathura city. VSRD International
Journal of Business and Management Research, Vol 1 (5), 321-334.
4) Bhutoo, Z. B., Yadav, R., & Singh, V. (2012). Consumer Perception of Retail Outlets: A
Comparative Study of Big Bazaar and more Mega Stores. International Journal of New
Practices in Management and Engineering. Issue 1.
5) Devi, N., Sankarranarayanan, S., & Kumar, D. A. (2013). Consumers’ Shopping of
Convince Goods in Organized Retail Store. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing Review, Vol
2 (2). ISSN 2319-2836.
6) Kamboj, P. (2012). Retail Industry: Its Growth, Opportunities and Challenges. International
Journal of Research in Finance and Marketing, Vol 2 (2).
7) Kanabar, K. (2012). Change in Consumer Behaviour in Surat with Introduction of Mall.
Euro and Asia Research and Development Association. ISSN 2231-4334.
8) Mohanty, S. (2012). Drivers of Reatil Shopping: An Exploratory Study. International
Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol 2 (3). ISSN 2250-3153, 1-6.
9) Ratnam, V. (2007). Changing Consumer Behaviour and Emerging Challenges to the Retail
Trade in India. Indian Retail Review, Vol 1 (2).
10) Sandhe, A., & Pandya, A. R. (2012). Measuring Consumer Involvement in Vadodara:
Impact of Product Involvement on Purchasing Intention in Vadodara : An Empirical Study.
International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, Vol 2 (7). ISSN 2249-5894, 53-65.
11) Sinha, P., & Banerjee, A. (2004). Store Choice Behaviour in an Evolving Market.
International Journal of Marketing, Vol 32. ISSN 0959-0552, 482-495.
12) Trivedi, M. K. (2008). From Traditional Markets to Shopping Malls. A Paradigm Shift.
13) Verma, S. (2007). An Exploratory Study of Consumer Perception for Retail Store
Selection in Mumbai. Indian Retail Review, Vol 1 (2).
10. WEBSITES
www.dmartindia.com
https://dmart.in
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/DMart
41 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

Preference of customers for adoption of Mobile Wallets - Post


Demonetization Study

Miss. Pooja K. Shetiza Dr. R.D. Sikchi


Ph.D. Research Scholar, Principal,
Department of Management studies & Sitabai Arts,Commerce, Science College,
Research, Akola
Smt. LRT College of Commerce, Akola

Abstract-

Digital wallets is the best platform to settle& manage all the cashless transaction, and it can
play vital role to send and receive money across India. So, using Mobile Wallets is better, to
improve your present money shortage situation you can only use M-Wallet money in various
fields like shopping, travel booking, taxi booking, and even it was acceptable for few other
sites which offer food and other services. A mobile wallet provides an opportunity to change
the way consumers manage their money in increasingly convenient and quick ways. A mobile
wallet simplifies your shopping experience. It save time to use your mobile wallet than any
other method of payment, so it can save you a ton of time at the till. It’s also much more
convenient to use. It’s easy to forget your wallet at home, but most people always remember
to bring their phones with them. That means you’re always prepared for when you need to
purchase something.Digital India and increased use of smart phones and internet are means to
exponential growth in use of digital payment. This transformation towards digital payments
benefits in more transparency in transactions which empowers the country’s economy. In
recent days many changes took place in the payment system like digital wallets, UPI and BHIM
for smooth digital payment. Before demonetization move in November 2016, cash accounted
for 96% of the monetary transactions in the country. The move primarily aims to curb the black
money in the economy and making it a “cashless economy”. All the transactions would be done
through cheques, debit & credit cards, M-Wallet etc., which will curb the corruption in the
country. Also, demonization drive by Prime Minister “Mr.NarendraModi” will not only be
beneficial for debit and credit card offering banks, but it is alsofruitful for M-Wallet
companiesas well.This will lead to lower lending rates and increased supply of money in an
economy. In this research paper, Researcher will study, how demonetization impact on user
behaviour or preference towards online payment using Mobile wallets&Preference regarding
usage of Mobile wallet for purchasing product/ Services.

Keywords- M-Wallet, Demonetization, Online payment


Introduction
Cashless economy refers to the minimization of the use of cash in the economy by
promoting cashless products. RBI & government are taking efforts to encourage new variety
of payment & settlement facilities for achieving the goal of cashless economy. The main object
of cashless transaction is to curb the liquid cash from the economy & increase the transparency
in exchange of money. It helps to control the unaccounted money or black money. Cashless
transaction have better transparency, scalability & accountability. In cashless economy most
of transaction will be done by digital means like debit & credit card, E-banking & digital
wallets. In simple words we can say that no physical currency will be used by public in given
country. The physical currency is replaced by various no. of digital ways & it is powered by
42 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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digital information technology & are transferring money from one person’s bank account to
another person’s. All money transfer products have their own features, qualities & mechanism
that work together other devices.
The fearless decision of the Indian government to demonetize all the old currency notes of
Rs.500 and Rs.1000 has been a burning factor through the country.People are presently
hovering over banks and waiting for their chance to take their daily limit of the amount, and it
has been an endless battle for ordinary citizens. This fearless decision of government helped to
boost the cashless economy.
Need of the study-

India is fastest growing developing country. It has passing through various transformation since
one decade that are responsible for economic growth. Industrialization, International trade,
Make in India project, various initiatives are taken by government to improve GDP, Economic
growth etc. Besides this the proportion of cashless transaction as compared to various
indicators is very low. If we study last 4-5 Years growth of cashless transaction is increased.
Demonetization decision coupled with government’s initiative to make India a cashless
economy is expected to bring a phenomenal transformation in the way people make payments.
The preferred mode of payment is expected to change from offline to online. Among the
various modes of online payments the mode gaining popularity during present time is M-
Wallets. In a nation such as India where larger part of clients still favours Cash-On-Delivery,
This generates research interest to study the alacrity of people to use M-Wallets and factors
influencing the adoption of M-Wallets including the factors refraining the usage of it, during
the post demonetization period.
Brief description about M-Wallets

M-Wallet is a tool of digital payment which is used for transaction made online through
computers or online.It is a type of pre-paid account in which a user can store his/ her money
for any future on line transaction.M-Wallet needs to be linked with the individual’s bank
account to make payments. An M-Wallet is protected with a password. With the help of an M-
Wallet, one can make payments for groceries, online purchases, and flight tickets, among
others. In this study, M- wallets refers to mobile applications that can be used to do financial
transaction such as ticket booking, money transfer, merchant payment, bill payment,
ecommerce payment etc. There are various types of mobile wallets in India, such as open, semi-
open, semi-closed and closed - depending on the type of usage and payments that can be made.
Wallets are growing rapidly as they help in increasing the speed of transaction, especially for
ecommerce companies and all ecommerce marketplaces have integrated with such mobile
wallets.
Paytm is one of the popular M-Wallet which was used by millions of users, and also it has
started a campaign called “Paytmkaro” to motivate all the small shopkeepers and other retailers
to accept payment through the M-Wallet money.

Amazon Pay is an online payments processing service that is owned by Amazon. Launched in
2007 globally and in India in 2017, Amazon Pay uses the consumer base of Amazon and
focuses on giving users the option to pay with their Amazon accounts on external merchant
websites, including apps like BigBazaar etc.
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Google Pay you can send money to friends, pay bills and buy online, recharge your phone.
Since Google Pay works with your existing bank account, which means your money is safe
with your bank. There's no need to worry about reloading wallets and you don't need to do
additional KYC - which is required for all the other apps.

PhonePe started in 2015 and in just 4 years it has been able to cross the 100 million download
mark. From UPI payments to recharges, money transfers to online bill payments, you can do it
all on PhonePe. It’s got a very good user interface and is one of the safest and fastest online
payment experience in India.

MobiKwik is an independent mobile payment network that supposedly connects 25 million


users with 50,000 retailers and more. This mobile wallet lets its users add money using debit,
credit card, net banking and even doorstep cash collection service, which can in turn be used
to recharge, pay utility bills and shop at marketplaces. Owing to the growing need for
convenience, MobiKwik has also recently tied up with large and small time grocery, restaurants
and other offline merchants.Another unique feature they have is their expense tracker which
allows to set budget for your expenses across all payment instruments and it uses your SMS
data to analyse and control spends.

Yono by SBIThis mobile wallet application was launched by State Bank of India to let users
transfer money to other users and bank accounts, pay bills, recharge, book for movies, hotels,
shopping as well as travel. This semi-closed prepaid wallet offers its services in 13 languages
and is available for non-SBI customers as well. This app also allows its customers to set
reminders for dues, money transfers and view the mini-statement for the transactions carried
out.

Citi MasterPass- Citi Bank India and MasterCard recently launched 'Citi MasterPass', India's
first global digital wallet for faster and secure online shopping.By using this, Citi Bank debit
and credit card customers become the first in this country to be able to shop at more than
250,000 e-commerce merchants. It ensures faster checkout with a single click or touch and
stores all your credit, debit, prepaid, loyalty cards and shipping details in one place.

ICICI Pockets by ICICI is a digital bank that offers a mobile wallet for its customers. It
provides the convenience of using any bank account in India to fund your mobile wallet and
pay for transactions.With Pockets, one can transfer money, recharge, book tickets, send gifts
and split expenses with friends. This wallet uses a virtual VISA card that enables its users to
transact on any website or mobile application in India and provides exclusive deals or packages
from associated brands.

HDFC PayZappis a complete payment solution giving you the power to pay in just One Click.
PayZapp lets you recharge your mobile, DTH and data card, pay utility bills, compare and book
flight tickets, bus and hotels, shop, buy movie tickets, music and groceries, avail great offers
at SmartBuy, and send money to anyone in your phone book.

Demonetization & its Impact-

Demonetization is the act of eliminate a currency unit of its status as legal tender. It occurs
whenever there is a change of national currency: The current form or forms of money is pulled
from circulation and often to be replaced with new notes or coins. Sometimes, a country
completely replaces the old currency with new currency. Demonetization decision was
44 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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government’s initiative to make India a cashless economy is expected to bring a phenomenal


transformation in the way people make payments. The demonetization resulted in tremendous
growth in digital payments. With the government initiative such as Digital India and increased
use of Smart phones and internet are means to exponential growth in use of digital payment.
This transformation towards digital payments benefits in more transparency in transactions
which empowers the country’s economy. The objective of this research paper is to study the
positive impact that Digitization of payment system.Researcher will study, how
demonetization impact on user behaviour or preference towards online payment using Mobile
wallets &Preference regarding usage of Mobile wallet for purchasing product/ Services.

Customer Behaviour
Consumer behaviour refers as the decision & actions that influence the purchasing behaviour
of a consumer. What drives the consumers to choose a particular product with respect to others
is a question which is often analysed and studied by Marketers. Most of the selection process
involved in purchasing is based on emotions & reasoning.Consumer behaviour is the study of
how individual customers, groups or organizations select, purchase, utilise, and dispose ideas,
goods, and services to satisfy their needs and wants. It refers to the actions of the consumers in
the marketplace and the underlying motives for those actions. It is the behaviour exhibited by
the consumer at the time of taking decision regarding purchase of goods & services. This is the
internal behaviour which is never separated from them. It is basically dependent on the
psychology, sociology, cultural & economic condition of the consumer. You can understand
consumer behaviour by observing his buying process. But it is very known fact that consumer
behaviour is difficult to predict.

Determinants of consumer Behaviour

Economic factors Personal factors Psycological Cultural & social


factors factors
•Personal income •Occupation •Motivation •social class
•family income •life style •life style •Social groups
•Expectation •personality •learning •Culture
regarding future •Age •attitude •Status
income •perception
•liquid asset &
consumer credit
•level of standard
of living.-

Objectives of study-

1) Study the awareness & preference towards adoption of Mobile wallet.


2) To identify the determinants of adoption of M-Wallet.
45 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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3) To study the impact of demonetization on preference for online payment

Research methodology-Research methodology is used for collection, analysis & Tabulation


of data for the research. Data are the key source of any research. It is backbone of every
research. The present research paper confines itself that initiative taken by government are
significantly effect on use of M-Wallet modes. The study is based on primary data which are
based on questionnaire & secondary data which is based on Journals, Magazines, Research
papers, Articles & Website. Collected data will be tabulated form which are clearly help to see
the impact of demonetization on use of M-Wallet, Customer preference for various modes of
payment using M-Wallet.
Sample Size- Sample size is determined by qualitative & quantitative approach. This study
was conducted in cotton city Akola which is the part of the western vidharbha of Maharashtra.
The sample size of the study was 50 respondents. The respondents were the user of Mobile
Wallet
Hypothesis-
H0- There is no significant difference between preferences for various modes of payment.
H0- There is no significant impact of demonetization on usage behaviour on online payment
Data Analyses & interpretation
Demographic Profile of the respondents
Categories Count Percentage

Age 18-30 years 35 70%


31-40 years 15 30%
Gender Male 40 80%
Female 10 20%

Preference regarding usage of Mobile wallet for purchasing product/ Services


Product/ Services No. of Respondents Percentage
Books 2 4%
Movie Ticket 6 10%
Pay bills 12 24%
Recharge Mobile 18 38%
Transfer Money 12 24%
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Impact of demonetization on usage behaviour towards online payment


Statement Frequency Percentage
35 70%
I did not make online payment before demonetization; I started
making it after demonetization

I would make online payment before demonetization also; but I 08 16%


increased its frequency after demonetization
I would not make online payment before demonetization; I am 03 6%
also not making it after demonetization
I would make online payment before demonetization also; I am 04 8%
making it after demonetization with same frequency as before
Total 50 100%
Source- Primary Data
Significant percentage (70%) respondents have started making online payment after
demonetization drive. Further 16% respondents have increased the frequency of making online
payment particularly after demonetization. Thus demonetization has contributed immensely
towards awareness, usage and acceptance of online payment. In case of 8% respondents there
is no change in frequency of making online payment after demonetization.
Factors affecting the use of M-Wallet
Attributes frequency Percentage
Security 40(yes) 80%
Privacy 35(yes) 70%
Transaction done easily from anywhere 45(yes) 95%
Discount offer 45(yes) 95%

Overall preference for adoption of M-Wallets


Particulars No. of respondents Percentage
High 20 40%
Low 30 60%
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Chi-Square Test on association between preferable products/Services by the Respondents


and their opinion about overall usage of Mobile payments
Preference regarding usage of Overall usage of Mobile
Mobile Wallets for buying Wallets
product & services
Statistical
Inferences
High(14) Low(26) Total(40)
Books 1 1 2 The Chi-
square
Mobile ticket 4 1 5 statistics is
Pay bills 3 6 9 3.541.The
p-value is
Recharge Mobile 2 8 10 .4716. The
Transfer money 4 10 14 result is
not
significant
at p<.05
Research hypothesis: There is a significant association between preferable products/services
by the respondents and their opinion about overall usage of Mobile payments.
Null hypothesis: There is no significant association between preferable products/services by
the respondents and their opinion about overall usage of Mobile payments.
Findings: The above table reveals that there is no significant association between preferable
products/services by the respondents and their opinion about overall usage of Mobile payments.
Hence, the research hypothesis is rejected and the null hypothesis is accepted Research
hypothesis: There is a significant association between age of the respondents and their opinion
about the usage of Mobile wallets.
Major findings
1) Transfer money through Mobile Wallet is the highest preference of customers through
M-Wallets.
2) Demonetization played a very vital role towards awareness, usage & acceptance of
online payment.
3) Most of people assume (95%) transaction done from anywhere & Discount offers by
Mobile-Wallet.
4) There is no significant association between preferable products/services by the
respondents and their opinion about overall usage of Mobile payments.
Limitations of Study-
1) The main limitation of this study will be small sample size.
2) The conclusion drawn in the study cannot be stated as universally acceptable.
Conclusion –

Digital India is the flagship programme of the Government of India. It was launched on 1st
July 2015 by Prime Minister NarendraModi, with a vision to transform India into a digitally
empowered society and knowledge economy. “Faceless, Paperless, Cashless” is one of the
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professed roles of Digital India. Major progress towards this goal was made in late 2016, when
the government took steps to demonetize the country. M- Wallet contributed immensely for
digital payment.

1) The study examines the effect of adopting M-Wallets payments impact on consumers of
the banking sector of India.

2) The result put together gives us an important policy direction towards what can enable
the country to increase cashless payments.

3) M-Wallets are rapidly gaining acceptance as a mainstream mode of payment and in near
future it will garner significant share as a mode of payment for sure going online as well
as offline business.

4) This Study indicated that main reasons for low preference of M-Wallet as mode of
payment are tendency of people to do not move out of comfort of using traditional mode
of payments, privacy concerns and threat to security M-Wallet users give very high level
of importance to attributes like security, privacy concerns and pricing (Fees).

5) The major problems frequently encountered by the 20% to 30% respondents while using
M-Wallets for processing the transaction, security breach and delayed payment
Demonetization drive of government of India has contributed immensely towards
awareness, usage and acceptance of online payment. Future of M-Wallets seems
promising.The results indicate that the deployment of technology for digital payments
have improved the performance of banking sector and able to achieve the motive cash
less country. The study gives emphasis to the percentage of awareness on maximum
utilization of technology.
Suggestions
1) There should be different operability between different wallets.
2) The mobile wallets companies should introduce the credit facility for honest customer
3) The use of Mobile Wallets are still very slow in use. M-Wallet companies should
promote its M-Wallet product through marketing & advertising campaign.

4) Banks should take effective measures in creating awareness towards the effective usage
of technology and security
References
1.Padiya S.Adoption of E-wallets: A Post Demonetisation Study in Ahmedabad City
2.Rathore, H. S. Adoption of Digital Wallet by Consumers. BVIMSR's Journal of Management
Research.
3.Sardar, R. Preferences towards Mobile Wallets among Urban Population of Jalgaon City. .
4. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/demonetization.asp
5..https://www.socialbeat.in/blog/top-10-mobilM-Wallets-in-india/
6..http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/marketing/consumer-behavior/factors-affecting-
consumer-behaviour
7.www.google.com
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Marketing and Distribution Strategies in Patanjali Herbal Product


Author: Kalpana R. Laddha (M com. M.Phil.)
Institute: Smt. L.R.T. College, Akola
Address: Near BhalaDall Mill, Kholeshwar,Akola
Mo.no:7588764175
Email:komalchitlange37@gmail.com
Abstract:Market strategies are the method in marketing of product;however, supply chain
management has special significance in marketing. Patanjali follows smooth supply chain
management. The present study on distribution system and market margin selected Patanjali
product was based on sample of 3 distributers,10 retailers and 60 consumers. Data collected
for the year 2017-2018. The findings of the study are shampoo, dantkanti, ghee, honey and
maggi are the major product sold in Akola city. More than 200 retailer sells Patanjali product
and access for purchase to any distributers. Market margin received by distributer was 5-10%.
Sufficient stock is available with distributer. Distributer are dealing with Patanjali product
since 5-10 years. Senior retailers are most attracted towards the Patanjali product hence their
investment, sale, and opinion are significantly positively related.

Keywords: Patanjali product, Distribution, Market margin, Supply chain,Commodity.


Introduction
In today’s competitive environment where the customer has got tremendous choice for
selecting brands, it is a very challenging task for a marketer to attract new and retain the old
customer. To accomplish this objective the marketer uses different types of marketing
strategies to position their product in the mind framework of the customer and establish their
brand image in the market.
Marketing strategiesare the method of utilizing the marketing mix to satisfy and attract
consumers to make a profit for the organization. The marketer should find out what the
consumers wish to purchase and how much they are willing to pay. The company should decide
whether the desired product can be produced and sold at the price consumer will pay and at a
profit to the company. Modern marketing begins with the customer, not with production, sales
or technological advancements and last with the customer satisfaction and social well-being.
Under market-driven economy, buyer or customer is the king.

Patanjali’s supply chain management:


Patanjali follows a very smooth Supply chain management. The three parts of supply chain are
product flow, cash flow and information flow. In supply chain of Patanjali all these are
maintained very smoothly. Supply Chain of Patanjali can be well understood with the help of
some examples. First we will take the example of sale of Patanjali products. They sell their
products only through their own outlets opened in almost every district/city of India. Each
outlet sends its demand to central office at Haridwar. Then based on demand, different products
are gathered from various units of Patanjali viz. Divya Pharmacy, Patanjali Ayurveda, Patanjali
Foods etc. Then the items are delivered to the respective outlets mainly through Patanjali
transport. This shows a good example of Supply chain management. Next, we can take the case
of Patanjali Gram at Uttarkashi. Here Swami Haridasji has presented a very good example of
SCM. They collect cow urine from rural households. After initial filtration, it is sent to Patanjali
Food and Herbal Park where it is processed and is sent to various Patanjali outlets for
distribution. The part of money received from the sale of cow urine is kept by Patanjali Food
and Herbal people as a price of cow’s urine, rest is used for the development of the village like
establishing necessary infrastructure, building schools etc. The Patanjali Mega Food Park
(PMFP) has been envisaged to help in creation of enabling infrastructure for food processing
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and a comprehensive ‗farm-to-plate ‘supply chain system. The initiative aims to seek
maximum value addition by backward as well as forward integration between the farmers,
factory and the market. It can be said that the supply chain doesn‘t have any intermediary in
between but rather it‘s a direct from supplier to producer to consumer. This also helps in
reducing the cost because it avoids the unnecessary commission cost and other related charges
of the intermediaries.Consumer preference for branded products over time is the proper
foundation for winning and retaining consumers.
This study provides valuable insight to the marketers on the level of distribution management,
brand preferences among consumers and its influence on the buying behaviour thus, enabling
them to devise their marketing strategies based on the findings. The study also gives a clear
picture about what the consumer is actually looking for in a branded product. In this regard,
the study on distribution management, consumer preference for branded products and
promotional strategies in Akola city was taken up with the following objectives.

Objectives
 To study the distribution system of selected Patanjali product.
 To study the market margin of selected Patanjali product.

Hypothesis
1. Product distribution system and demand supply chain are in existence for the
products.
2. Selected products are available in Akola city.

Need for Research


Marketers can benefit from understanding the individual accounts behaviour over time. They
can select marketing actions that fit their consumer’s patterns, commitment and behaviour and
can identify and use actions to influence those patterns. Insufficient understanding can lead
marketers into trouble. Therefore, soundunderstanding of consumer preference for branded
products over time is the proper foundation for winning and retaining consumers
This study provides valuable insight to the marketers on the level of distribution management,
brand preferences among consumers and its influence on the buying behaviour thus, enabling
them to devise their marketing strategies based on the findings. The study also gives a clear
picture about what the consumer is actually looking for in a branded product. In this regard,
the study on distribution management, consumer preference for branded products and
promotional strategies in Akola city was taken up with the following objectives.
Limitation of the study.
This study was based on primary data collected from sample consumers by survey method. As
many of the consumers furnished the required information from their memory and experience,
the collected data would be subjected to recall bias. The study area was limited to Akola city
and the findings may not be applicable to other markets, as vast difference exists among the
consumers with regard to demographic and psychographic characteristics. Hence, the findings
of the study may be considered appropriate for the situations similar to study area and extra
care should be taken while generalizing the results.
Review of Literature
Raman and Suganthi (2003) analysed factors that enabled the MNCs to have their own foot
hold in rural India. Success of MNCs in rural market depends on how they adopt different
marketing strategies for the rural markets over a period. These strategies are to be based on
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cultural, sociological, economic and psychological background along with a factor 4Ps for
consumer in that area
Ravichandran and Narayanarajan (2004) found that advertisement played a vital role in
influencing the purchase decision of particular brand. Social- economic factors such as sex,
age, education, occupation and income influence, the brand preference and motivation the
buyer to choose a particular brand. Quality of product also largely determines the buyer‘s
market.
Lokhande (2004) observed illiteracy to be a major hindrance in rural marketing and thus
audio-visual aids can help the marketers to take their message effectively in rural areas. It was
found that brand does not matter to the rural consumers; they just want to fulfil their needs.
Someconsumers were brand loyal and also didn‘t make brand shift. Thus, marketers should
focus on brand value. Distribution channel should be made effective so that rural retailers are
not deficient of necessary goods. Although barter was found to be prevalent notably in the rural
areas, but daily wage earners were purchasing commodities on payment basis only
Kumar (2004) in his study on place of purchase for very much aware of FMCGs. The author
as subjected that FMCGs need to be made available through retailers also suggested
distribution quality products at afford price.
Saab et al. (2008) analysed the flow of information and material throughout a four-level Fast
Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) supply chain and they conclude that under certain
circumstances, the coordination of information and material flow along the supply chain should
be done by the distributor, in an arrangement called Distributor Managed Inventory (DMI), a
significant departure from the more traditional best practice concept of Vendor- Managed
Inventory (VMI). They have analysed a DMI model from both strategic and the economic
perspectives andanalysed its dynamic behaviour by using a numerical simulation model built
for this specific. Their dynamic analyses revealed that the DMI model is stable and its
simulation study showed, in terms of performance measures, that the analyse four-level supply
chain could cope with increments of 20 per cent of the normal demand level with 55 per cent
less inventory at the retail level and 33 per cent less inventory at the distributor level than a
reference VMI model.
Shinde, D.T., and Gharat, S.J. (2017) examined a study on product positioning of Patanjali
products. The purpose of above study was to find the various prospects of Patanjali products
and factors influencing these products. They concluded that Patanjali has captured a huge
market share within a very short time period, but shortage of these products is the major
problem faced by consumer these days.
Roy, Lath and Sharma (2015)believe that strong innovation and new products pipeline,
pricing discounts to the peers, ayurvedic and natural propositions with low A&P spends
andmanufacturing indigenously lend Patanjali ‘s products a competitive advantage but
distribution and stock outs remain a key factor. Patanjali Ayurveda is one of the India ‘s largest
food and herbal parks in the world equipped with an excellent R&D facility and world‐class
manufacturing machinery. Patanjali has completed its revenue target of INR 2000 crores in
FY15 and now the management has set a revenue target of INR 5000 crores in FY16. The
company has low A&P spends which leverages Baba Ramdev’s brand pull, leads to provide its
customers a discount of 15‐30% to competition, while other companies have A&P spends
ranging from 12‐18%, as a % of sales. Even though the company’s thrust is not on
profitability, the company managed to regulate 20% EBITDA margin in FY15, supported by
better cost management which includes latest machinery and strong R&D capabilities and
lower A&P spends. Patanjali registered revenue CAGR of 64.7% over FY12‐15.
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Research Methodology
The present study was conducted in Akola city in all 5 patanjali products shampoo, dantkanti,
ghee, honey and maggi were selected for the study. A sample of3 distributers,10 retailers and
60 consumers were selected for the study. Data was collected with the help of free designed
questionnaire; personal interview method and simple tabular analysis method was used for the
study. Data pertains to year 2017-2018.
Result and discussion
The study on distribution system of related Patanjali products and market margin they are based
on five Patanjali productshampoo, dantkanti, ghee, honey and maggi. A data collected on
distribution of commodity, number of retailers, stock position and marketing also. The period
for which product are being dealt by retailers has been recorded, classifying and presented
below
The following table present the information on products distributed by the distributers on going
through the table
Table 1: Distribution of distributer major commodity sold
On-going through the table it is observed that none of the distributer is stockist of all the five
products one distributer namely Gopal stationery and cycle mart is stockist for dantkanti only.
While Honey, Ghee & Maggi are in the stockist of M/S Ujjawalashende. While Dhanvantri
products is stockist of Honey,Shampoo, Dantkanti. It is need of the day that all the products
should be available with deal for retailer convenience
M/S Dhanvantri foods, M/S Gopal stationary, M/S Ujjwala Shende are the distributer for more
than two hundred retailer each receiving market margin up to ten percent. The stock is
circulated by all the three distributers among six lakh population of the city. The stock position
is available with the distributer is sufficient to maintain the circulation.
All the 3 distributers cover more than 200 retailers and they access to any distributer for their
product demand. Distributer give margin of 5-10%von products to retailers. Distributer have
sufficient stock of the product demand by retailer.
The period of which distributer are dealing with Patanjali product has been presented following
table
Table 2: Period of which dealing with Patanjali product

Sr no Commodity Frequency Percentage

1 Shampoo, Dantkanti, Honey 01 33.33%

2 Honey, Ghee, Maggi 01 33.33%

3 Dantkanti 01 33.34%

Total 03 100.00%
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The retailers and distributer classification shows that one distributer is having an experience
of 8- 10 years in Patanjali product. dealing while others two are product dealers for 4-7
years
Concluding that distributer experience in product dealing
Co-relation between selected variables of retailer:The co-relation workout are presented
and discussed in the following paragraph
Table 3: Co-relation of retailer.

On-going through the table it is observed that the retailer age was positively co-related with
the no. of employees, investment in Patanjali product their sale and opinion. Concluding senior
retailer are more attracted towards Patanjali products and there investment, sale and opinion
are positive. The knowledge about Patanjali product was significant associated investment, sale
and opinion. Investment in the Patanjali product, sale of Patanjali product and opinion about
Patanjali product are significant positively co-relation each other.
Concluding senior retailers are most attracted towards the Patanjali product hence their
investment; sale and opinion are significantly positively related.

Conclusion
1. Shampoo, dantkanti, ghee, honey and maggi are the major product sold in Akola city.
2. More than 200 retailer sells Patanjali product and access for purchase to any distributers.
3. Market margin received by distributer was 5-10%.
4. Sufficient stock is available with distributer.
5. Distributer are dealing with Patanjali product since 5-10 years.
6. Senior retailers are most attracted towards the Patanjali product hence their investment,
sale, and opinion are significantly positively related
54 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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References
 Aaker, D. (1992). Strategic market management (3 ed.). Canada: John Wiley & Sons,
Inc Aaker,
 Acharya, N. (2011, June 9). Meet Ramdev the Marketing Guru. The Business Standard.
 DUNN, S.W. AND BARBAN, A., 1987. Advertising, it‘s Role in Modern Marketing
Advertising, Its Role in Modern Marketing. Hinds dale, Illinois, U.S.A: Dryden Press.
 Gopal R.K & Singh Brijesh (2016). Demystifying the brand Patanjali - a case on growth
strategies of Patanjali Ayurveda ltd. PES Business Review Volume 11, Issue 1.
 Khanna, R. (2015). Customer perception towards brand: a study on Patanjali’
 KULDEEP SINGH, 2003, consumer behaviour and marketing trends of toilet soaps in
Ghaziabad district Indian Journal Marketing, 4(2): 14-17.
 Roy, A., Lath, P. and Sharma, T. (2015, October 1). PATANJALI AYURVED Waiting
in the wings. Edelweiss, pp.1-16.
Bibliography
 Philip Kotler ―Marketing Management‖ Himalaya publishers, New Delhi
 S.P. Gupta ―Statistical methods‖ sultan chand and sons publisher
 Dr. Varsha S. Sukhdeve “modern approach to statistic “sugawaprakashan
55 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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Study of Value Added Services (VAS) in Banking Sector

Dipalee P.Shah
M.Com, M.Phil.(Commerce), PhD (Pursuing)
Lecturer in Sitabai Arts,Commerce and Science College,Akola
Email Id:nileshshah20@rediff.com
Mobile No: 7020754018
Abstract:The world today has undergone a revolutionary change because of the technologies
available around us. Economies world over have integrated owing to the globalization and
technological tsunami. India being a large country represents enormous market potential that
the world has recognized and explored for tapping the opportunities of large trade and the
growth therein. The world is watching India as an underserved market as far as the service
sector is concerned. India has become platform for all the leading national and international
service providers. This is true for banking sector also, Reliance of Indian economy on the
banking sector, the globalization and the increasing competitions has increased the need for
being more customers oriented. Thus, such challenges have somehow resulted in addition of
financial institutions and banks, the main challenges have been to add new customers or retain
old customers in order to survive in the competitive environment. The study gives spotlight on
various value added services viz ATMs,Mobile Banking, Internet Banking, Banking
Apps,NEFT,IMPS and other services provided by banking so as to retain and add new banking
customers with anytime and anywhere banking. Similarly it tells problems while implementing
value added services by customers and banks, with reviews, research on it suggesting future
line of research of value added services in banking sector.
Keywords: -VAS, ATM, Bank, Internet Banking, Credit Card.

1. Introduction
Different economies around the world, having their own peculiar strengths and weaknesses,
give impetus to globalization. Due to this fundamental transformation from Industry oriented
economies to Information oriented economies, all the segments of economy including service,
business, profession and individuals have gone through major makeovers. Indian economy is
bound to show the similar features that are of the other parts of the world however it has done
so with little better results and expectations. In order to achieve global presence, Indian
businesses have started working in highly competitive manner and are expanding
internationally.
In today era, the main challenge in banking sector is to add new customers or retain old
customers in order to survive in the competitive environment. The banks have found some
solution in offering new products, features, speed and active control to the customers. The
increase in measures for customer service, use of technology, new accounting methods, and
improved risk management systems have been the consequences of all these challenges.
1.1 Meaning of Value
Value means importance in terms of usage and (implementation) execution or in terms of
money. Value is measured in terms of quantity & service and the price paid for it.
1.2 Meaning of Value Addition
Increasing the importance of something by adding value to it is called the value addition. This
value addition is a familiar key to establish oneself in a market even in an already tapped one.
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1.3 Meaning of Value Added Services


Value added services are the added special characteristics to the core services. For example,
cash withdrawal & deposits are the core services and facility to do the same 24x7 (through
ATM) is the value addition to the core service.
1.4 Value Added Services in Banks
After 80s there’s been greater use of information technologies through computers. The
phenomenon has shortened the distance between the nations mainly in financial field. The
banks have also imbibed the technological revolution for giving their customers the experience
of faster delivery channels.
1.4.1 Advantages of Value Added Services
Value added services with many technological evolutions have a number of remunerations for
the customers as well as for the banks. It improves bank’s operational efficiency by reforming
inter-bank reconciliation, provides global reach, and provides a source of recognition and
competitive advantage.
1.4.2 Advantages to the Customers
 Anywhere, anytime comfort: Value Added Services allows the customers to access
various banking facilities anytime of the day or night, 24x7, from any geographical
location without being physically present in the bank because of various alternate
delivery channels i.e. ATM, Internet Banking and Mobile Banking, Tele-Banking etc.
 Express Service: The customer finds the Value Added Services the faster way of
getting services with least response time and hence saving more of their time for their
businesses.
 Queue-less Banking: Value Added Services provide the customers a queue-less
convenience for banking like in Branch Swipe machines.

1.4.3 Advantages to the Banks


 Quality Customer Service: In a CBS environment, as the back office work is done at
one or more centralized hub/s, the customer enjoys the experience of quality customer
service as the counter staff is now more focused on completing the customers’
transaction/s.
 Cost cutting: Value Added Services tender banks the chance to cut costs and to
increase revenue, as new technologies have substantially altered the way of completing
banking transactions.
 Cross-Selling: By Cross-selling, it is meant that when a manufacturer or a service-
provider tries to sell an associated product to an already established and satisfied
customer and earn extra income by selling the same.
2. Problems in Value Added Services
When the different opportunities presented by Value Added Services are studied, we observe
that Value Added Service is a mean to enjoy the competitive edge. So, it is no more a question
of whether to use it or not, but the main question now is how and how soon. It should be born
in mind that Value Added Services present new form of risks and problems also before the
banks that need to be resolved.
 Security hazard: Security is one of the major issues required to be addressed on the
priority basis. The security hazard may be from unauthorized access by hackers, loss or
damage of data by virus or by hackers and cyber-associated crimes i.e. ID theft,
phishing, loss of cards etc.
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 Customers’ approval: To realize the potential of Value Added Services fully,


customers’ approval is a must, who are the ultimate user of it. . Also, customers are
concerned about the privacy of the transaction being performed online.
 Employees’ acceptance: The above factor also goes with the employees as the aged
employees are generally not receptive to adopt the technologically driven systems. The
unions had opposed the computerization in banks earlier on the ground that it would
reduce the employment in the banks.

2.1 VALUE ADDED SERVICES ADOPTED BY BANKS:


1. Automated Teller Machine (ATM)
2. Internet Banking
3. Mobile Banking
4. Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS)
5. Bill payment gateways
6. Credit Card
7. National Electronic Fund Transfer (NEFT)
8. Gift Cards
9. SMS Alerts
10. Branch Swipe System
11. Debit Card
12. IMPS
13. Locker Facility
14. Travel Card
15. ECS

2.2 Important Definitions regarding “Value Added Services (VAS)”:


Bank:
A bank is a financial institution which provides banking and other financial services to its
customers. A bank is generally understood as an institution which provides fundamental
banking services such as accepting deposits and providing loans.
Value Added Services (VAS):
Value added services are the added special characteristics to the core services. For example,
cash withdrawal & deposits are the core services and facility to do the same 24x7 (through
ATM) is the value addition to the core service.
ATM:
An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables
customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals,
deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for
direct interaction with bank staff.
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Mobile Banking:
Mobile banking is a service provided by a bank or other financial institution that allows its
customers to conduct financial transactions remotely using a mobile device such as a
smartphone or tablet. Unlike the related internet banking it uses software, usually called an
app, provided by the financial institution for the purpose.
Internet Banking:
Internet banking is the most convenient way to bank- anytime, anyplace, at your convenience.
You can access Online banking from any computer that has connectivity to the Internet. You
also need to register for the Internet banking service with the branch.
Credit Card:
A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a
merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay
them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.
3. Objectives
The main objective of the research study is “To study the factors influencing customers in
adopting the value added services offered by banks and to study the problems faced by the
customers in using value added services” In addition to the main objective of the research
study, the research study attempts to identify various sub-objectives of the study stated as
follows:
O1: To study the factors influencing adoption of VAS by customers and banks.
O2: To study customer satisfaction regarding value added services.
O3: To analyze various problems faced by customers in using VAS and bankers in their
implementation.
O4: To come up with recommendations to improve upon VAS
3.1Hypothesis
On the basis of defined objectives, the following hypotheses are tested in the research study:

1: Customer are aware about the VAS provided by bank.


2: Customers are satisfied by adopting VAS offered by bank.
3: Customers are facing technical problems in using VAS.
4: the problems faced by the bank employees in implementation of VAS.
4. Review of literature
Review of literature is very significant part of any research study. The study and analysis of
researches already conducted in the area of study is called review of literature. The study of
these available researches shows the right path to the researcher. This chapter reports the review
of existing research studies which were undertaken in the area of present research.
. The various reviews have been presented covering orientation, objectives and findings:
 Karuppusamy, palanichamy (2011) studied “How for the customers are satisfied
with value added services offered by the banks” in India, The study aims to discover
the various Value Added Services provided by the banks and to examine the awareness
and adoption level of Value Added Services by the customers, To evaluate the factors
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influencing the usage of Value Added Services, To analyze the satisfaction level of
customers from Value Added Services.
 Chalotra Vipul ( 2015) studied “Enhancing supply chain performance through
effective transportation” in India , The study are enhancement of profit margin due to
transportation management, effect of managers with different age groups for adopting
effective transportation management and to study relationship between transportation
management and its various dimensions.

5. Research Methodology
Research simply means a search for facts, answers to questions and solution to problems.
Research is careful investigation or inquiry specially searches for new facts in any branch of
knowledge. The research process is systematic and scientific in nature. It is carried out through
a series of stages. Thus research seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon.
Statement of the Problem/ Description of the problem
When the researcher starts a research work, a well-defined problem is essential. The process of
research starts with the explanation of problem. Now it is an era of advance technology and in
this era banks are bound to use latest technology so that they can provide more and more Value
added services.To overcome these problems, a study on the factors instigating these problems
is essential.
Hence, the problem statement of the present study can be stated as
“To understand the factors influencing customers in adopting the value added services
offered by banks and to study the problems faced by the customers in using value added
services (VAS)”
5.1 Selection of Variables:
Both primary and secondary data has been used to achieve the objectives under the present
study. In order to gather the data required for the present study two set of self-designed
questionnaire were used, First questionnaire is used to collect primary data from the customers
using VAS and second questionnaire is used to collect the primary data from the bank
employees (Service Provider) in the research study. Along with these questionnaires,
observation of customers, discussion with managers and feedback from various officers of
banks has been used.
The study on value added services in banking sector based on primary and secondary data.
The primary data collected from 100 customers and only 1 service provider bank. The
following variables taken for the study:
Age, education, sex, family size, monthly income and occupation as personal characters and
value added services offered, factors influencing, satisfaction level of customers as dependent
variables.
Whereas secondary data is collected from various newspapers having concerned articles,
through internet and reports.
Analytical table:
The data on these variables was selected to simple tabular analysis, frequency
percentage. Correlation and coefficient between the selected variables. The significant
of correlation and coefficient was judged at 5% and 1% level of significance.
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5.2Development and Designing of questionnaire:


The data was collected by means of self-designed questionnaire having the variables related to
the adoption of VAS, the problems in using VAS and the satisfaction of customers towards
VAS. The questionnaire is developed as well as tested in the following stages:-
(i) Identifying variables and finalize with the help of literature review and expert opinion.
(ii) Pilot survey
(iii) Finalizing the questionnaire
(iv) Reliability check
The final structured questionnaire is prepared using mainly close ended questions based on the
specified choice option.
5.3 Quantification of Data – (as per personal information of customer for Value Added
Services (VAS))
1- Age factors are calculated as age= no of years completed from birth
2- Education- if any customer completed 10th std. it has scored as 10 & if he completes
12th Std his score is 12 respectively as follows;-
10th -10 3rd yr-15
12th -12 PG 1st yr-16
1 yr-13
st
PG 2nd yr-17
2 yr-14
nd

3- Sexis score as for female-1 & male-2


4- Family Size score as small family with 3 members-1
Big family with more than 3 members -2
5- Monthly Income score are given as figures indicated in the data table i.e Rs.15000/-, Rs.25,000/-
respectively
6- Occupation as Housewife-1
Services-2
Business-3
7- Valued added services used by customers score as:
Sr.No Services Monthly Once in two months Not users
1 ATM 3 2 1
2 Internet Banking 3 2 1
3 Mobile banking 3 2 1
4 Credit banking 3 2 1
5 Locker Facility 3 2 1

8- Factors influencing value added services score as per following table :


Sr.No Factors Disagree Can’t say Agree Fully Agree
1 Time 1 2 3 4
2 Convenience 1 2 3 4
3 Security 1 2 3 4
4 Awareness 1 2 3 4
5 Experience 1 2 3 4
6 Priority 1 2 3 4
7 Data retrieval 1 2 3 4
8 Privacy 1 2 3 4
9 Independence 1 2 3 4
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6. Data Analysis & Interpretation


The use of technology and ever increasing dependency on it has actually helped banks to reduce costs of
offering various services and provide more transparent, prompt and quality service to their customers. The
present study is attempt made on the value added services provided by bank. Thus the findings of the study
is based on customers opinion for use of ATM, online banking, mobile banking, credit card & locker
facility provided by the bank. The customers expectation , satisfaction, factors influencing the value
added services, problems faced by customers , suggestion of the customers are the key parameters of this
study, hence the present study is classified into following sections :
4.1 The Personal information of the customers
4.2 Value added services provided by bank & used by customers
4.3 Factors influencing value added services
4.4 Satisfaction level regarding value added services
4.5 Problems faced by customers in using value added services
4.6 Customers suggestions on value added services
4.7 Researcher opinion on value added services used by customers
4.8 Correlation analysis between the selected variables
4.9 Information on service provider
4.10 Hypothesis Testing
6.1.1 Distribution of the respondents according to their ‘Age’:-
As per Table Shown Below:-

Sr.No Age (yrs.) Frequency Percentage


(%)
1 Upto 20 8 8
2 20-30 34 34
3 30-40 20 20
4 40-50 25 25
5 50-60 10 10
6 60-70 2 2
7 70 and above 1 1

6.1.2 Distribution of respondents as per their ‘Occupation’:-


As per Table Shown Below:-

Sr.No Occupation Type Frequency Percentage (%)


1 House-wife 9 9
2 Service 50 50
3 Business 41 41

7. Correlation Analysis between the selected variables:-


To study the impact of personal factors on their satisfaction level , the parameters are age,
education, sex,family size, monthly income, occupation on value added services & factors influencing
value added services and satisfaction level of the customers. ‘The Karl Pearson’s method’ was used and
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correlations were worked out in table 4.8.1, presents the coefficient of correlation between the selected
variables.

7.1 Correlation between personal character and value added services:


Age Educat Sex Family Monthl Occupat VAS Factors Satisfact
ion Size y ion influenc ion level
Income ing
Column Colum Colum Colum Column Column Colum Column Column
1 n2 n3 n4 5 6 n7 8 9
Colu 1
mn 1
Colu 0.33641 1
mn 2 3**
Colu - 0.0241 1
mn 3 0.20235 65
*
Colu 0.22412 0.1553 0.1215 1
mn 4 9* 06 66
Colu 0.18726 0.2496 0.1151 0.1435 1
mn 5 1 21* 43 69
Colu 0.14136 0.1926 0.1457 0.0282 0.23377 1
mn 6 9 7 88 25 7*
Colu 0.05888 0.2306 0.2047 0.0429 0.66452 0.15498 1
mn 7 3 71* 6 95 4** 7
Colu 0.11873 0.1703 - 0.1909 0.46863 0.23328 0.2736 1
mn 8 2 1 0.0964 19 3** 3* 14*
9
Colu - - 0.7622 - - 0.24828 - - 1
mn 9 .68406* 0.4016 1** 0.5748 0.27167 1* 0.4474 0.60109
* ** 7** * 2** **

The significance of correlation of coefficient was tested in above table @ 5% (*) & 1% (**). the level of
significance on going through above table observation are made the correlation between the satisfaction
level, age, education, family size, monthly income, value added services, influencing value added services
was negative (-) and significant concluding that younger customers who are relatively less educated
belonging to the nuclear family are the more user of value added services drawing the higher satisfaction.
However the significant positive (+) correlation between sex,occupation and their satisfaction level for
using value added services concludes that men’s who prefer service are high level of satisfaction. The
others factors influencing value added services like monthly income, occupation those who are drawing
attention in monthly income and completely busy with their occupation and could not find time for day to
day banking operation they prefer value added services more. Also, it is find that males prefer value added
service more than females.
Correlation Conclusion:-
It is found that, the treasures are the higher users of value added services. The consumer income has
significant impact on use of value added services. The finding of SWAT analysis conclude that
organizations satisfaction level increasing with the value added services , the business related practices
are being highly buy use of value added services. The customer’s age, education, sex, family size, monthly
income and occupation are the most important factors which influence satisfaction level of customers.
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7. Conclusion and Findings


Technology in the banks is presently catching up with a high level of development around the world. The
gaps between the Indian banks and their counterparts in the technologically advanced countries are
gradually narrowing down.
Various findings and conclusions drawn on the basis of statistical data analysis are discussed below:
The first factor influencing the adoption of Value Added Services is “Compatible with lifestyle”. It
includes ten statements. This factor represents how Value Added Services offered by banks are compatible
with the lifestyle of customers. The customers can make transactions with the banks in much easier way
by using VAS.
The Second factor encouraging the adoption of value added services is “impressive services offered”.
This factor includes nine statements. It has been found that impressive services offered by banks plays an
important role in adoption of VAS. Customers are found to be influenced by paperless banking as saving
paper saves trees and saves environment. It is a major social concern for all.
The Third factor influencing the adoption of value added service is cost and convenience. It indicates that
cost and convenience, both are of very significant consideration for banks in adoption of VAS. The cost
per unit can be further decreased by motivating the customers to adopt more and more services and by
expanding customer base.
The fourth factor showing the satisfaction of respondents by using value added services is “Speedy
Service”. This factor reflects that the customers are satisfied with the time saved by them as they have to
wait for comparatively very less time, while performing through VAS. The VAS is based on the process
of mechanization which is very quick, accurate and secure.

8. Suggestions & Recommendations


Based on above conclusions and findings, major Suggestions and Recommendations are listed below:
Awareness related recommendations:
It has been recommended that VAS should be more publicized. The awareness about VAS should be
spread by banks and Govt. through seminars and demonstrations. Banks should organize seminars
regarding VAS to make customers more aware about such services from time to time and make customers
feel comfortable about using these services.
Security related recommendations:
Security measures must be improved in order to increase trust of customers in services, as many frauds
are happening these days. The security should be increased by providing a security guard for every ATM,
quality alarm systems, installing CCTVs, adopting OTP servers, securing PIN numbers.
Employee related Recommendations:
Trained, qualified and younger staff should be on the counters to deal with the customers. Banks should
provide training to its front line staff to market the products aggressively and handle the customer
grievances promptly. The customer’s grievances should be immediately addressed to in order to encourage
them for using the VAS.
Other Recommendations:
 Bank should provide separate service counters for Value Added Services & for Senior citizens,
disable persons.
 At the time of offering, the VAS are generally free of cost and after some time charges are
introduced even without the knowledge of customers. Banks must concentrate to overcome these
problems
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9. Future Line of Research


The topic Value Added Services has a very vast area of research. However coverage of all aspects of value
added services is not possible. Hence the present research is restricted to study value added services in
banking sector.
Despite of efforts taken by researcher it cannot be claimed that present research work is complete in every
sense and results are accurate and original. The reason is every research study is conducted under some
limitations and collect data based upon certain assumptions. Though every effort is made by researcher to
make the study accurate and in line with the objectives, there are some limitations and same assumptions,
which are as follows:
 The main objective of the present research was to study adoption and satisfaction of customers
while using VAS in banking sector. Technical aspect of these services was not covered properly.
 To generalize the results sample was collected from 100 customers and 9 bank employees. This is
relatively small sample. Due to shortage of time and resources the researcher couldn’t select very
large sample size. However to generalize the results, the care was taken to collect data in such a
manner to make data represent able.
 The present study is conducted in accordance to the objectives of the study. Since value added
services in banking sector is a very vast field of study and huge useful information can be desired
from collected data and researcher could have revealed some other interesting results. However
results are derived to achieve the objectives for justifying the study.
10. References

1. Devlin, F.j., (1995). Technology and innovation in retail banking distribution. International journal of
bank marketing, 13(4). pp 19-25.
2. Levesque, T., & McDougall, G.H.G. (1996). Determinants of customer satisfaction in retail banking.
International journal of bank marketing, 14(7). pp 12-20.
3. Dannenberg, M., & Kellner, D. (1998). The bank of tomorrow with today’s technology. International
journal of bank marketing, 16(2). pp 90-97.
4. Sathye, M. (1999). Adoption of Internet Banking by Australian consumers: an empirical investigation.
International journal of bank marketing, 17(71). pp 324-334.
5. Tan, M., & S. H. Teo, T. (2000). Factors Influencing the Adoption of Internet Banking. Journal of the
association for information system, 1(7). pp 1-42.
6. Kolodinsky, J., & Hogarth, J. M. (2001). The Adoption of Electronic Banking Technologies by
American Consumers, Consumer Interests Annual, (47) retrieved from
http://www.consumerinterests.org/files/public /Kolodinsky_ Hogarth.pdf
7. Karjaluoto, H., Mattila, M., & Pento, T.(2002). Factors Underlying Attitude Formation towards Online
Banking in Finland, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 20(6).
11. Bibliography
BOOKS-

 Avadhani, V. A. (2002). Marketing of Financial Services. Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi
 Gandhi, Jegadish P. & Ganesan, P. (2002), Service Sector in the Indian Economy, Deep & Deep
Publications, Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
 Mittal, R.K.; Saini, A.K. and Dhingra, S. (2008), Emerging Trends in the Banking Sector,
MacMillian India Ltd., New Delhi.
65 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

JOURNALS-

 M., & Hilgert, M.A. (2004). The adoption of electronic banking technologies by US consumers. .
International journal of bank marketing, 22(4).
 Zhao, A., Lloyd, S., Ward, P., & Goode, M.H. (2008). Perceived risk and Chinese consumers‟
Internet Banking services adoption. International journal of bank marketing, 27(5).
 Garg, R., Rahman, Z., Qureshi, M.N., & Kumar, I. (2012). Identifying and ranking critical success
factors of customer experience in banks: An analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach. Journal
of modelling in management, 7(2).
 Gerrard, P. & Cunningham, J. B, (2003). The Diffusion of Internet Banking among Singapore
Consumers, International Journal of Bank Marketing, 21(1).
66 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

Suitability Of Some Training Techniques In Banking Sector

Dr. J. Pandu Rangarao


Lecturer in Commerce,
P.R. Government College (Autonomous)
Kakinada-533001,
jettirangarao@gmail.com
9441069978

Abstract: After observing the cases of Neerav Modi and Vijayamalya many thinkers and policy
makers are thinking about the conditions prevailed in the banking industry. The major threat to banking
industry is not Competition, changes or customer attitude; it is in the form of Non Performing Assets
(NPA). Major reasons for these NPAs may be loopholes in the policies, it is also impartment to see it from
failure of Human Resources. If human resources in the organization are committed and well trained they
can protect their won institution in from all kinds of challenges. In this paper the researcher focused on
significance and need of the training in banking sector, and why training has been neglected by much top
management. This paper also focused on why training really serves in the organizations. This paper also
focused on various suitable training methods that can enrich their employees and promote good
environment and helps their up-gradation.

key words: Training, Manpower, Human Resources, productivity.

Developed Human Resources provide greater productivity and show improved efficiency. In service
sector where service delivery is intangible; requires some qualities to attain customer satisfaction. Out of
five M’s – Manpower, Machine, Method, Money and material; the manpower has more importance being
a living and movable thing; as others are immovable. To cater excellence to the customers, or to become
a bench marking organization, one should give priority for training and retraining (Baroundi & Ginzberg,
1986)1 of their manpower. The economic environment in India after 1991 gave chance to higher level of
competition with its Globalized policy; that had brought competition at global level. To sustain in this
competitive environment, one should have employees’ updated knowledge and skills. As knowledge
workers are the most valuable asset of any institution in 21st Century. Growth and productivity has direct
relationship with employees’ skills, their commitment and job enrichment. This can be best facilitated to
all kinds of employees through well organized trainings (Burke & Baldwin, 1999)2.

Training can fetch lot of change in trainees not only in knowledge level but also in behavioral aspects.
After training one can cope up with latest technology and focus on job roles, areas of expertise.
Expenditure on training is like an investment in return fetch many advantages like learning, achieving and
building a better workforce to take the organization on to top. Training is part of strategic planning helps
both the organizational development and career development of employees. A well designed training
program helps to reap the crops of competitiveness. A rigorous training chart must be designed by
covering needs of both employees and organization.

1
Baroudi, J. J. “The career needs of IS personnel: Does the dual career ladder work, " Proceedings of the 21st Annual
HICSS (4), 1988, pp. 171-180.
2
Workforce training transfer: A study of the effect of relapse prevention training and transfer climate, Human Resource
Management, Vo,38, Issue 3.
67 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

The process of financial development has hinged effectively on the development of banking system in
any country India has no exception. The advent of I.C.T. and L.P.G has been bringing a continuous change
and transformation in this sector since nineties. Many private and public sector banks are mushrooming
day by day by with variety of products and services. To induce more customers they are offering
traditional services with advance services like, Insurance, Mutual Funds, financial services, ATM, e-
banking, mobile banking, RTGS/NEFT, App services, demat account and personalized banking and so
on. Indian economy advent many developments like, demonetization from November 2016, ,
implementation of new Goods and Services Tax (GST) from July, 2017, high and rising real interest rates
by RBI and finally the twin balance sheet challenge obstructed Indian country economic growth. However,
the BSE SENSEX registered a return of 11.3%, while NIFTY stood at 11.5% during this study period.
The rate of GDP in 2017-18 stood at 6.6% which is less than previous year 7.1%. At this juncture survival
of banks becomes biggest challenge.

M. Narasimham Report (1998)3 on new generation banking reforms focused on various foundations
of banking business to be developed, procedures to be streamline, up gradation of technology and HRD
and further structural changes. HDFC Bank obtained a rank of 202 in 2018 (up 56 spots from rank 258 in
2017), with largest market capitalization of $77.6 billion. Three oil companies and three banks each,
found their spots among the top Ten Indian Companies. The country’s largest state-run bank, State Bank
of India (SBI), with a market capitalization of $33.3 billion made up the tenth spot among Indian
companies. Twenty-two Indian banks found a spot on the list, a feat at a time when the entire Indian
banking sector is struggling and battling high levels of stressed assets in a weak lending environment
(Forbes Global 2000 ranking for 2018). so, at global scenario, there is need for the training and
development to current employees in certain important areas like customer care services on operational
aspects and behavioral aspects of banking business.

Training refers to an organized activity which groom the skill set of employees; that shows the result
in shape of sustainable and continuous organizational performance (Mathieson 2006)4. How are the needs
of training identified? Task analysis and performance analysis are the most common methods to identify
the training needs. However surveys and interviews with top level experts, feedbacks, complaints from
loyal customers help in this aspect. Along with need for training and retraining of bank employees, the
activity of training becomes a strategic summit in banking industry. The situation is different traditionally,
banks after recruiting school leavers, and their initial training was either long apprenticeship or on – the –
job training or formal training on routine operations. For promotion and to move to management position
one has to qualify professional tests. It is argued that banking industry requires flexible and strategic
training programs than routine and static training methods.

According to Dayal (2001)5 the trainer must have idea about two important aspects viz., the outcomes
expected from the training program, methods and training materials that are suitable and capable to achieve
those stated outcomes. Any training is not yet all completed until and unless methods and results have
been evaluated (Dahiya & Jha 2011)6. Apart from the above trainees’ individual characteristics such as
motivation, attitude, and basic ability affects the success of a training program (Zaciewski, 2001)7.

3
https://en.wikipedia.org/.../Narasimham_Committeeon_Banking_Sector_Reforms_
4
Mathieson, M. (2006). Improving Organisational Performance through Developing our People, Industrial and Commercial
Training, 38 (2), 70-77.
5
Dayal, Ishwar (2001). “Measuring Training Effectiveness”, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, (2001), pp. 339-
344.
6
Dahiya, S. and Jha, A. (2011). “Review of Training Evaluation”, International Journal
of Computer Science and Communication, 2(1), pp. 11-16.
7
Zaciewski, R.D. (2001). “Measuring Training’s Effectiveness”, Quality Progress, 34(6), pp. 36-42.
68 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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The results bestowed by the training must be positive and best suitable for the organizational
challenges. It is also important that the training professionals could see that there is a match between
training expenses and business results. Training is expensive activity, it must be successful for that many
aspects to be considered like reason to conduct and implement training. While considering the sources of
data for evaluation, think about the cost and time involved in collecting such data. Balance this against the
accuracy of the source and the accuracy actually needed. Training motivation of employees represents an
important element in the process of improving effective training outcomes (Tai, 2006)8. Consequently,
the demand of evaluating training effectiveness gained lot of importance (Kirkpatrick 1976) and
introduced four level evaluation models. Recognition of various and suitable methods of training and
adoptable measurement techniques are crucial for training success.

Why training is neglected? There was a range of good reasons; first managers view the
establishment of systematic training as added expenses instead of seeing it as good investment. The affect
of training on production performance generally reflects after certain period, so, people used to say
‘wastage of time’. The attitude of individuals also became hurdle; they used to say, “I don’t want to go
back to school again”. The apathy of many people towards training is due to poor quality of trainers,
wrong design, unsuitability, lack of proper direction, attitudinal and behavior problems.

“Give a person a fish and you feed him for a day.

Teach a person how to catch fish and you feed him for a life time”

– Confucius – 5th century BC.

Why training for employees? To get insight of the job along with work culture by newly recruited
employees. It also helps to acquire techno driven knowledge for most adaptability. To satisfy consumer
needs from all walks of life, banks must have trained employees with good mental and social outlook
(Akilandeswari & Jayalakshmi, 2014)9.

Training is a planned group of activities carefully planned into a harmonious, interrelated and result
oriented package. It aims at empowerment of trainees that were undergone training. Empowerment
fosters a sense of commitment and infusing an urge in learning. No organization has choice of providing
training to their employees, but has in methods of training. In this competitive environment sustainability
is the biggest challenge of the organizations, so training become a robust opportunity. Modern
organizations are facing 3Cs: Customers, Competition and Change at this juncture, human efficiency
required in well developed manner. So, training plays an important role in modern complex organizations:
some of them are presented along with its effectiveness. Main effects of the training are:
It increases productivity (Jacobs, Jones & Neil, 1992; p. 271-443), It increases quality (Shamsuddoha,
2009; p. 1-7), It decrease complaints (Yavas, Bilgin & Shemwell, 1997; p. 217 – 223), It increases the
motivation of the workers (Mathauer & Imhoff, 2006; p. 24), It enhances the employee’s skills (Hawke &
Heffernan, 2006; p. 140-157), It improves self-confidence (Berry & Parasuraman, 1992; p. 5-15), It
reduces costs (Blas & Niles, 2010; p. 3), It reduces staff turnover (Umiker, 1989, p. 61-67) and others.
Specifically there are some basic roles of training in organizations. They are:
1. Increase in efficiency:

8
Tai, W. T., (2006). Effects of training framing, general self-efficacy and training motivation on trainees’ training
effectiveness. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 35(1), pp. 51-65.
9
P. Akilandeswari, Jaya Lakshmi (2014) “Recent Advances in Organizational Behaviour and Decision Sciences (IJRAOB) An
Online International Monthly Journal Volume: 1 No.1.
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ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

Training plays an active role in increasing the efficiency of employees in an organization. Training
increases skills for doing a job in a better way by enhancing competencies. Training is required even to
maintain a minimum level of output.
2. Increase in morale of employees
Training creates loyal employees, training increases the morale of employees. High morale is
evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformation with regulations, and willingness, to
cooperate with other to achieve organizational objectives. Trained employees can see the jobs in a more
meaningful way because they are able to apply newly acquired skills to their job.
3. Better human relations
Training focus on quality human relations in an organization, high level of complexity and
specialization creating alienation, depression, interpersonal and inter – group problems. Many of these
problems can be overcome by suitable HR training.
4. Reduced supervision
Trained employees require less supervision. They need more autonomy and freedom, it is possible if
the employees are well trained. Span of control can be enhanced and Human Resource Management costs
can be minimized. It reduces the more levels in organization, creates possibility for speed and better
communication.
5. Increased organizational; viability and resilience:
Trained people are necessary to maintain organizational viability and flexibility. Viability related to
an organization’s ability to tide over bad days, and resilience related to its ability to sustain its effectiveness
despite the loss of its key personnel and making do for the short term adjustment with its existing
personnel. In fact, there is no greater organizational asset than trained and motivated personnel, because
these people can convert the other assets into a productive whole.
6. Introduction of new strategies and working methods into the organization:
Training explores ways and means to increase its productivity, level of proficiency of the staff, or its ability
to provide more efficient and cost – effective services to its client groups. For achieving this, the
organization may at any given point in time, introduce new working methods, procedures and practices.
7. Advancement in technology:
In view of innovations and changes in technology, related to its methods of production, a business
organization may consider it imperative to update the skills of its staff. Training make possible that some
in the organization has found an innovative and cost-effective way of handling certain operations and the
management wants this to be adopted by others as well.
It is evident from the above that the Human Resource practice Training has greater advantages;
however its results are different from sector to sector. Many factors like budget, length of the training,
training quality, quality of the trainers, training aids, usage of ICT play an important role to make the
training fruitful.
There are more than 30 methods of training in and around corporate world and changing its nature
and form according to the requirements of end beneficiaries. In this article the author made an attempt to
make suitability of various methods to the employees of Andhra Bank to fulfill their needs of training.
The date required is collected with small group interactions, personal interaction and interviews with some
clerical and middle level employees of Andhra Bank at District Level of West Godavari. The results of
the study are presented here:
a) On –the Job Method Training: The most widely used training method in the work place is on – the
job method training. It is very much simple and less costly to operate. Under this method, employees place
in an actual work situation and make them appear to be immediately productive. They are learning by
doing. It covers apprenticeship programs and job instruction training. In England it was called as “Sit- by-
me training. It is the most efficient and effective method of training for the employees the advantages
derived by trainees are:
1) Requires no extra space and attention; as it is done by supervisors.
2) It is very pragmatic in nature and suitable in non-noise work places.
3) Lively in learning;
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4) Chance to apply the learned skills in industry after training immediately.


In recent fast people are giving preferences to orientation training, which aimed at making individuals
familiarize with corporate culture.
b) Off-the-Job Method Training: Off-the-Job method training means training to the employees in
outside the organization. It covers various types of techniques such as classroom lecturers, films,
demonstrations, case studies and other simulation exercises and other programmed instruction. In this
category, some training methods and their uses were explained to the respondents and their views are
presented below:
a. VESTIBULE:
It is a classroom based training focused on semi skilled and clerical level employees. It is suitable in
case of large number of trainees for specified skills. It focuses on learning rather than production. In this
method of training, artificial equipment and conditions are created to experience the real work
environment by trainees. The duration of this kind of training most probably is around one month.
Theoretical concepts like culture, values, and ethics taught in nice manner. The entire training went in
controlled environment. In nut-shell, vestibule training conducted in an artificial working environment
with real time equipment with increased participation of learners. It creates ideal learning conditions. The
employees of Andhra Bank expressed that this kind of method may useful for them during initial stage of
the career particularly during induction training.
b. CLASSROOM METHODS OR LECTURE METHODS:
It is most suitable methods of training to inculcate various philosophies, concepts, attitudes, and
problem solving abilities. It is very less expensive method, as one instructor can handle a bundle of
employees. There is a scope to share and interact with the experts. It this method is not organized in
proper manner, the attendants may become passive. Sometimes not feedback and trainees’ involvement is
negligible. So, to make it affective one should mix this method with many other like Group discussion
etc. They opinioned that there is no training program without this method, directly or indirectly people
provide instructions. So, it is suitable to all kinds of training programs.
c. MANAGEMENT GAMES:
At this juncture, it is evident that Banking sector is facing problem of Non Performing Assets (NPAs).
The results of these NPAs may lead to legal proceedings or loose of finance and end of the career. So,
priority must be given to promote ethical and behavioural changes that may help to reduce NPAs. With
this background, respondents were asked these questions to know their pulse.
Management game is a simulated exercise representing, as closely as possible, the burdens of the day-
to-day work environment of the trainees. Participants are provided with information and asked to solve
some problems. Various small tasks are given to find solutions to small problems, decision making
capacity, and how one is mingle with others. This method attempts to bring closer various elements of
practical decision-making. General management functions like Planning, Organizing, directing etc., are
included in this method. The main difficulty is in assessing the probable results of the decisions made.
Sometimes a computer is used for this purpose. The trainees may reject the learning from the training
program, if they feel the assessment of the probable outcome of their decisions is unrealistic. There is
also a risk that the trainees may not take the training situation seriously. Most of the Andhra Bank
employees expressed their satisfaction and willingness towards this kind of training.

d. LABORATORY TRAINING:
Nobody is underestimated in corporate world. Everybody is expert in one or many aspects. However
people and their behavior at work place play an important role. It is also worth note that behavior of a
person is different in group and as an individual. With this a question on laboratory training was posed to
this group to know their opinion.
Laboratory training is a well organized exercise and training events that provides the participants for
sharing, participation and change. In this method very small group are selected and widely used in training
process. These methods establish a linkage between values, behavior and actions of and individual. The
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respondents opinioned that this method of training is more affective if it has a optimum group by including
public and private bank employees from all levels. The output of this method based on composition of
group.

e. CONFERENCE:
Change from routine place generally creates learning environment; conference is a small group
activity, conducted to share the views of many experts in the same area of interest. Instead of practical,
it provides an opportunity to trainees to present orally. This method overcomes the some
disadvantages of lecture method. Participants are not passive, they learn from one another. The
conference may be a direct, or a consultative or a problem solving conference. This method is also
not free from certain disadvantages. It is suitable to small group, slow in imparting skills and informal
way of relations may develop than formal discussions. It is also important as per the employees that,
to curb the cost of training, and to reduce travelling time and travelling expenses one can shift to Video
Conferencing. It is also important that doubts can be clarified at a glance, without giving any priority
for individual focus.
f. CASE STUDY:
The respondents are also asked to focus on case study method of training to know their learning
and research activeness. In this method investigation into some cases, or referring some cases to create
awareness generally occur. This is an effective method of training, in which realistic problems are
provided before trainees for their responses. In this case may be given to trainees to discuss the case
in all levels by identifying its: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT Analysis).
Participants are expected to draw out useful generalization and principles from the case analyzed. This
method follows the ‘learning by doing’ in which matured level of trainees’ are expected. This helps
the trainee, to develop managerial understanding; it is also helps to apply underlying principles of
trainee. No exact solution is not required, flexibility approach is encouraged in this case studies
methods. Owning to its practicality employees of Andhra Bank showed interest for this method of
training.
g. ROLE PLAYING:
J.I. Moreno developed this as a group therapy for mentally disturbed people; however it is widely
used for the development human relations. It focuses on development of leadership skills and to
develop insight in their own behavior. Out of a group one or two may be called upon to the dais, to
perform something without any prior information. The situations are like: supervisor discussing a
grievance with an employee, a salesman making sell any hard product. Stage fear can be invaded with
this method. The respondents expressed their inability towards this method. Some employees
expressed that they are not outspoken. Some suspected that if the person selected is not suitable, it
will consume group time. Some employees said that if anybody speak facts that may hurt whole
group and creates small gaps among the people present.
h. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION;
In this the provided information is making into pieces and makes meaningful units and presented
in the proper way. This helps the trainees for self learning, instructors are not key part of the learning,
material provided also in a miniature form. The trainee is given immediate knowledge for his
responses; active involvement of trainee is most ingredient part of this method. It is somewhat
different to routine method of learning by sitting. This will help them to act with empathy. They
show their abilities with certain assumptions this method is also selected by most of the employees of
Andhra bank.
i. OUTWARD BOUND TRAINING:
“Education is an admirable thing, but it is well to remember from time to time that nothing that is
worth knowing can be taught” - Oscar Wilde
Here, workers are almost out of the work environment, and trainees are sent them out of the work
place, where trainees like much. In this method, person is provided an opportunity to learn from other
experts. A facilitator watches each trainee and observes behaviors of each individually and in group. In
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this method training methods are used to focus mainly on teaching technical skills. In this OBT programs
trainees are provided original challenges. It is a combination of indoor and outdoor activities the
participants verify and develop their responsibility, self-confidence, cooperation, respect, tolerance, and
learn social skills.
Most OBL training program consists of a variety of games including: Problem solving games, Field
exercises, Navigation exercises, Water based exercises, Cliff face exercises. Andhra bank employees
expressed their interest, practicability and adoptability of this method.

j. SENSITIVE TRAINING:
In this method, sessions are generally arranged to establish a learning atmosphere in which self
examination and criticism is rewarded. Trainees are put into situations in which the behavior of each
individual in the group is subject to examination and comment by the other trainees; the behavior of the
group as a whole is examined. (The trainer is a psychologist; sociologist or a person who has himself
received special training). It is a vivid way for the trainee to learn the effect of his/her own behavior on
other people and the effect of their behavior upon him. It increases knowledge of how and why people at
work behave as they do. It increases kill at working with other people and of getting work done through
other people. It is also a valuable way of learning the skills of communication. This method also opted by
the respondents.

k. EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING TECHNIQUES:


It is an action oriented behavioral situation, in which participants are supposed to collect their own
data of each concept to be studied. To get result oriented experiment, the trainer must be a good observer.
The observer mainly focus on learning and make everybody must learn each and every important task. It
provides an opportunity to trainees to see the cause and effect of the actions of the people. The following
quotation from Confucius underscores the importance of experiential learning: “I hear and I forget, I see
and I remember, I do and I understand”.

Findings and Suggestions:


It is evident from the above analysis, the group consists of various levels of employees are willing
to attend for training programs perhaps many of them attended more than two programs so far. It is open
to all that the success of the training program also depends on methods of training. The following findings
are noted:
1. The lecture method is inevitable; the respondents also opinioned that there is no training program
without this method, directly or indirectly people provide instructions. So, it is suitable to all kinds
of training programs.
2. Most of the Andhra Bank employees expressed their satisfaction and willingness towards
‘Management Game’ method of training.
3. The respondents opinioned that this method of training is more affective if it has a optimum group
by including public and private bank employees from all levels. The output of this method based
on composition of group.
4. Irrespective of its disadvantage, that it is useful to limited group, most of the respondents felt that,
conference method of training can curb the cost of training, and also reduce travelling time and
travelling expenses. It is also important that doubts can be clarified at a glance, without giving any
priority for individual focus. It is advisable to arrange Video Conferencing.
5. Case study method of training helps the trainee, to develop his / her managerial understanding; it
is also helps to apply underlying principles of trainee. No exact solution is not required, flexibility
approach is encouraged in this case studies methods. Owning to its practicality employees of
Andhra Bank showed interest for this method of training.
6. The respondents expressed their reluctance towards role play method. Some employees expressed
that they are not outspoken. Some suspected that if the person selected is not suitable, it will
73 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
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consume group time. Some employees said that if anybody speak facts that may hurt whole group
and creates small gaps among the people present.
7. Programmed instruction method also method is opted by most of the employees of Andhra bank.
8. Most of the Out Bound Learning training program consists of a variety of games including:
Problem solving games, Field exercises, Navigation exercises, Water based exercises, Cliff face
exercises. Andhra bank employees expressed their interest, practicability and adoptability of this
method.
9. Sensitive method of training is opted by many of the respon dents.
10. Perhaps this Experimental Learning method of training technique may useful more in production
industry rather than service industry.
CONCLUSION: No doubt in this that the effectiveness of training based on many aspects the method
of training is one among them. The most suitable method of training is that which can satisfies the
needs of trainees with in stated time and budget.
References:
1. Raj Aparna (2011),“Training and Development” Kalyani Publisher.
2. Rao P.L. (2004),“Human Resource Management” Excel Publishing House.
3. Kirkpatrick DL (1978), Evaluating in-house training programs. Training and Development
Journal, 38, pp 32-37.
4. Chakrabarty, K. C. (2012), “Human Resource Management in Banks – Need for a New
Perspective”, Speech, RBI Monthly Bulletin, July, pp. 1285-1290.
5. Dr. S. Shahul Hameed, J. Rajinikanth (2014), ―A Conceptual Study on Training and
Development Programs of Bank Employees‖, International Journal of Advance Research in
Computer Science and Management Studies, Vol 2 No. 5, pp. 80-85.
6. Gonchkar, K. P. (2012). The Impact of Training and Development on Performance of Officers of
Select Public Sector Banks for Sustainable Human Development: A Study. OIDA. International
Journal of Sustainable Development, 05 (07), 87-96.
7. Kavita Rani, Diksha Garg (2014), ― A Study on Training and Development in Public Sector
Banks‖, International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research. Vol 3 No.1, pp. 33-
36.
8. R. Suhasini, Dr. T. Suganthalakshmi (2015), ―Emerging Trends in Training and Development‖,
International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol 5, No. 3, pp. 1-10.
9. Sontakke Rajratna Laxmanrao (2015), ―An Analytical Study on Training and Development
Practices in Public Sector Banks, Indian Streams Research Journal, Vol4 No. 12, pp. 1-7.
*****
74 International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (IJSSH) ISSN (Online) : 2395-5996
ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

A Study Approach of Graduates’ Employability and Entrepreneurial Skills and


filling the gap between Industry and Institute by promoting Skill Development,
Employability and Entrepreneurship.
Prof. Shashikant .G. Thorat **Dr. G.G. Gondane, H.O.D., & Asso. Prof,
Training & Placement Officer.
Prof Ram Meghe College Of Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola –
Engineering & Management, Badnera – 444001 (MS) India.
444 701, Amravati (MS). Mobile :
9975539499.

Abstract—
Human resources are the backbone of the economic and sustainable development of any country. The
intellectual and skillful citizens augment all round development curtailing the high incidence of
unemployment and underemployment. India still reels under pressure of severe shortage of quality talent
in the job market. Imparting soft skills like managerial training, team leadership, outbound training,
executive training and corporate leadership will complement hard skills. Cognitive capacities should
match emotional intelligence. The dismal scenario of Indian society wherein the poor and jobless youth
have poor competence in the absence of soft skills needs to be addressed. There is increasing pressure
from governments, funding organizations, students and parents on universities around the world since
graduate employability has been clearly recognized as one of the main objectives of university education.
Authorization bodies also appear to measure quality of education through the contributions made towards
employability. In such a context one would assume that employability of university graduates to be clearly
understood and extensively researched area. Employees have a responsibility to achieve company’s
sustainable goals. In order to achieve the company’s objectives, the capabilities of the employee need to
be developed. Employability skill in higher education is becoming more and more vital so that universities
and institutions also prepare graduates for the world of work
Keywords- Employability, Underemployment, Cognitive capacities, sustainable development, job
market.
INTRODUCTION
Employability is the set of skills, knowledge and understanding which concerns in growing more day by
day with the advancement in educational sectors. Employability is improved by a good academic record
plus skills and attributes that enable you to adapt and manage the constantly changing work environment.
Universities play a key role in developing employability skills since their graduates must possess the
necessary qualifications to work professionally in the environment of what has been called the ‘learning
age’ or ‘learning society’. Employers of graduates therefore often view the development of the necessary
skills as the responsibility of higher education institutions, and so universities are responsible for
developing and improving the employability skills that employers seek .However, faced with a lack of
employability skills, the employer’s role is vital: firms can guide universities towards teaching the soft
skills they require. The successful procurement of employability skills can benefit both employees and the
economy, but of course employability does not necessarily convert to a job, since there are many external
social and economic factors that affect employment. At the same time, this does not mean that skills
development should be guided exclusively by employers, because their needs change and employers may
focus on current rather than longstanding training needs. University has always prepared students for the
world of work, but this preparation has recently become a “fundamental necessity for the performance of
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universities. Entrepreneurial skills are part of these generic skills and they increase the students’ capacity
of thinking critically in real business context, of making successful decisions and solving complex
problems, of coming with new ideas in new situations demonstrating originality skills and openness to
learn from both successes and failures. The purpose of this paper is to recognize the skill levels of
graduates and youth and promulgate to the promotion of skill development among people and government.
There is a clear relationship between employability of university graduates and the actual learning
activities that they engage in university degree programs. Even though the employability has been
subjected to various studies during the last five decades majority of them were based on case study
approach and findings could not be generalized to other contexts mainly because they lacked quantitative
evidence and gave only prescriptive advice. Even the few quantitative and empirical studies on
employability have not given conclusive evidence. To add to this complexity, it has been shown that
different stakeholders like faculty, employers and students understand the employability concept
differently. In such a context current paper on graduate employability is both timely and important.

INCONSISTENCIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION GRADUATE SKILLS AND EMPLOYABILITY

Several studies have emphasized the discontinuity between skills university graduates have when they
graduate and the specific needs of the employers. An international survey conducted on graduates,
educators, and employers from 9 countries identified a significant disconnect between the world of
education and employment (Calonge and Shah (2019)). It also noted that education providers had an
inflated confidence regarding the relevance of what they were teaching. Whilst fewer than half of their
surveyed students and employers believed that graduates were adequately prepared for entry-level
positions, education providers were much more optimistic as 72% of them believed the new graduates
were ready to work (Calonge and Shah (2019)).
These results were further confirmed by a 2014 McKinsey survey which showed education providers
confidence in graduates’ skills readiness at 74%, whilst only 38% of youth and 35% of employers agreed
(Calonge and Shah (2019)). The contradictory perspectives between the various stakeholders may be due
to the misalignment between universities perceptions of graduates’ skills knowledge, employers required
graduate skills and students perceived career readiness (Calonge and Shah (2019)) aptly suggested that
“something is clearly wrong when only 11% of business leaders, compared to 96% of chief academic
officers, believe that graduates have the requisite skills for the workforce”. This skills gap phenomenon
does not appear to be restricted to specific regions or nations. (Calonge and Shah (2019)) argued that, for
instance, workers did not have the skills to transition from lost to new jobs, that the U.S. would have a
shortage of approximately 1.5 million college graduates by 2020, and that the form of mismatch was not
geographically isolated to the U.S. but rather was a global concern. In a survey of employers in India by
(Calonge and Shah (2019)), 53% said that the lack of skills of graduates was the leading reason for entry-
level vacancies. As such, by 2022, India is predicted to be short of more than 160 million skilled workers
in various industries (Calonge and Shah(2019)), with inevitable economic consequences Forty-seven per
cent of the employers surveyed believed the “education system wasn’t meeting the needs of business” and
there was an urgent need for are design of educational curriculums (Calonge and Shah(2019)).Other
reports from the UK such as the Institution of Engineering and Technology (Calonge and Shah(2019))
“Skills and Demand in Industry report have suggested employment sectors were becoming “hollowed-
out” shells due to the lack of skilled graduates (Calonge and Shah(2019)).
As such, business sectors and tertiary education providers in the UK should closely collaborate to “produce
a stream of talent equipped with the skills ready to enter industry” (Calonge and Shah (2019)). This was
identified as a serious concern to the UK economy as annual reports on skills suggested 44%of businesses
did not view new graduates as meeting “reasonable expectations for levels of skills.
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CHALLENGES THAT LEADS TO SKILL GAP

 Lack of quality knowledge

The research conducted through the exploratory research with cross sectional study design. The samples
of the study have taken from the 90 M.Phil. and Ph.D. level students of International Islamic University,
Islamabad. The data has been gathered by the three point Liker scale questionnaire. The paper has found
out that the college students were not satisfied with the teaching and course content. So the study suggested
that training can bring the improvement in teaching. Creating new knowledge and preserving it for future
generation is the major function of Universities but it is not functioning well due to the insufficient
research and development activities.(Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha(2019)) the study has focused on the
factors which were affecting the quality of research directly and indirectly in education.
 Lack of Industry Interaction

Interaction between Industry and academia are required to ensure curriculum and skill in line with
requirement. Skill building is really very crucial to ensure employability and to make sure good job
(Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha (2019)) the paper deals with the academia – industry collaboration in India
The study argues that due to loss of appreciation of each other’s talents, variations in values and attitudes,
abilities and needs and the absence of economic forces, the collaboration among academia and enterprise
has been limited in the past and it will likely be felt in future. The college students of higher training are
not getting preferred level of practical and the technical education.
 Inadequate Infrastructure and Facilities

Learning environment plays a major role in the growth of students. There are lot of colleges in India have
poor infrastructures and facilities which directly moves the students learning outcomes. (Yasmeen Bano
and Vasantha (2019)) investigate that, infrastructure as a factor can regulates effective transmission and
adoption of revolution in the society.
 Ineffectiveness of technical and vocational education and training (TVET)
Technical and vocational education deals with the practical skills which allow individuals to engage in a
specific occupational activity. It has impacts on productivity and economic development of many
developed societies. In India, quality of education, learning and progress beyond primary education is a
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major concern. (Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha(2019)) states that technical and vocational education and
training(TVET) situation looks promising in India due to the skill development policy brought by the
government of India
Figure 1. Employability skills gaps among graduates
EMPLOYABILITY SKILL GAP

Employability skill gap is global and significantly widespread issues in the world. It is shortfall in skill
attainment and as well as mismatch between job seeker and the employers. According to American
Society for Training & Development (2012), indicates that skill gap is a gap between an organization’s
current capabilities and ability to achieve its goal. Skill gap is a point where an organization cannot achieve
its goal and it can no longer grow. Many job seekers and graduates find it difficult to get a job. (Yasmeen
Bano and Vasantha (2019)) addresses that employers are claiming that new graduates are not hirable
because they are nor furnished with necessary abilities required by the work. The paper addresses about
skills gap, its causes and what to be done educators, students and industry to limit its effect on the college
graduates in future. The paper suggested that government, employers and educators should continue their
effort to bridge the employability gap and the students should get prepare to become a valuable employee
of their employer. (Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha (2019)) said that the lack of mismatched values and
effective communication between employers and higher education institutions that can be identified as a
gap, found in students employability profiles. The paper investigates and evaluates the value of student
and employer engagement in the discipline of environmental science. The study has done survey with the
questionnaire method. The sample of study has taken from the undergraduate and post graduate student
studying environmental science (ES) at university of Southampton. There was the total of sixty students
who completed the questionnaire. The study also has distributed the 200 questionnaire to the employers
in the field of environmental science. The study has suggested that both the employers and higher
education institutions should establish effective routes of communication to facilitate the effective work
placement.
FOUR COMPONENTS OF EMPLOYABILITY
This suggests that we can separate out four main elements in respect of individuals’ employability: the
first three are analogous to the concepts or production, marketing and sales, and the fourth the market
place in which they operate.(Hillage and Pollard(1998))
I. Assets
An individual’s ‘employability assets’ comprise their knowledge (i.e. what they know), skills (what they
do with what they know) and attitudes (how they do it). There are a number of detailed categorizations in
the literature which, for instance, distinguish between:
‘Baseline assets’ such as basic skills and essential personal attributes (such as reliability and integrity)
• ‘intermediate assets’ such as occupational Specific skills (at all levels), generic or key skills (such as
communication and problem solving) and key personal attributes (such as motivation and initiative).
• ‘high level assets’ involving skills which help contribute to organizational performance (such as team
working, self-management, commercial awareness etc.).
Further key points from the literature include the importance of the transferability of these skills form one
occupational or business context to another for employability and the increased attention employers are
paying to the softer attitudinal skills in selecting employees. Merely being in possession of employer-
relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes is not enough for an individual to either ‘move self-sufficiently’
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in the modern labor market or ‘realize their potential’. People also need the capability to exploit their
assets, to market them and sell them.
II. Deployment
These are a linked set of abilities which include:
• Career management skills – commonly identified as self-awareness (i.e. diagnosing
Occupational interests and abilities), opportunity awareness (knowing what work opportunities exist and
their entry requirements i.e. labor market knowledge), decision-making skills (to develop a strategy of
getting from where you are
to where you want to be) and transition skills. The latter generally includes:
III.
Job search skills - i.e. finding suitable jobs. Access to formal and informal networks is an important
component of job search and employability.
• Strategic approach - being adaptable to labor market developments and realistic about labor market
opportunities, including the willingness to be occupationally and locational mobile. There is obviously an
important inter-relationship between assets and deployment. The extent to which an individual is aware
of what they possess in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes and its relevance to the employment
opportunities available may affect their willingness to undertake training and other activities designed to
upgrade their skills etc.
IV. Presentation
Another key aspect of employability is being able to get a particular job, once identified – sometimes
included under career management skills, but is given prominence as a separate element here due to its
crucial importance to securing employment. It centers on the ability to demonstrate ‘employability’ assets
and present them to the market in an accessible way. This includes:
• The presentation of CVs etc., (including Records of Achievement)
• The qualifications individuals possess (both academic and vocational), perhaps accredited through prior
learning
• References and testimonies
• Interview technique, and, of particular importance
• Work experience/track record.
MEANING, NEED & SIGNIFICANCE OF SOFT SKILLS
Soft skills are a cluster of personality traits, social graces, facility with language, personal habits,
friendliness and optimism that mark people to varying degrees. Soft skills complement hard skills which
are the technical requirement of job. It is a combination of personal qualities, interpersonal skills and
additional skills/knowledge. It gives a ‘competitive edge’ in today’s competitive job market. Employees
promote employees with superior soft skills. Those extroverted and good at marketing and socializing are
rated superior, good old introvert technician though ace in technical field are not appreciated. Hard skill
contributes only 15% of one’s skills success while 85% is made by soft sills. Soft skills are learned
behavior with focused application that teaches the effective use of English (Language of worldwide
communication) team building, leadership, time management, group discussion, interpersonal skills,
career visioning and planning, effective resume writing and deals with placement consultant and head
hunters. It instills the ability to deal with one’s feeling and also to empathize with others. It complements
academic intelligence or cognitive capacities (IQ) with the humane understanding of issues known as
emotional intelligence (EQ) or soft skills. It aims at the holistic development by fine tuning the learners’
attitudes, values belief, motivation, desires, feeling, eagerness to learn, willingness to share and embrace
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new ideas and inculcates futuristic thinking. It empowers learners with adequate ammunition to face
corporate battles and challenges.
MAXIMIZING EFFICIENCY OF YOUTH AND GRADUATES
The Youth power has the potential to transform the Indian economy. The skill development programme
should be made inclusive to deal with the divides in society such as gender, rural, urban, organized,
unorganized employment and traditional/contemporary work place. The focus should be on designing
interventions that ensure that the supply of trained manpower adjusts dynamically to the changes in
demand for employment. In the skill sector the emphasis traditionally has been on skilling. Soft skills,
English and Information technology are crucial for career progression. A target group in the age group or
18-35 should enfold people with disabilities, vulnerable tribal groups, victims of trafficking rehabilitated,
bonded labour. Some of the measures could be:-
 Free training programme – Projects with private sector, public sector and civil society organizations
to enable rural poor youth to gain access to skilling and placement free of cost should be initiated.
 Proper study of labour markets to assess skill requirements for jobs within the state and in regions
outside should be carried from time to time.
 Training course that match the locals, attitude levels and location should be initiated.
 Organizing job fairs in villages and remote areas to bring potential employers and local youth face
to face should be a revolutionary step.
 Monitoring is measurement of progress which involves checking, measuring progress, analysing the
situation and reacting to new events, opportunities and issues, footages of CCTVs in labs and class
rooms should be reviewed to ensure that the quality of class room interaction is of a requisite level
at training canters.
 Quality of infrastructure determines the quality of training viz. trainers, content, training methods,
finishing work readiness inputs, assessments and certificate, furniture, labs, classrooms and IT
facilities, training aids, geo tagged time stamped biometric attendance facilities, internet and email
access of prescribed speed on all IT equipment using which all trainers can check their email access
and browse the internet, power back-ups, a computer lab for IT skills.
 Trainers deployed should have the requisite exposure to the requirement of prospective employees.
They should also possess the knowledge, skills and attitude needed to be a good trainer.
 Course content should be in tune with training and should facilitate learning by rural poor youth who
may not have exposure to English. There should be mandatory modules on soft skills, communication
and IT, mixed media modules; interaction pedagogy which includes games, role plays should be
uses. Adequate practical and on the job training/internship must be incorporated into the training
module.
 Course material and exercises should be available online so that trainees who wish to use it to revise
and improve themselves are able to do so. Keeping in mind the proliferation of mobile based learning
opportunities the development and deployment of mobile phone based content will be a significant
step.
 Training methods should be delivered in an innovative and trainee friendly manner with adequate
audio visual tools and participatory method. The provision of tablet computer to trainees during the
duration of the course will be an interactive medium to absorb the skills that are imparted.
 The New concept introduced by government is VLE (Village level entrepreneur) for making India’s
youth capable of delivering digital facilities to people of village. VLE runs the CSCs (Common
service centre).

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS ON EMPLOYABILITY OF UNIVERSITY GRADUATES


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The review of literature clearly highlighted the presence of several main theoretical frameworks that
attempts to identify the concept of employability of university graduates and its underlying factors. Among
the many frameworks, the study done by (Erabaddage et al (2019)) can be considered pioneering since for
the first time it summarized all previous and existing ideas about employability. Accordingly
employability has four main elements
namely; assets, deployment, presentation, and contexts. Even though (Erabaddage et al (2019))
employability model was instrumental in summarizing the ideas about employability, it did not explain
the underlying factors of employability or their associations. Many subsequent studies were conducted
based on “employability skills” which are underlying skills factors that lead to graduate employability
and, the theoretical framework presented by
(Erabaddage et al (2019)) identifies a collection of basic, higher order and effective employability skills
required by employers. The “employability skills model” has been the focus for many subsequent studies
due to its simplicity and practicality. According to Cotton’s model employability skills were categorized
into three types; basic skills, higher order thinking skills, affective skills and traits. Skills model is
considered by many as one of the earliest models of employability, which is based on the notion that
employability depends on the skill levels of the individual, without any mention of other factors such as
attitude and behavior.

JOINING GRADUATE SKILLS GAPS


With today’s 24/7 connected learners, some higher education institutions have leveraged technology to
provide a greater levels of flexibility to their teaching and learning process (Calonge and Shah (2016)).
The provision of online courses are “breaking the traditional fungus of instructional provision” (Calonge
and Shah (2016)). MOOCs are such forms of technology used by many universities as a mean to provide
flexible learning. (Calonge and Shah (2016)) aptly suggested when examining MOOCs, the “boundaries
between settings in which people learn and in which they use technology for other activities have blurred”.
(Calonge and Shah (2016)) suggested that this model may be attractive at scale, as it may provide a means
of skilling up for large numbers of non-traditional students. MOOCs have also been identified as an
innovative educational method for teaching and learning (Calonge and Shah (2016)). They hold the
potential to withstand times of economic downturns for students and provide businesses with cost-
effective solutions to update their employees on specific “relevant knowledge and skills”. (Calonge and
Shah (2016)) Examples of MOOCs being utilized to bridge the skills gap, and particularly the digital skills
gap, have been identified in many regions across the globe. India is one such example which has
developed “Mobile MOOCs” as an “innovative approach to addressing India’s skills shortage, and will
have instant appeal to young people entering the workforce" (Association of Accounting Technicians
(AAT), 2015). Other initiatives in locations such as Tanzania are also developing the use of MOOCs to
provide skills. The research topic of universities preparing to provide students with the best skills is
strongly related to strategic thinking and developing knowledge strategies at the levels of recto rate of any
university. That will improve the contribution of our universities to economic and social value creation
and to increasing their role in accelerating the development of our economy. That is in concordance with
the forthcoming European Union’s and governmental strategies of strengthening our educational system
and its role in society. Finally, education and training suppliers should have the vision of their future as a
dual model with the business sector in order to stay in touch with the market, to better meet the employers’
needs. The limits of this research are given by the investigated sample, which was located in a specific
Romanian state university, presenting as such a contextual perspective. The survey about the top
categories of skills necessary for 2030 could be extended at national level but with a more thorough
revision of the investigating instrument construction (i.e. revision of the questionnaire). Also, the
investigation should be extended to the business environment to get the vision of different firms about the
necessary generic skills needed in the knowledge economy in the near future.
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GRADUATE EMPLOYABILITY, SKILL DEVELOPMENT AND AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT


Learning through authentic assessments has augmented as complimentary practice to work placements
and in response to worldwide pressures to improve graduate employability (Sotiriadou et al (2019)).
Specifically, graduate employability is a primary concern in higher education across many countries
(Sotiriadou et al (2019)). A significant and rising percentage of students with a university degree do not
have employment in their area of study within 12 months of graduation. Graduate Careers Australia (GCA)
began measuring graduate employability in 1982, and in 2015 found that only 74% of university graduates
had secured full-time employment within four months of graduation. This figure is down notably from
82% in 2009, 80% in 2010, and 76% claimed that the term employability can be understood as the
‘possession of basic “core-skills”, or an extended set of generic attributes, or attributes that a type of
employer (discipline linked, sector-related, company-type) specifies’ (96). As the definition suggests,
employability hinges largely on skill development and employers are increasingly expecting graduates to
be job ready (Sotiriadou et al (2019)]“). In a highly competitive labor market (Sotiriadou et al (2019)]“),
graduates are required to be equipped with necessary skills and qualities to gain and retain employment.
In particular, communication skills represent an important basis for employability across many different
professions (Sotiriadou et al (2019)]“), and employers consistently rank oral and written communication
abilities highly (Sotiriadou et al (2019)]“). In 2013, the Harris-Chegg Foundation (2013) conducted a poll
of 2001 college students in the United States who were entering the job market and 1000 hiring managers
on their perceptions of job readiness. The study found that there was a marked gap between students’
perceptions of their ability to communicate with clients and authority figures to that of their employers.
Specifically, 70% of students scored themselves as effective communicators in this area as opposed to
44% of their employers. Furthermore, the successful formation of pre-professional identity (including
graduate knowledge of the relevant profession, the ability to interact with the profession and seek a career)
is also considered to influence graduate work-readiness and job attainment (Sotiriadou et al (2019)).
However, a major problem in tertiary education is a frequently reported gap between teaching in formal
environments, face-to-face or online, and the real-world experiences (Sotiriadou et al (2019)), as well as
the tasks students engage in for their assessments as opposed to what occurs in the world of work
(Sotiriadou et al (2019)]“). The problem is that tertiary education standards do not align with the
expectations of the world of work (Sotiriadou et al (2019)). Bridging the gap between learning and
working is an ongoing salient issue (Sotiriadou et al (2019)).
To address the gap between learning and working and developing work-ready graduates, tertiary education
programmers incorporate career development learning activities as part of a work integrated learning
(WIL) offering (Sotiriadou 2019). The benefits of WIL to skill development through student exposure to
less formal environments and real organizational settings have received a considerable research focus
(Sotiriadou et al (2019)). However, due to the gap between what employers want and what graduates offer,
tertiary education continues to struggle to provide students with the necessary skills (Sotiriadou et al
(2019)). University educators have responded by placing a bigger focus on authentic learning activities
and authentic assessment, so that students develop the skills and practices that they will need in their future
careers (Sotiriadou et al (2019)). Offering authentic assessments in the formal learning environment has
emerged as an alternative or complementary strategy to WIL. Authentic assessment helps equip students
with workplace skills and competencies and prepares them for their employment. However, the links
between offering authentic assessment and the development of skills and employability are less known
(Sotiriadou et al (2019)). Authentic assessment focuses on learners using and applying knowledge and
skills in real-life settings. For example, business students may assume a real-world workplace-specific
role to participate in scenario-based assessment such as a boardroom debate or an incident-triggered quick
turn-around report. This contrasts more traditional forms of assessment, such as essays and examinations,
which have no specific application in most real-world settings. Authenticity is a fundamental characteristic
of good assessment practice and students usually value it highly (Sotiriadou et al (2019)).Well-designed
authentic assessments help leaners contextualize their learning and see how real-life situations, in all their
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unpredictability, ambiguity and complexity, complement their theoretical knowledge (Sotiriadou et al


(2019)). The need to contextualize assessment in interesting, real-life and authentic tasks has long been
considered a key educational element (Sotiriadou et al (2019)) suggested that authenticity of the
assessment tasks addresses the competencies of the discipline. Furthermore, authentic assessment design
should ensure transfer of knowledge beyond the confines of real-life experiences to other subsequent
assessment tasks. Some research suggests that this type of learning is preferable toward the end of a degree
when students are comfortable collaborating and working on ill-defined problems, and have skills in
reflection (Sotiriadou et al (2019)). However, when the tasks or assessments are scaffold, the learner
slowly develops competencies that allow them to take on challenging tasks without feeling overwhelmed
(Sotiriadou et al (2019)). Scaffolding is an educational technique useful in engaging students at deeper
levels of learning allowing them to complete tasks in a proficient way and improve skills (Sotiriadou et al
(2019)). It allows students to engage in smaller parts of the whole task. Alternatively, the whole task is
broken down into separate yet interrelated assessments/components. The literature reports extensively the
various benefits of authentic assessment (Sotiriadou et al (2019)), specifically, addressing ‘ill-structured’,
unpredictable challenges, and, helping students to rehearse for complex working and professional life
ambiguities and visualize themselves as professionals. It is also well accepted that authentic assessment
enhances graduate employability by developing students’ ‘work-readiness’ capabilities (Sotiriadou et al
(2019)).
CREATING AWARENESS AND PROMOTION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG THE
GRADUATES
 Work experience
Work experience has a positive impact on employability. It may additionally emerge as a major role in
employability where the industrial placements as a central part of the graduate recruitment process.
(Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha (2019)) observes that the work experience has become as an approach to
improve the employability by conducting the recent research and policy related to the program.
Employability is an on-going discussion and infinite entity but it should move and increase with present
scenario of marketplace and society.
Curriculum auditing
(Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha (2019)) perceives that Curriculum auditing is a way of testing of
employability-related learning which has integrated into curricula and it helps to find out the gaps.
Employability intentions and good learning should be supported by the teaching, learning and assessment
process that are consistent with curriculum intentions.
 Career guidance
Higher education is considered as an imperfect source of training because it does not give the guarantee
for the transition to employment. According to global university network for innovation, Career guidance
is the essential factor of bridging the skill gap between higher education and the world of work. Career
guidance plays important role in the professional and personal development of students and graduates.
 Industrial training
Industrial training is the best way to bridge the gap between industry and academia. It is the skill set to
improve the practical knowledge by the industry. (Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha (2019)), examined. The
success of industrial training program in University Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP) from the technology
and engineering disciplines. The study conducted from the perspectives of three main stake holders
(students, universities and host companies). The data collection was done through the questionnaires
which were distributed to the two groups of respondents. A total of 247 and 321 questionnaire completed
by the students and industry supervisors respectively. The data was measured by the 5 point Liker scale.
The study concluded that a success industrial or business internship program can add extra value to the
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academic curriculum. Learning outcomes of the students in the stage of industrial and business internship
program is useful to improve the employability and it also complements their classroom learning process
CONCLUSION
In the edition process, universities focus on their traditional mission of teaching, learning and research.
Today, society asks much more from universities in terms of their contribution. They have to develop the
third mission which refers to delivering services toward society and to be a part of the triple helix
university-government-industry. Against this backdrop, universities should contribute more to the
developing generic skills of students and to stimulate their intention toward entrepreneurship. Briefly to
review the main ideas of our research we would reiterate that the results of the Exploratory Factor Analysis
have confirmed the assumptions we made regarding the acquisition of skills which registered
heterogeneous levels according to students’ responses. Employability is a two-sided equation and many
individuals need various forms of support to overcome the physical and mental barriers to learning and
development (i.e. updating their assets). Employability is not just about vocational and academic skills.
Individuals need relevant and usable labor market information to help them make informed decisions
about the labor market options available to them. Finally people also need the opportunities to do things
differently, to access relevant training and most crucially employment. Employability skills which will
make candidates face internal and external challenges. The researcher concludes that Academia –Industry
would create mutually beneficial partnership. Corporate believe that there is great growing shortage of
talented management students, they look forward for proper interaction with management institutes as one
of the most important source of future talent. The result of this study will surely provide Industry and
Academia with more knowledge to obtain more effective collaboration so that it will be win-win situation
to all stake-holders.
REFERENCES
1. [P. Sotiriadou et al.(2019)] “The role of authentic assessment to preserve academic integrity and
promote skill development and employability” Popi Sotiriadoua, Danielle Loganb, Amanda Dalyc
and Ross Guest.
2. [Erabaddage et al(2019)] “Review of Literature on Graduate Employability” Erabaddage Gishan
Tharanga Sumanasiri1 , Mohd Shukri Ab Yajid2 & Ali Khatibi3
3. [Yasmeen Bano and Vasantha(2019)]
“Review on Employability Skill Gap” Yasmeen Bano Dr.S.Vasantha
4. [Skoyles et al(2019)]“Developing employability skills workshops for students’ Higher Education
Achievement Reports” Alison Skoyles, Nicola Bullock & Kathy Neville.
5. [Calonge and Shah(2016)]“MOOCs, Graduate Skills Gaps, and Employability: A Qualitative
Systematic Review of the Literature” David Santandreu Calonge¹ and Mariam Aman Shah² The
University Of Adelaide (Australia) ¹, Lancaster University (UK)
6. [BEJINARU(2018)] “Assessing students’ entrepreneurial skills needed in the Knowledge
Economy” Ruxandra BEJINARU Academy of Romanian Scientists, Bucharest, Romania the
University “Stefan cel Mare” of Suceava, Romania.
7. [Hillage and Pollard(1998)] ”Employability: Developing a Framework for Policy Analysis” J
Hillage and E Pollard Institute for Employment Studies.
8. [Sotiriadou et al (2019)] “The role of authentic assessment to preserve academic integrity and
promote skill development and employability” Popi Sotiriadou, Danielle Logan, Amanda Daly &
Ross Guest.
9. [Pandey(2015)] “Global Employability of Unemployed Youth through Soft Skills” Dr. Meenu
Pandey Associate Professor & HOD, LNCT,Bhopal & Dr. Prabhat Pandey Librarian & Head,
SNGGPG College,Bhopal.
10. [MarshWay(2006)] “A review of literature on employability skill needs in Engineering”
Loughborough University, New Technology Institute, CEME Campus, MarshWay, Rainham,
Essex RM13 8EU, UK.
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Revolution and convergence of communication technologies in commerce


education: - it’s impact on the youth of akola city
MISS.SNEHA SHESHRAO GAWAI, DR.VARSHA S. SUKHADEVE Professor &
M.COM., B.ED, M.Phil. Faculty Of H.O.D, Department Of Management Studies
Management Studies & Research, & Research, Smt. L.R.T. College of
Smt. L.R.T. College of Commerce, Akola – Commerce, Akola – 444001 (MS) India.
444001, (MS), India

Abstract: The twentieth century brought about a lot of changes, especially in the fields of
industry, information technology and communication. As a result of these phenomena also our
everyday life has changed radically. In this article I would like to introduce that how did these
new technological advancements affect the social life of humanity and its impact on the youth
of Akola city? In the beginning of history communication was totally limited by the distance. If
someone was further than the other’s noise or sight could reach, then they could not exchange
any information without coming closer to each other. This way the people were more separated
and the different nations were developing in very different ways. Through the appearance of
the various communicational devices the distances were shorter and shorter, until that grade
that nowadays we can hold and international conference with the participants being on distant
locations of the world.
Disabled people can work from their homes through internet. We don’t need to go out
even for shopping, because we can order the product and it comes to our home. Universities
offer tale-courses where people can receive not only the education but even a diploma, without
ever setting foot in the building of the institution. The world truly became a global village,
where we can reach anyone, anywhere, from the comfort of our sofa. All these changes in our
lifestyle happened so rapidly that even my parents cannot really grasp it, not to mention about
the grandparents. The last 20 years brought about so many new things that most of the people
don’t even know about their existence. The Homo sapiens evolved to Homo Sapiens
Communications, with his inseparable tool: the mobile phone.

INTRODUCTION:-
Information and communications technology (ICT) is often used as an extended
synonym for information technology(IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role
of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and
wireless signals), computers as well as necessary software, middleware, storage, and audio-
visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone
networks with networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic
incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the
telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling,
signal distribution and management
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:-
In an analysis of data from the 2000 General Social Survey, Alan Neustadtl and John
P. Robinson (2002) argue that there is little evidence that as Internet use increases, face-to-face
interaction decreases. In fact, Internet and electronic mail use is associated with a richer social
life. In a follow up study of Home Net publications that had previously found small, yet
consistently negative effects of Internet use on social involvement and psychological well-
being, researchers found that these small findings were no longer apparent. Newer studies
found an overall positive effect of using the Internet for communication with family and
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friends, community involvement and psychological well-being. Researchers argue that


extroverts, who had a large network of social support benefited from Internet use, while
introverts who had smaller networks of social support did not benefit as much (Kessler et al
2002). Their research finds that the Internet fosters greater communication and psychological
well-being among users. The distinction they make is between how valuable it is, not whether
it is beneficial or detrimental.
AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
 To develop communication theories and be highly skilled in the use of
quantitative methods & to evaluate them in a view of commerce education.
 To study the facilities of communication technology in various colleges.
 To study the impact of communication technology on youth in Akola city.
 To increase the ability of student to contact their instructors at any time to ask
for information or guidance regarding their uses of communication technology.
 To compare the impact of communication technology on commerce students in
various colleges.
 To identify information and communication technologies (ICT) intrusiveness
on college students.
HYPOTHESIS
1. The effect of revolution in communication, affects on our life and youths are more
affected.
2. Convergence of communication technology very useful in this globalized scenario.
3. Akola city commerce students are very much acquainted with use of communication
technology.
SAMPLE DESIGN
(Table 1.1)
Sr. SAMPLE SIZE TOTAL
No. NAME OF COLLEGES
BOYS GIRLS -----------
-
1. SMT. L.R.T. COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
,AKOLA 25 25 50
R.D.G. GIRLS COLLEGE OF
2. ARTS,COMMERCE AND SCIENCE,AKOLA 25 25 50

3. S.N. COLLEGE, AKOLA 25 25 50


4. MEHERBANU COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND
COMMERCE, AKOLA. 25 25 50

SHRI. SHIVAJI ARTS,COMMERCE AND 25 25 50


5. SCIENCE COLLEGE, AKOLA
TOTAL 125 125 250
The demographic characteristic illustrates the distribution of respondent’s categories in
relation to Age, Gender, as described in Table 1.2
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AGE WISE SAMPLE DESIGN


(Table 1.2)
Sr.No. Age Gender Total
Male Female

1 20-25 75 75 150

2 25-30 50 50 100
Total ---------- 125 125 250
From Table 1.2, it can be noted that majority of the respondent’s (60%) ware aged
between 20-25 years, including male and female. And only 40% of respondents are aged
between 25-30 years.
1. Are you aware of revolution in communication technology?
Are you aware of
160
revolution in
140
communication
120 technology?
100 Yes
80
60
40
20 No
0
20-25 25-30

As seen in Table 1, this is depicted by majority (100%) of respondents who asserted


that they were aware of revolution in communication technology. The above findings suggest
that the general awareness of revolution in Youth about ICT have access to new and different
types of communication technology.
Table - 2
Sr.No Question Age wise Tota Percen
. l t
Qu.2 Do you know about revolution in 20-25 25-30
means of communication? (150) (100)
Ye N Yes No
s o
15 0 100 0
0
Total 150 100 250 --
Percent 60% 40% -- 100%
2. Do you know about revolution in means of communication?
150 Do you know
about
100 revolution in
50 means of
0 communication
20- 25- ?
25 30 Yes
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In Table 2, this is agreed by majority (100%) of respondents who asserted that they
know about revolution in communication technology. The above findings suggest that the
youth of Akola city is aware about this revolution and they are using all this means of ICT.

Table – 3
Options Age wise
Sr.No. Question 20-25 25-30 Total Percent
(150) (100)
Qu.3 Which are those? Radio 35 12 47 2.8%
T.V. 25 18 43 17.2%
Internet 30 40 70 28%
All of this 60 30 90 36%
Total 150 100 250 100%

3. Which are those?

60

50
Which are those?
40 Radio
30 T.V
20 Internet

10 All of this

0
20-25 25-30

From the above Table no. 3, majority of the respondents responded that they knew
about the revolution in ICT & they have a definite knowledge how to use all means of
communication technology. About 2.8% youth use radio, 17.2% youth are using T.V as a
means of ICT, and 28% youth uses Internet and about 36% uses all these facilities for different
kind of uses. It proves that the youth of Akola city is aware about this revolution in ICT.

 Test of the first hypothesis: -


The first hypothesis was stated as: The effect of revolution in communication, affects
on our life and youths are more affected. The results of this analysis show a positive linear
relationship between the effects of revolution in communication, affects on our life and youths
are more affected. Availability of ICT resources and Youth learning as given by the positive
value of the computed correlation index. This suggests that availability of ICT resources plays
a significantly positive role towards students learning in different colleges. Hence the
hypothesis that “The effects of revolution in communication, affects on our life and youth are
more affected.”
 Test of 2nd hypothesis:
The second hypothesis was stated as: Convergence of communication technology very
useful in this globalized scenario. The results of the analysis show a positive correlation
between Convergence of communication technology & the use of ICT in this globalized
scenario. Accordingly, the null hypothesis is in favor of the 2nd hypothesis. The findings
suggest that as student’s accessibility to ICT resources improves there is a likely improvement
in students learning in different Commerce colleges of Akola city.
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 Test of 3rd hypothesis:


Hypothesis three stated that: Akola cities commerce students are very much acquainted
with use of communication technology. The results of this analysis shows a positive result
that Akola cities commerce students are very much acquainted with use of communication
technology as given by the positive value of the computed correlation index . It implies that
the results were statistically significant.
This suggests that Akola cities Commerce students are very much acquainted with the
use of communication technology & it plays an important & positive role towards students
learning in different colleges of Akola city. Hence the null hypothesis that “Akola cities
commerce students are very much acquainted with use of communication technology” is
upheld.

DISSCUSIONS, CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS


Revolution & Convergence in communication technology has numerous economic and
social impacts on modern society and requires serious social science investigation in order to
manage its risks and dangers. Such work would be valuable for both social policy and
technology design. Decisions have to be taken carefully. Many choices being made now will
be costly or difficult to modify in the future.
Many of us are aware that we live in a rapidly changing world. But most of us are still
not conscious of the speed of change and the interconnections between the many technological
and other changes that are affecting our daily lives and that will have a deep effect on our
future. And without this consciousness, it is going to be difficult to fully understand our present
predicament and hold out effective solutions that will ensure that we have at least a standing
place in a future world.

CONCLUSION :-
Everyone I interviewed agreed that Internet culture and new communications
technologies influenced their relationships and connections with other people. However, my
sample overwhelmingly believed that the effects are both positive and negative. On the one
hand, most respondents are aware (and some are concerned) that Web 2.0communications can
negatively influence relationships and connections because it can produce relationships that are
more superficial, less personal and less emotionally intense than relationships that are not
technology mediated or sustained. At the same time, they tended to agree that the networks
they are creating are larger and probably more diverse, and that these technologies can actually
help sustain offline relationships in some important ways.
This study provides strong evidence that the impact of digital communications and Web
2.0 culture on our social relationships is not a black and white, good versus bad issue. As
sociologists who have studied the impact of other technologies on society have argued, it is not
the technology itself but how humans use these technologies that are most significant. For the
most part this is how my respondents summed up the impact of these technologies on their
social relationships. While most of the people believed or worried that Internet culture might
produce greater isolation or hinder them from forming intimate and meaningful relationships,
they also saw the value of the wider networks and the ways email, text messaging, Face book
and other digital technologies allowed them to sustain and then build more constant and
meaningful relationships with people about whom they care a great deal. As Michael stated,
the impact of the technologies depends on how they are used, and if they end up serving as a
bridge toothier forms of sociability.
FINDINGS
So many changes came about in such a short time that we couldn’t even really
understand what happened to us. From one side our life became truly much more comfortable
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than ever before. We receive information (news, family photos, films, felicitation, etc.) faster
and easier than ever before. We can shop online from the other side of the world and the product
comes at our door.
Those who were far before came closer to each other (“We are living now in a global
village”), we can reach anyone anywhere in an instant. But at the same time those who were
near got further from each other, spouses spend more time on phone or on internet and less
time together.
Findings from respondents echoed limited ICT resources as the biggest challenge
affecting the commerce student’s access to ICT facilities. This was closely followed by
financial constraints cited by the respondents. The researcher’s discussion with the
administrators reveals the need for increment in ICT facilitation so as to increase on the number
of technology accessories in the Colleges. Limited time to access the computer lab, Internet
connectivity and power instability were some of the other reasons cited as affecting student’s
access to ICT resources.
The study reveals that limited ICT facilities remained the major factor affecting
student’s use of ICT resources with a majority 'emphasizing it. This was evident where students
accessed the computer laboratory in different shifts not for convenience but to share the few
computers. This was further supported by respondents who stressed that they have limited time
to access the computer lab.
My respondents sometimes use digital technologies for quick, routine communication.
Although it might seem superficial, they see it more as a substitute for no communication rather
than substituting for deeper communication when geographic distance or being busy would
otherwise mean no contact at all. These technologies make it much easier to
maintain connections across geographic distance, and are convenient and
easy. Furthermore, the respondents associate different technologies with
different kinds of connections and sometimes with different kinds of people
in their lives, therefore, having multiple options of ways to contact and be in
touch with people is, in their opinion, mainly good.
My respondents believe that the impact of technology mediated
communications technologies on relationships is complex and
multidimensional it is not black and white, good or bad, right or wrong it is much more
complicated. The most positive features of digital-mediated relationships, especially when they
combine on and off-line forms of sociability are found in the metaphor of the bridge. Bridges
make connections happen across time and space.

SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS: -


Basing on the findings of this study, in order to improve on ICT and learning in
commerce education, the following recommendations may be considered:-
1. There is need for the colleges to invest more in computers and related technology as
means of not only solving accessibility problem but improving on the presence of the facilities
especially computers in the classroom and computer lab. More infrastructures: printers,
computers, projectors should be put in place for more practice and utilization.
2. There is a need to maintain internet connection in the colleges and connect more
computers to the internet. The University should then liberalize accessibility of internet and e-
mail in the institution in form of establishment of ICT resource centers where all software can
be accessed, student’s packages and all versions of technology. All in all, the University shall
take time and even not get there to afford a 1:1 ratio of Student - ICT access to facilities thus
students should also try to acquire themselves what can be afforded or visit commercial ICT
providers like internet café to access ICT facilities.
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3. Training in ICT skills should not be limited to Ms Office suits; the University should
go ahead to integrate the other programs and packages as recommended by UNESCO .Clearly
a basic level of ICT skill must be achieved but this should be followed by an integrated
approach to ICT and learning. The aim should be for embedding ICT firmly into the teaching
and learning process so that it is no longer considered a separate and discrete element. Such
changes may offer the potential to improve on teaching and learning using modern technology.

POSSIBLE AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH


Since Revolution and convergence in communication technology is relatively a new in
the teaching and learning process a lot of research is needed to be carried out. This study has
exposed many things that could not all be covered. The researcher thus recommends the
following possible research areas.
1. The link between technology and authentic learning in higher institutions of learning.
2. Student’s perception and use of the internet as a hub for learning.
3. The effect of modern technology on the performance of commerce student’s.

BIBLIOGRAPHY/ REFERENCES/WEBLIOGRAPHY
1. www.google.com
2. www.scholarlyarticle.co
3. www.yaahoo.com
4. Online magazines
5. Online newspapers
6. Books
7. Communication technologies – SONA PRASAD.
8. Communication Sites - BLM
9. www.blm.gov/…prog /more/lands/communication sites...
10. Adams, Rachel. Personal Interview. November 19th, 2009.
11. Anderson Chris, Personal Interview. November 16th, 2009.
12. Ellison, N.B., Stein field, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The Benefits of Face book “friends:”
Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal of
Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), article 1.
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Solar energy: A Need of Time

*Medha Gajanan Kulkarni


Smt. L.R.T College of commerce, Akola

Abstract :Generally, the fundamental needs of the human beings, the society or the country's
Economic development. Whether it is human capital. Along with these three fundamental
factors-Land, Manpower, Capital- Energy is calculated in the basic need. Energy is the fourth
element. It is impossible only to take one step in our daily life without Energy. And that is why
Energy is said to be the core of human life from the Indus Civilization, the development of
today's advanced human life evolved on changing energy resources.
Energy sources are of the two types. A Traditional & Non Traditional. Traditional means
renewable energy resources. In the traditional energy resources were created millions of years
underground covered in plant and animal residues from fossil fuels. Coal and Oil is the fossil
fuel, and says that the source of traditional energy. Non-renewable energy sources Natural oil
and gas and coal reserves have contributed to alternative energy, which they call non-
renewable energy sources. It is solar energy, wind energy etc. Solar Energy, Especially it is
pollution-free. No type of toxic substance goes out of it like mineral fuels. Or no country can
impose any restrictions on how great power it is! Because of the global political competition.
Most importantly, it is a permanent free energy source for all mankind bellow the sky.
The sole object of the Article is to make the mankind aware about the utilities, power, &
usefulness of The 'SUN'. 'SUN' is the soul of Universe. Sun is the soul of all living lives covered
by the panchmahabutas i.e. the Earth, the Water, the Agni-Sun itself, Air & the Sky. Sun the
immortal essence of all things in the Universe. Thats why The Rugveda described in
Saursukta , 'The Sun is the soul of Universe.
Key Words: Renewable Energy, Renewable energy source, Smart Grid, Non renewable.
INTRODUCTION
Energy is the life of the Earth on the surface of life, without the energy of the world,
there is no source of energy. With the help of these three fundamental factors, the basic energy
needs of this fourth thing is computed. In today's age, all types of natural fuels are decreasing
due to the energy consumption and the use of alternative energy. It has become necessary to
make conventional energy Along with the device, the extraordinary importance of non-
renewable energy resources has been achieved.
Electric energy being manufactured using mineral oil and stainless steel is the main
energy today, but ground oil and coal reserves are of limited form. Consumption of human
consumption has undermined the ecological balance, hence it is working to maintain fossil fuel.
Increasing population increases communication and expansion of contact plans. Increasing use
as well as medical field is very important Food consumption ratio is extremely low electricity
sectors TWAYA of the present building.
According to experts, seeing the growing population and the industrial growth of India,
the demand for electricity will continue to grow. While the demand for electricity is increasing
in the same way, the misuse of electricity due to unnecessary and excessive use of electricity
is increasing, while theft of electricity declared as the thirteenth month of the famine has
increased significantly.
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On the other hand, the mineral oil has become darker due to the inadequate stock of
coal and water, as a result of which electricity burden has to be faced in rural and urban areas.
It is necessary to conserve energy and to further enlighten the situation. Today, the thermal
power generated by mineral oil and coal As a sole power, citizens and entrepreneurs were
centered around the government If energy consolidation takes place and energy awakens, then
there is a need to think seriously about the availability of unconventional energy sources, such
as solar energy, for the consumption of conventional energy sources as well as for the use of
non-conventional energy sources.
HYPOTHESIS
 The energy of citizens will be awakened. The use of non-conventional energy sources
along with traditional energy sources will increase the number of citizens or
entrepreneurs. *Energy saving is the principle that electricity generation will be
enforced. *Electricity generation will be achieved, energy conservation and energy
awakening will be achieved.
 To provide improved environment
OBJECTIVES:
 To check the energy literacy among the citizens, the entrepreneurs and the farmers.
 To see how the trend of use of pollution-free and non-poisonous renewable energy
sources like solar energy.
 To overcome the energy crises like electricity.

DATA ANALYSIS:
Solar energy: Solar energy is generated from the sun's radiation.
The sun's energy from heat and light is called solar energy. Solar energy causes change
in air from Earth. The Earth receives 174 petavat energy from the Sun. Reflecting around 30%
of these results is absorbed in the remaining environment. Because of this energy environment
and landowning. The warmth of the ocean due to the atmosphere prevailing and the water
cycle evaporates and the atmosphere continues. Sunlight is the main source of light on earth.
Since solar energy is not used in daily transactions, it is called non-conventional energy.
However, solar energy is a valuable source of renewable energy. Photovoltaic systems,
centralized solar energy and solar water heaters are used for solar power generation.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION:
According to the Handbook on Solar Radiation over India, solar radiation of 4-7
kilowatt hours per square meter per day, in addition to 250-300 sunlight in a year, is received
in most part of India. The solar radiation received in Rajasthan and Gujarat is much higher
than the radiation obtained in Orissa.
In spite of having an open area of 30-50 MW / per square kilometer without an open
area, tapping of solar energy in the country is quite small compared to the available capacity
(which According to the status of 31-5-2014 2647 MW). After becoming the Prime Minister
in 2014, Narendra Modi made a lot of effort to increase the capacity of solar power, Hwarup
2016 Capricorn went crossed the magic figure of Sankranti / Pongal to an installed capacity of
5,000 MW of solar energy in India.
At the Paris Climate Conference in 2015, Narendra Modi also announced the
International Agency for Solar Technologies and Applications of Organization of more than
100 "Solar Company" countries under the leadership of India.
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Renewable Energy is done by the Ministry. India's densely populated and high solar
insulation creates solar energy as an ideal energy source for India. But solar energy is
constantly costly and requires huge investment. The nature of solar energy is unstable, so it is
difficult to adjust it in the grid. The lack of awareness of the people, the high production cost
and the limitations of abandonment of the current energy and transmission network has been
considered as the main obstacle in the direction of exploitation of solar power potential across
the country.
SUCCESSFUL SOLAR AGITATION IN INDIA:
Since our country is coming in tropical areas, India gets sunlight for almost 300 days a
year, so we have a great potential for solar power from Europe and America. Our country has
taken a bigger leap in solar generation. Today, we are building 29.41 giga-vats of solar energy
and in our country's periphery Another interesting fact is that solar power generation in our
country Energy is the cheapest in the world.Government has been keeping a watch on making
Gigas by 2022, but completed in 2018
Therefore, the Indian government has increased the capacity from 2015 to 100 gigawatt.
Another thing to do is to generate electricity from solar energy, 18% cheaper than the electricity
generated by the thermal power station. Sakri Solar Power Project in Maharashtra produces
125 MW power. Scientists express the opinion that the district is very good for solar energy
The solar power project has been set up to become a power plant for ten MW of power at
present. Besides, in the neighboring state of Karnataka, about 5,000 MW of electricity is
generated from all the projects in the state. Apart from this, more than fourteen megawatt of
solar power project will be seen in the initial phase and after completion of the project,
Thousands of MW power will be available.
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Source: Press Information Bureau, GoI, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy dt: 10-1218
India now at 5th global position for overall installed renewable energy capacity. A total of
101.83 billion units of power were generated in the country during the year 2017-18 from
renewable energy. The Government has declared the trajectory of bidding 60 GW capacity of
solar energy by March 2020,leaving two years’ time for execution of projects.
INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE (ISA):
The International Solar Alliance (ISA) became first international intergovernmental
organization headquartered in India on 6th December, 2017. ISA is part of India’s vision to
provide clean and affordable energy to all. So far 71 countries have signed the Framework
Agreement of the ISA. Out of these, 48 countries have ratified the same.
The First Assembly of the ISA was held on 3 October, 2018 in India. 37 ISA member
Countries, including India and France, attended the Assembly. In addition, 25 countries that
have signed the Framework Agreement of ISA but yet to ratify; 13 Prospective Member
countries that are yet sign the Framework Agreement of the ISA; and 3 Partner countries that
are beyond inter-tropical zone attended the Assembly as Observers. In the First Assembly
inter-alia India’s resolution for amending the Framework Agreement of the ISA for opening
up the ISA membership to all countries that are members of United Nations was adopted. India
has recognized ISA’s judicial personality by entering into Headquarter agreement with ISA.
SOLAR ENERGY
The Government has revised the target of Grid Connected Solar Power Projects from 20,000
MW by the year 2021-22 to 100,000 MW by the year 2021-22 under the National Solar
Mission. The country currently has the fifth highest solar installed capacity in the world with
total installed capacity of 24.33 GW as on October, 2018 against a target of 100 GW by 2022.
Further, 22.8 GW capacity is under implementation or have been tendered out.
The Ministry plans to bid out remaining solar power capacity in 2018-19 and 2019-20,
so that bidding gets completed for entire 100 GW capacity additions by March 2020, leaving
two years’ time for execution of projects. The tariff for grid-connected solar power projects is
determined through competitive bidding process involving reverse e-auction. This has helped
in bringing down the tariff significantly. The lowest solar tariff discovered as on date is Rs.
2.44/kWh in July 2018 in ISTS based bidding of solar projects in India. The solar tariff has
come down from around Rs 18/kWh in 2010 to Rs. 2.44/kWh in 2018 due to various factors
like economies of scale, assured availability of land and power evacuation systems etc.
Solar Parks are being set up in the country. 47 solar parks of aggregate capacity 26,694
MW has been approved in 21 States up to November, 2018.Over 1,00,000 lakh acres of land
identified for various solar parks out of which over 75,000 acres have been acquired. Solar
projects of aggregate capacity 4195 MW have been commissioned inside various solar parks.
The Ministry is also taking up projects for new emerging technologies such as floating
solar power.
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MAJOR FINDINGS:
Today, India is the fifth largest in terms of solar power generation. But the picture of
India in front of us is that the roof of each house is covered with a solar panel. Every farmer
will have some amount of solar farming. Each producer will also run his product unit through
solar energy. Then the little creature will breathe the pollution free and poisonous.
Environment will not be deteriorated. Today we are launching Swachh Bharat Abhiyan,
tomorrow's India will be the aim of Clean and Beautiful Vasundhara Mission. For this, the
Government will have to give priority to solar energy as a source of unskilled power for the
administration and the citizens. If the governance and governance system is a welfare, then
there is a need to think of how the schemes that encourage solar energy will become leaders to
the common man. Today, it is not possible for the economically weaker and middle class
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farmers and entrepreneurs to put solar energy units in homes, industries and farms. To make
it impossible to increase the provision of financial adaptions and to ensure that the publicity
system is well equipped, renewable energy will be required.
CONCLUSION:
The sources of traditional energy are limited in nature. These sources have become
obsolete today in the proportion of the growing population. Everyone needs to know that the
need for timely creation of renewable energy is better than digging a well when we are thirsty.
Citizens, entrepreneurs and farmers should take a few steps to absorb the solar energy today.
In addition, with the help of the Governance and the Administration of Transportation, it should
be changed from time to time to achieve the goal of solar energy.
SUGGESTIONS:
* Citizens, farmers and entrepreneurs should be solar-literate. * Provide financial provisions
that can be easily adapted to solar energy. At the government level, the movement of solar
energy should be implemented more effectively. *
REFERENCE:
1. Study of traditional and non-conventional energy sources in the lightning regulation
of AKOLA city.
2. Press Information Bureau Government of India. Ministry of New and New Renewable
Energy.
3. *Hand Book on Solar Radiation over India.
4. http://www.google.com
5. http://www.indiary.com
6. m.economictimes.com
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Corporate Social Responsibility And Sustainability


Dr.K.Narendra Kumar, Mrs.P.Kalpana,
Associate Professor, Assistant Professor,
Department of Management Studies, Department of Management Studies,
Vishnu Institute of Technology, Vishnu Institute of Technology,
Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh,
Mble:9515328145 Email: Mble:8106813586, Email:
narendrakumar.kona@gmail.com, kalpana.polaci@gmail.com,

Abstract: Being responsible towards society is an obligation for every individual who lives in
the society. In the same manner a corporation/company which is emerged with a primary
objective of earning money and maximising wealth through its operations using the limited
resources of society in shortrun and the envirement as a whole in long run, has eqully
responsible for the wellbeing of society and Sustainability. In this context, Companies must
question themselves in two important aspects i.e. how ethically they are maintaining quality
of people, processess(inner circle),and nature , quantity of impact on the society(outer circle).
To answer the above the concept “Corporate Societal Responsibility” whereby companies
decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment came into light.
Here we made an effort to look into the matter of what is really CSR and its legal compliance
in the present era and with some companies as example and to enlighten the role of companies
for Sustainable Development.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibilty,Obligation,legal compliance, Sustainable


Development.

Introduction:
Corporations and markets are not created by God or nature, but by the business man.
The purpose of business is to serve the society,” so said one of the successful business legends
of India, J R D Tata. Business corporations are perhaps the most influential organizations in
society and have long been recognized as important contributors to the common good. Today,
companies realize their responsibility to serve the stakeholder and society to whom they owe
their existence. Millions of people lack in basic amenities and dwell in poverty: a situation that
cannot be resolved by the government alone, which is the only hope of the people. But one
single hand can’t make a sound. That is an adequate reason, for concerted action on the part of
powerful corporations, those who contribute to make the difference in society. For example, in
the 1940’s, the founding father of Adithya Birla group of companies Shri G.D.Birla espoused
the ‘Trusteeship’ concept of management. With that motive, they started to invest part of their
profits beyond business, for the larger good of society.
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is not a new concept in India; it was practiced
as an essential duty of individual or powerful people in society as “Dharma”, a philanthropic
action. Normally philanthropy and responsibility are the basis for a strong establishment. These
two critical thoughts are bipolar in nature. At one end, people interpret it as compliance with
law; at the other end, it is philanthropic in nature. CSR is known from ancient time as a social
duty or
Charity, which has through different ages, is changed its nature in various broader aspects and
is now generally known as corporate social responsibility.
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The corporate social responsibility’s mission is donating some amount of their earnings
for development of society. CSR was more widely accepted as a community based
development approach for a long-time.

Objectives of the study: The objectives of the study are


1. To know the background and evolution of the concept of CSR.
2. To study the CSR Practices in India and its legal compliance.
Meaning: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is how companies manage their business
processes to produce an overall positive impact on society. It covers
sustainability, social impact and ethics, and done correctly should be about core business - how
companies make their money - not just add-on extras such as philanthropy.
Defenition:
The definition of CSR contains three words contained, “Corporate, Social, and Responsibility.”
Broadly speaking, CSR covers the responsibility, of the business firm towards the societies
they operate within. In a nutshell, CSR is a creation of value among the stakeholders whereby
the interests of all stakeholders including investors, customers, employees, the community and
the environment are reflected in the company’s policies and actions.
Corporate social responsibility has been defined in various ways ranging from being concerned
with profit (Friedman, 1969) and with maximizing profits while satisfying stakeholders
demands (McWilliams & Siegel, 2001) to more reactive or proactive approaches to improving
social betterment (Davis, 1973). While there is no universal definition of corporate social
responsibility it generally refers to business practices that are based on ethical values,
compliance with legal requirements and respect and concern for people (stakeholders)
communities and the environment.

“A concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business
operations and in their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis”.
--- The European Commission
‘The continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic
development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as
of the local community and society at large’
--World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
Scope of CSR
The opportunities are ripe for companies in all sectors to take on a bevy of challenges,
including health, nutrition, children’s survival and water. Many CSR projects in India are at
the pilot level. SAP has organised corporate sabbaticals advising social entrepreneurs; Ford is
experimenting with mobile health clinics; Microsoft has donated technology to health clinics;
Vodafone sends 25 of its top employees to advise NGOs throughout the country. Retailers
including PUMA and Marks and Spencer have opened “green stores” the at certainly stand out
in India’s exciting, bustling and polluted cities.

CSR, in its implementation part, involves a lot of challenges while building partnerships with
various stakeholders. The corporate sector in India very often accuses the government for poor
governance and their myopic view. Any CSR activity depends on the profits of a company, and
fluctuations in profit can adversely affect their capability to continue their contribution for
CSR. Other reasons can be limited human resource to implement, lack of professional approach
and lack of transparency in CSR reporting. These are the obstacles faced by India, but there is
still a light ray of hope in the corporate field. For example the two major corporates, Tata
Consultancy Services and Bharti foundation, an arm of Bharti Enterprises announced a total
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expenditure of Rs.200 crores as part of their CSR initiatives to construct toilets in schools under
“Swachh Bharat” campaign. A company’s contribution towards CSR varies according to
different geography and ethos. Some companies limit themselves to making an impact on the
immediate communities around their factories, office and outlets. On the other hand, many
companies strive to make their CSR- related impact on national or even international levels.
Instance, the Indus Health plus bagged ‘Best Corporate Citizen’ award by ASSOCHAM for
providing special discount coupons for senior citizens on preventive health checkups as part of
their CSR.
Components of CSR: The four components of corporate social responsibility are economic,
legal, ethical and discretionary.

Economic Social Responsibility


Economic social responsibility begins with being profitable. Before a business can give back,
it must be sustainable. Sustainability includes making a profit for shareholders, paying its
employees an appropriate wage, paying business taxes and meeting other financial obligations.
Corporations can show economic social responsibility by being transparent with all
stakeholders regarding the financial status of their business.

Legal Social Responsibility


Consumers are more likely to buy products and utilize services from companies they trust. A
part of building that trust is abiding by the laws that regulate your business. Paying the required
taxes, adhering to labor laws and allowing inspections are all examples of legal social
responsibility. It may sound basic, but not being attentive to your legal obligations can lead to
your business being sued and can hurt the business’ reputation — and your reputation is vital
to your success.

1) Ethical Social Responsibility


Economic and legal corporate responsibility lay the groundwork for corporations to move into
ethical social responsibility, which means doing the right thing at all levels of your business.
This ranges from paying employees a living wage to ensuring that the companies you work
with and buy materials from are abiding by all labor laws.
In addition to ensuring ethical workplace practices, you should also look at the environmental
impact your business makes. If possible, consider using recycled materials and clean energy.
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Go beyond meeting the minimum environmental requirements and look at how you can exceed
those requirements, which gives consumers a good impression of your brand.

2) Discretionary Social Responsibility


Discretionary social responsibility means using your company’s time and resources to
contribute to the community at large in whatever way is meaningful for you and your brand.
This may include providing your employees with opportunities to volunteer; donating money,
services or products to charitable organizations; or initiating your own charitable organization
that ties into your company’s mission and goals. You may want to support multiple
organizations or simply focus your efforts on one or two meaningful ones.
Corporate social responsibility shows that your company is about more than just the numbers.
It shows that you care about your impact on the world, which appeals to consumers who want
to feel good about the products they buy. By making an effort to be socially responsible, you
can ensure that your company leaves a lasting, positive impact.

CSR in India
CSR in India has always been philanthropic in nature. CSR initially was influenced by
Gandhian philosophy of ‘trusteeship’, an ancient idea revived and reinterpreted by
Mahatma Gandhi. Most of the businessmen in India saw their business empires as a ‘trust’
held in the interest of community at large. These businesses made significant contributions
to support schools, colleges and hospitals, and emphasis later shifted to supporting technical
training, public health and rural development (Mohan, 2001). Then, post independence,
India experienced the elements of state-sponsored CSR activities through large public
sector companies. The shift from charity and philanthropy has already started in India post
amendments in Companies Act 2013. .
A recent survey concludes that there are, appreciably, several cases of companies in India
involved in diverse issues such as healthcare, education, rural development, sanitation, micro-
credit and women empowerment, arts, heritage, culture, and conservation of wildlife and
nature, etc. However, given the economic progress and increase in corporate profits on the one
hand, and reality of human-poverty and development indicators in India on the other, analysis
of the surveys quoted suggest that though many companies in India have taken on board the
universal language of CSR, CSR seem to be in a confused state. Individual companies define
CSR in their own limited ways and contexts. The end result being that all activities undertaken
in the name of CSR are merely philanthropy, or an extension of philanthropy. Trusts and
foundations are found to be a favourite route of CSR practice by Indian companies, but largely
such trusts and foundations work at an arm’s length from the company. As a result the
companies are not able to bring CSR in the mainstream and it remains limited to community
development.

Indian firms possibly in their own interest, focus mostly on employee-and customer-oriented
CSR. Thus, firms need to expand their CSR activities to other stakeholders also, as expressed
by the voluntary. It was also understood that Indian business firms preferred a contributory
rather than participatory approach to CSR. Most firms indicate that they route their CSR spends
through specific investments in cash or kind. They must rather also explore other possible
avenues to maintain CSR activities, such as encouraging volunteering by employees, providing
loan arrangements, etc.

However, very recently, the first step towards mainstreaming the concept of business
responsibility in India was taken by Ministry of Corporate Affairs that released Voluntary
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Guidelines in 2009 followed by the amendments in the Companies Act, 2013. The Companies
Act, 2013 has introduced the idea of CSR to the forefront and through it’s disclose in-or-explain
mandate in promoting greater transparency & disclosure 2013. In August 2013, the Indian
Parliament passed a revised version of the nation’s Companies Act, and the act now requires
companies of a certain size to invest 2 percent of net profits in social benefit activities.
Applicability of CSR:

The companies on whom the provisions of the CSR shall be applicable are contained in Sub
Section 1 of Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013. As per the said section, the companies
having Net worth of INR 500 core or more; or Turnover of INR 1000 core or more; or Net
Profit of INR 5 core or more during any financial year shall be required to constitute a
Corporate Social Responsibility Committee of the Board "hereinafter CSR Committee" with
effect from 1st April, 2014. The pictorial representation below gives the representation of
Section 135 (1).
The above provision requires every company having such prescribed Net worth or Turnover or
Net Profit shall be covered within the ambit of CSR provisions. The section has used the word
"companies" which connotes a wider meaning and shall include the foreign companies having
branch or project offices in India.
Examples:
Samsung
With the tag line of Sapnehuebade (Dreams have become big), it has opened Samsung
Technical School in ITI in various states. Do check out this video, it's inspiring! Samsung
Technical School – A CSR Initiative - We care for the girl child
Coca Cola
This year itself, this soft drink giant has taken up the project to train 50,000 street vendors,
irrespective of what they sell ! Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and
Coca-Cola India Join Hands to Up skill Small Food Vendor (Street Food Vendor) Community
in India
McDonald's
‘I care for eye care’ is the noble cause picked up McDonald's for visually challenged children
in India, in collaboration with Dr. Shroff’s charity eye hospital. Corporate Social
Responsibility
Conclusion: Most of the Indian companies are giving priority for corporate social
responsibility by donating certain portion of their profits or giving some amount to charitable
activities in kind. But if they turn up to participatory level rather than contribution it would a
great concern for sustainable development. Then only the real intention of government through
various legal amendments to safeguard all the stakeholders under the roof of CSR will come
true.

Reference:
1. Abbot, W. F. & Monsen, R. J. (1979). On the measurement of corporate social
responsibility: self-reported disclosures as a method of measuring corporate social
involvement. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 22, No. 3, 501-515
2. . Adams, C., Hill, W.Y., & Roberts, C. (1998). Corporate social reporting practices in
Accessibility and functionality of the corporate Website: implications for sustainability
reporting. Business Strategy & Environment Management. Vol. 15, 275-287.
3. Bhal, K.T. (2002), Construct of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Framework,
Management and Change, Summer.
4. Collier, J., Esteban, R. (2007): “Corporate Social Responsibility and Employee
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Commitment. Business Ethics”, A European Review, 16, 1, pp.19–33.


5. Baxi, C.V. and Prasad A. (2005), Corporate Social Responsibility: Concepts and
Cases- The Indian Experience, Excel Books, New Delhi, India.
6. Klonoski, R. J. (1991). Foundational Considerations in the Corporate Social
Responsibility Debate. Business Horizons, 34, (4), 9-18
7. Smith, A.D. (2007), Making the Case for The Competitive Advantage of Corporate
Social Responsibility, Business Strategy Series, Vol. 8, Issue 3, pp 186-195
8. McWilliams, A. & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate Social Responsibility: A Theory of the
Firm Perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26, (1), 117-127
9. Krishna, C.G. (1992), Corporate Social Responsibility in India- A Study of
Management Attitude, Mittal Publications, New Delhi.
10. Doorley, John and Helio Fred Garcia (2015) Reputation Management: The Key
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A study of technology innovations in banking sectors and its impact on


services.
Miss Shubhangi Dongre Dr. J.m. Kale.
(M.com.M. Phil ) E- (associate professor &h.o.d)(m.com, m.
mail.Shubh1507@gmail.com. Phil,ph.d)
38,Kapse Layout Dindayal Nagar Nagpur- Smt.l.r.t. College of commerce
22 Rantala plots, akola-444001
Cont-9766859171,9922857338 Sgba amaravati university, amaravati

Abstract: In Today’s world Technology play a very vital role in Banking Sector. Each
Bank adopted new Technology for betterment of their Future. The banking sector in
India has seen a number of changes. And to meet the challenges of changing needs and
perceptions of customers, new regulations over the years and great advances in
technologies, most of the banks have begun to take an innovative approach towards
banking with the objective of creating more value for customers in the banks. The
technology is the key area of banking sector and the private, public and foreign banks
focused on simplified technology and adoption of customer strategies to provide
essential product and services. Adoption of new technology is compulsion for every
bank. In this competitive world bank has to improve their services for their customers
unless their sustainability itself will be under question in this back drop the banks adopt
various technological transformations that can be adopted by all customers irrespective
of their domical that is Urban or Special. This paper is attempt to focus on technology
innovations in banking services and their influence on customer and banking
employees.

Keywords- Technology Innovation, Banking Services, Customer Satisfaction, Employee


Satisfaction,

Introduction
The journey of banking in India has a very interesting track. It has a glorious past of 223
years and still continuing to create history. Despite numerous hurdles and obstacles, the
banking in India is flourishing day by day. Nationalisation was a breakthrough in Indian
banking wherein private banks were converted to Government banks. Banking in India
has witnessed many changes and trends since its inception. With the advent of
technology, it has donned new form and it is adopting to new technologies which are
coming over time. Technology Advancement has made Indian banking at par with
global scenario and is considered as one of the most efficient system in the world.
Banking in India
Traditional Banks were the original banks, the financial depository institution first to
offer checkable deposits Traditional Banks are checking account-issuing financial
intermediaries that most often come to mind when the term Bank is used Banking in
India has been through a long journey. Indian Banking Sector has witnessed a number
of changes. In the 1990s, the banking sector in India saw greater emphasis being placed
on technology and innovation. The term “Banking Technology “refers to the use of
sophisticated information and communication technologies together with computers to
enable banks to offer better services to its customers in secure, reliable, affordable
manner and sustain competitive advantage over other banks. Banks began to use
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technology to provide better quality of services at greater speed. Internet banking and
mobile banking made it convenient for customers to do their banking from
geographically diverse places. Now all the banks have started with the concept of multi-
channels, like ATMs, credit cards, debit cards, telephone/mobile banking, internet
banking, call centres, etc. The role of banking is redefined from a mere financial
intermediary to service provider of various financial services under one roof acting like
a financial supermarket. Intense competition among the banks has redefined the concept
of the entire banking system. The banks are looking for new ways not only to attract but
also to retain the customers and gain competitive advantage over their competitors.
Technological progress in the banking industry is also important because of the key
roles of banks in providing financing, deposit, and payments services to other sectors of
the economy.
At the time of first phase the growth of banking sector was very slow. Between 1913
and 1948 there were approximately 1100 small banks in India. To streamline the
functioningand activities of commercial banks, the Government of India came up with
the BankingCompanies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act
1949 as peramending Act of 1965 (Act No.23 of 1965). Reserve Bank of India was
vested withextensive powers for the supervision of banking in India as a Central
Banking Authority.After independence, Government has taken most important steps in
regard of IndianBanking Sector reforms. In 1955, the Imperial Bank of India was
nationalized and wasgiven the name "State Bank of India", to act as the principal agent
of RBI and to handlebanking transactions all over the country. It was established under
State Bank of IndiaAct, 1955. Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India
was nationalized in1960. On 19th July, 1969, major process of nationalization was
carried out. At the same time 14 major Indian commercial banks of the country were
nationalized. In 1980,another six banks were nationalized, and thus raising the number
of nationalized banks to20. Seven more banks were nationalized with deposits over 200
Crores. Till the year1980 approximately 80% of the banking segment in India was under
government'sownership. On the suggestions of Narsimhan Committee, the Banking
Regulation Actwas amended in 1993 and thus the gates for the new private sector banks
were opened.The following are the major steps taken by the Government of India to
Regulate Bankinginstitutions in the country:
1949: Enactment of Banking Regulation Act.
1955: Nationalisation of State Bank of India.
1959: Nationalization of SBI subsidiaries.
1961: Insurance cover extended to deposits.
1969: Nationalisation of 14 major Banks.
1971: Creation of credit guarantee corporation.
1975: Creation of regional rural banks.
1980: Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 Crores

Banking Innovations
The term “Innovation “means to make something new Bank has no longer restricted
themselves to traditional Banking activities but explore newer avenues to increase
business and capture new market. Today we are having fairly well-developed banking
system with different classes of bank some of them have engaged in the areas of
consumer credit, cards, merchant banking, internet and phone banking, leasing, mutual
funds etc.
A few have already set up subsidiaries for merchant banking, leasing and mutual funds
and many more are in the process of doing so.
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Over the years, the banking sector in India has seen a number of changes. Most of the
banks have begun to take an innovative approach towards banking with the objective of
creating more value for customers. Information technology has given rise to new
innovations in the product designing and their delivery in the banking and finance
industries. Technology offers a chance for banks to build new systems that address a
wide range of customer needs including many that may not be imaginable today.
Financial innovation associated with technological change totally changed the banking
philosophy and that is further tuned by the competition in the banking industry.
Challenging business environment within the banking system create more innovation in
the fields of product, process and market. Today, we have electronic payment system
along with currency notes.
Need of Study
The Banking sector across world is experiencing a day to day change in the technology.
Due to rapid changes in the technology in the world even India is experiencing same
changes and transformation in the technology. This transformation in the technology
has a great impact on the services offered in the industry. As India is moving with the
in captivate of Digital India, the banking sector in India is also towards improvisation
of high and advance technology offering to their customers. Digitalization of services
has kept banks on competitive edge. Internet Banking, ATM’s, E-lobby, Mobile
Banking, SMS Banking, Debit Cards are the part of the digital banking in India. Very
little research in done in this most coveted field and further study is needed to delve into
the intricacies of the various paradigms of E-Banking. This research is an attempt to
delve into the study of advancement of technology in banking services and its impact
on banking services from a layman point of view as still as of date very little population
is using these services and a major chunk is still refraining from using these services.
Considering the picture researcher has made an attempt to bring to the fore the facts and
figures associated with the E-Banking and its impact in banking sector.
Objectives of Study
1. To study the Banking Sector and services in present scenario.
2. To study the technological inclusion into banking sector.
3. To Study technology advancement in banking sector
4. To study change brought by Technology Advancement in Banking Sector.
5. To study selected banking services where technology advancement was paramount.
6. To study the impact of e-Banking Services on customers.
Banking Services: Bank is generally understood as an institution which provides
fundamental banking services such as accepting deposits and providing loans. There
are several technology innovations in Banking Services those services banks are
provided manually all are converted into E-Banking .
E-Banking is a major innovation in Banking. E-Banking means provision of banking
products and services by banks directly to customers through electronic delivery
channels.
Debit Card:Debit card is a plastic card which provides an alternative payment method
to cash when making purchases. Functionally, it can be called an electronic check, as
the funds are withdrawn directly from either the bank account
Credit Card:A credit card is part of a system of payments named after the small plastic
card issued to users of the system. It is a card entitling its holder to buy goods and
services based on the holder's promise to pay for these goods and services. The issuer
of the card grants a line of credit to the consumer (or the user) from which the user can
borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance to the user or from the
remaining balance on the card.
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Internet Banking:It is a service provided by banks so that people can find out
information about their bank account, pay bills etc using the Internet. Internet Banking
allows you to conduct bank transactions online, instead of finding a bank and interacting
with a teller. In a broad sense, it is the use of electronic means to transfer funds directly
from one account to another, rather than by cheque or cash.
Automated Teller Machines (ATMs):ATMs are widely used electronic channels in
banking. It is operated by plastic card with its special features. It is a computer-
controlled device at which the customers can make withdrawals, check balance without
involving any individuals. ATM can be interior (i.e., located in the branch premises) or
exterior (located anywhere outside the branch premises).
Business Banking - Most banks offer financial services for business owners who need
to differentiate professional and personal finances. Different types of business banking
services include: Business loansChecking accountsSavings accountsDebit and credit
cards Merchant services (credit card processing, reconciliation and reporting, check
collection)Treasury services (payroll services, deposit services, etc.)
Digital Banking - The ability to manage your finances online from your computer,
tablet, or smartphone is becoming more and more important to consumers. Banks will
typically offer digital banking services that include:
Online, mobile, and tablet banking - refers to provision and availment of banking and
financial services help of mobile telecommunication devices. The scope of offered
services may include facilities to conduct bank and stock market transactions to
administer accounts and access customized information.
Mobile check deposit - Using the camera in a phone to deposit a check in a bank. An
app in the phone takes a picture of the front and back of the check and both images,
along with dollar value are transmitted to the bank.
Text alerts - Alert messaging (or alert notification) is machine -to-person
communication that is important or time sensitive.
eStatements - An estatement is an electronic mail notification send to your email
address the day your statement is available to view in UBTgo.The e-statement will
replace your current paper statement providing you immediate access to your account
information.
Online bill pays- is to secure electronic service that allows customer to pay bill without
having to write checks and mail them. Online bill payment usually is tied to checking
account from which funds are withdrawn electronically for payment of one time or
recurring bills.
Pro’s and Con’s of Technology Innovation in Baking to Customers
Over the last decade new technology especially the internet and smart phones have
changed our personal lives and, in many ways, made them better.
1.Convenience
One of the biggest advantages of online banking technology is that it allows you to
handle transactions and monitor your bank statement anytime, anywhere anyplace you
can access your account on your computer or smart phone 24\7 when its most
convenient for your schedule.
2.Fewer Bank Visits
Another Greater advantage is a new technology known as Remote Deposit Capture. It’s
an online service that lets you scan and deposit checks from your home, office or other
locations without having to go to your bank. It lets you make deposits faster, with less
time spent driving to your bank.
3.Money Transfer made easy
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Money transfer through various services like NEFT, RTGS, IMPS has made the transfer
of money in a single click. Customers are not supposed to visit bank and deposit cheques
to transfer money. Money can be transferred anywhere across world. High amounts can
also be transferred.
4.Fast Credit-
Advanced banking technology allows you to arrange for credit faster than in the past.
Decades ago, obtaining credit was purely a paper-based process. Today consumers can
acquire credit lines instantly. While many people enjoy the convenience of getting a car
loan or store credit card within minutes, the temptation can lead them to borrow money
they can't afford.
5.Online Payments-
Online banking empowers you to pay bills and transfer money without leaving your
living room.
Individual can make payment of bills through online without visiting to the office. No
need to stand in long hour in the queue to make payment. it is very flexible, and one
gets
instant confirmation of payment.
1.Website Interruption- Many consumers become reliant upon technology to pay bills
or conduct other kinds of banking transactions. Ideally, this is a beneficial arrangement.
For example, if you forget a credit card payment, you don't need to worry about whether
your paper check will get to your credit card company in time. You simply log on and
make your payment. If the bank's website suffers an interruption, however, you may be
unable to send payments to creditors, incurring late fees or other consequences.
Unfortunately, websites experience downtime on occasion. For example, the website
for Chase.com went down in September 2010, causing problems for some of their
customers.
2. Internet Availability- Internet Availability is needed to avail this service.
3.Consideration- Using a computer for the Internet banking process does increase the
possibility of having an account compromised. Hackers can send phishing emails to
steal access codes or user-names or set up fake websites where individuals will
inadvertently enter information that allows thieves to steal money by using unauthorized
wire transfers.
4.Intense Competition -The RBI and Government of India kept banking industry open
for the participants of private sector banks and foreign banks. The Indian banking sector
was introduced to competition when, in accordance with the suggestions of the first
Narasimham Committee, entry was deregulated and both domestic and foreign banks
were allowed to expand their branch networks. Due to this lowered entry barriers many
new players have entered the market such private banks, foreign banks, non-banking
finance companies, etc. The foreign banks and new private sector banks have
spearheaded the hi-tech revolution.
5.Privacy and Safety

Among the most important aspects of savings, i.e., safety, liquidity and profitability,
safety is at the topmost priority. The areas which might endanger security in e-banking
can be:

Credit risk
Liquidity, interest rate risk, market risks
Legal risk
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Global banking
The impact of globalization becomes challenges for the domestic enterprises as they are
bound to compete with global players. The numbers of Foreign Banks have become a
major challenge for Nationalized and private sector banks.

Conclusion-
The Banking sector in India has become stronger in terms of capital and the number of
customers. It has become globally competitive and diverse aiming, at higher
productivity and efficiency. Exposure to worldwide competition and deregulation in
Indian financial sector has led to the emergence of better-quality products and services.
Reforms have changed the face of Indian banking and finance. The banking sector has
improved manifolds in terms of Technology, Deregulation, Product & Services,
Information Systems, Etc. As customers become increasingly comfortable with
technology, they are interacting with banks in multiple ways. Unlike customers in days
gone by, these enlightened and empowered consumers will not accept “cookie-cutter”
treatment. Rapid growth in technology innovation in banking sector customers gets
more satisfied and trusted to the bank.
E-Banking services can be availed easily and it is more convenient and flexible to the
customer. It is beneficial to the employees of banks as their workload get reduced. 24*7
call centre available to register complaints from the customer and trained staff is
available to answer the queries of customer.
E-lobby is the new facility provided by bank to customer for printing passbook, deposits
checks, and for withdrawal of cash through the automated trailer machine.so life gets
easier with these services. There is rapid growth in banking sectors.

References and Bibliography-


1.[Venkateswari *, Vol.6 (Iss.1): January, 2018] ISSN- 2350-0530(O), ISSN-
2394-3629(P) (Received: Jan 17, 2018 - Accepted: Jan 27, 2018) DOI:
10.5281/zenodo.1162842
Technology Innovation In Banks - Need For Omni-Channel Services
Dr.K.VijayaVenkateswari, Associate Professor, Department of Commerce, Sri
Ramakrishna College of Arts and Science for Women, Coimbatore, India.
2.A Critical Study on Recent Advantages of Technology in Banking Industries
Dr. Ravindra Sontakke1, Mr. Ashish V. Gajbhiye21Associate Professor, Model
Arts, Commerce and Science College, Karanja (Gh,) District- Wardha.
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering & Management
(IJAIEM) Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org,
editorijaiem@gmail.com ISSN 2319 - 4847 Special Issue for National Conference
On Recent Advances in Technology and Management for Integrated Growth
3. Technological Innovations in Indian Banking Sector Aruna R. Shet
Assistant Professor, New Horizon CollegeInternational Journal of Scientific
Engineering and Research (IJSER) www.ijser.in ISSN (Online): 2347-3878,
Impact Factor (2015): 3.791
4. https://www.slideshare.net
Innovation in Banking Sector.
5.https://www.scribd.com
Technical Innovations in Banking Sector.
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Foreign Direct Investment In Retail Sector In India


Miss. Sulbha Gulabrao Wankhede

ABSTRACT: The direct foreign investment enters in India such decision given by Central
Government. There is Fifty one % FDI in Multi brand Retail sector and forty nine % investment
by local partner. Foreign airline in aviation sector and sale of Equity in four PSUs.
The Government announced the decision for reformers in India in retail sector. The
slew of reforms decided from including raising FDI capital in Broadcasting 49% to 74% and
allowing foreign investment in power exchange.
Retail sector has the significant contribution in an Indian Economy. Governemnt take
various decision for the growth of retail sector and even to strength the same by allowing
foreign direct investment with some restriction in retail rector with significant growth in Indian
retail sector there is an emergence of some domestic retail player and some foreign retail
industries are also trying to penetrate in Indian market as well.
There are two big players in retail industry one of "Big Bazaar" a domestic retail giant
and another is "Walmart" basically in USA retail Company this two big company spread all
over world in business due to this company how Indian companies can get benefit through
increased competition and to take hold of the new market opportunities to make more
competent globally in retail market
KEY NOTES:-
1) 51% FDI in Multi brand retail allowed left to state Government to allow setting up of such
store.
2) 49% Foreign airline allowed to taken in Indian Airlines.
3) Upto 74% raise in FDI Capital on Various streams of Broadcast Services.
4) Stake role in four PSU’s all India Hindustan Copper, NALCO and MMTC clear by CCEA
5) In Multi Brand retail sector 51% investment in FDI & 49% investment by local Partner.
6) Only in 60 Cities where the Population is above 10 lakhes FDI investment is Allowed.
INTRODUCTION
FDI means the Foreign Investor come in India and do business under the conditio: of
Indian Government. Particularly in retail sector and some other area for pushing Economics
growth and generating employment in India . The Government of India developed his retail
sector and sought support of all segments on this. Round above 16 Million dollars investment
is expected and near above one core employment will be generated.
There are number of company in retail sector in India like a Reliance Retail Ltd. Titan
Industries, Trent, shoppers stop, Pantaloon retail India Ltd music world entertainment Ltd.
Liberty shoes Ltd., Bata India Ltd. Big Bazar, Crossword, and another multi brand company
with this sumo foreign return global company are entered in Indian market like cornefour wall
mart stores etc. are the leading in Indian retail sector.
Retail is a sector which is showing the great growth in Indian economy. The sector is
set for a resolution as both the present players and now entrants are gearing upto explore the
market. There are about 400 new mall 2000 super market and 350 departmental stores now
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under construction. Number of new retails coming up with huge investment. Retail market in
India was valued on INR 16.94% in 2010 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 11% it accounts
for 22% of the countries GDP and is the second largest employer with 35.06 M.N. people.
According to the investment commission of India retail sector is expected to grow
almost there times its correct level to USD 660 billion by 2015.
The official added that recent steps taken by the government were helping in improving
the investment environment in the Country.
The Government has liberalized FDI policy in as many as 12 sectors which include
Telecom, Tea and petroleum and natural gas.
FDI inflows in 2012-13 aggregated USD 22.42 billion a decline from USD 36.50 billion
in 2011-12.
India is estimated to require about USD 1 trillion between 2012-13 and 2016-17 to fund
infrastructure such as ports, airports and highways to boost growth.
OBJECTIVES
1) Some one suggestion the may to combat the future challenges posed by the foreign
industries in retail sector.
2) Find out the future challenges pored by MNS's on the domestic industries in retail sector.
3) To study the factor which attracted foreign retail companies towards Indian Market.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The researcher has adopted analytical descriptive and comparative methodology for this
research paper reliance has been placed on books journals news paper and on-line databases.
SINGLE BRAND RETAILING AND MULTI-BRAND RETAILING
The meaning of single brand retaining and multi-brand retaining is not clearly defined
in any Indian Government Circular or notification whereas single brand retail generally refers
to the sailing of goods under a single brand name and the term multi brand retail considered as
FDI in multi-brand retail generally refers to selling multiple brands under one roof.
WALMART
A walmart is a American multinational retail company and some of its major marketing
strategic are mentioned below.
STRATEGY OF WALMART MARKETING
Walmart's groccery business continues to be a growth factor for their company's
business strategy and they are rapidly embracing social media and developing mobile strategic
at a rapid clip its marketing strategies consist of floating the market with their presence and it
offers various types are product with the relatively comfortable list of options to the marries to
acquire the large share of market.
BIG BAZAR
Big Bazaar is the part of future groups a lock on a various marketing strategies used to
grow as a part of Indian retail sector.
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Big Bazar marketing strategic based on 3-C theory. Big Bazar has divided India in to
three segments of 3-C theory at classes there are following.
* India one consuming (pass which includes upper middle and lower middle class (14% of
Indian Population)
* India Two serving class which included people like drivers, householder helps office,
peons liftmen, washer man etc. (55% of Indias population)
* India three struggling class (Remaining 31% of India's population).
While Big Bazar is targeted at the population across India one and India two Segments
'Aadhar Wholesale' is aimed at reaching the population in India three Segment with this future
group emerged as a retail destination for consumer across all classes in the Indian Society.
The pricing objectives at Big Bazar is to get "maximum market share" pricing at Big
Bazar is bared on the following techniques.
VALUE PRICING
Big Bazar Promises consumer the lowest available price without coupon clipping,
waiting for discount promotions.
PROMOTIONAL PRICING
Big Bazaar offers financing at law interest rate. The concept of psychological
discounting (Rs.119 Rs. 99 etc) is also used to attract customers Big Bazaar also caters on
special event pricing.
DIFFERENTIAL PRICING
Differently pricing is difference in rate bared on peak and non peak hours or days of
shopping is also a pricing technique used in Indian retail, which is aggressively used by Big
Bazar e.g. Wednesday Bazaar.
FUNDING
It refers to selling combo-pack and offering discount to customers. The combo-packs
add value to customer and lead to increased sales. Big Bazaar lays a lot of important on
bundling.
PROMOTION
The various promotion schemes of Big Bazar includes.
* "Change your life style make a smart choice"
* Future card (4% Discount)
* "Keep West a side. Make a Smart Choice"
* Shakti Card.
* "Shoppers stop make a smart choice"
* Exchange offers "Junk Swap offer"
* Hafte ka sabse sasta din "Wednesday Bazar"
* "Sal ke sabse saste 3 din.
MULTI CHANNEL MARKETING
Multi Channel marketing has been pioneered by many retailers in the hopes of truly
meeting the retail merchandising mantra of the 5 Rs. right place right merchandise, right time
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right quantity and right price multi channel marketing is simply the strategy of retail stores
supporting their e-commerce platform and their retail meb sites, supporting the bricks and
mortar stores. It sounds logical and only recently attainable with the growth of ipads and the
plethora of mobile apps easily downloaded for smartphones like the I phone and numerous
Android devices. It extends its multichannel management adding a new services by the end of
the month 'pick up today' is connecting both the on-line and the off-line world product ordered
on-line can be picked up the nearby branch on the same day.
MERITS
1) FDI to boost growth, Generated Employments
2) Expected economic growth 8% per year.
3) Unemployment Problem could be solved in retail sector
4) Good Price on Agricultural products and removed of the Brokerage system
5) Benefit for Small scale Industries.
DEMERITS :-
1) Multi brand retail is not beneficial to retails shop, Farmer and Rural area Populations.
2) Unemployment problem will not solve by FDI
3) There are round about 60 Lakh retail shops in India According to this 2.5 Crore people are
employed but if the FDI entered in India the retails industries will be collapsed
4) FDI will invest is Only 60 cities which have over Ten lakh population this is Beneficial to
20% population of Urban Area but what about 80% populations.
CONCLUSION:
It is good decision by the Government of India due to this decision economist say the
economic growth is fast growing it maintains the economic growth by 8%: per year .Near about
1 Crore New employment will be generated . Through FDI new companies come in India and
will set up new industries and will provide the jobs for Indian people. Governments revenue
will be improved .It is be beneficial for the consumers, the farmer are also benefitted by The
FDI. The FDI will direct purchase the agricultures products from the farmers so the farmers
will more benefitted. Due to this the brokers system will be removed and the farmers will get
good prices their products so overall the FDI is benefitted for India economy.
REFERENCE
1) The Hitvada news paper
2) Lokmat News papers (Marathi)
3) "FDI in Multi-Brand retail trading" KPMG 2010
4) www.marketing91.com/bundling
5) http://in.wikepedia.org/wiki/bigbazzar
6) http://foodbenerage about.com/b2011/11/27/record online-thank giving day shopping
accelerated black friday retail sales htm.
7) http//www.aquarius biz/in/2011/03/24/best practice-walmart multichannel-retailing-
strategy.
8) http://www.research handmaskets.com
9) http//money.cnn.com/2011/10/24 walmart shoping/index.htm.
10) http://cci.gov.ictor
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Historical Development Of Crochet Lace At Narsapur


M. Hari Prasad

Abstract :Lace work was introduced in 19th century in the Godavari delta area by Christian
Missionaries. From 1928 onwards, lace secured a pride place in the life of many foreign
countries. For centuries, Indian handicrafts have been distinguished for their great aesthetic
and functional qualities and values. All India Handicrafts Board established in 1952
recognized that lace among other handicrafts would be a key for rehabilitation of Indian
craftsmen and artisans.
The Dutch and the English merchants opened Europe as a market for hand-woven and hand
painted cotton goods from the Coromandel Coast. These Indian textiles were so cheap and
popular in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries that imports constituted a threat to the English
weavers and manufacturers. The British Crown replaced the East India Company in 1857. In
the mean time Dutch people also left Narsapur and moved towards Goa. With the leasing of
the Foreign Companies, Narsapur lost its previous importance. But soon, lace-work brought
Narsapur again into prominence. Messrs. Jonah and Josef organized the production of lace
along the classical and putting-out system. They employed several agents who visited the
artisans at certain intervals, gave them the thread and the designs chosen by their customers
abroad and after a certain time they were collecting the finished articles. Jonah and Josef,
who for a long time were the biggest lace exporters at Narsapur.
INTRODUCTION

Lace work, started long back, in remote Narsapur in West Godavari district of Andhra
Pradesh has grown into an internationally recognized handicraft and hence it demands the
attention of the historians. It has grown from the status of mere skill, imparted to supplement
family income to that of a full-fledged trade catering to the needs of foreign market. It provides
employment to nearly two lakh middle class women at their own homes.
Lace work was introduced in 19th century in the Godavari delta area by Christian
Missionaries. Wives of Missionaries began to teach the skill to the local women with a view
to provide part-time employment. These laces were sent to friends and relatives abroad as gifts
and they were highly appreciated. Though only a dozen designs were introduced by those
missionaries, the ladies with their art and skill have developed more than 300 designs which
speak of the high artistic standard of the people of this region in particular and the Indian people
in general. Lace products require a hooked needle and thread. The thread used for production
of these lace goods is twisted mercerized cotton yarn made out of superior grade Egyptian
cotton.
For a fairly long time lace products were patronized only by foreign missionaries. From
1928 onwards, lace secured a pride place in the life of many foreign countries. For centuries,
Indian handicrafts have been distinguished for their great aesthetic and functional qualities and
values. All India Handicrafts Board established in 1952 recognized that lace among other
handicrafts would be a key for rehabilitation of Indian craftsmen and artisans. Indian
Handicrafts have continued to remain as an integral part of the life of the people, providing a
means of livelihood to millions of families by generating productive employment to the people
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in the rural areas. Handicrafts always inspired a spirit of constant innovativeness, using the
cultural cross currents from time to time.
The history of the Crochet Lace in and around Narsapur in West Godavari District can
be traced to the history of colonial penetration into this area. Narsapur situated on the banks
of the Vasishta Godavari, six miles from the sea has long been an ancient cultural and trading
center on the coromandel coast. It was famous as a place of the manufacture of teak boats and
ships. The boats carried goods from Narsapur which is connected to sea through Godavari river
to all important ports in the Bay of Bengal, Burma and also to Malaysia. Both the Dutch and
English companies had their settlements here.
Narsapur seems to have reached the zenith of its prosperity in the last quarter of the 17th
century, when the English East India Company had opened a factory in Palakol and chose
Narasapur as their port in the 17th century. Narsapur had been an important trading point,
mainly for the export of textiles produced by the spinners and weavers in the hinterland. The
Dutch people entered India almost simultaneously i.e., in the year 1602.
The Dutch and the English merchants opened Europe as a market for hand-woven and
hand painted cotton goods from the coromandel coast. These Indian textiles were so cheap and
popular in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries that imports constituted a threat to the English
weavers and manufacturers.
The British Crown replaced the East India Company in 1857. In the mean time Dutch
people also left Narsapur and moved towards Goa. With the leaving of the Foreign Companies,
Narsapur lost its previous importance. But soon, lace-work brought Narsapur again into
prominence.
The beginnings of the lace work in this region can be traced to the entry of the Christian
Missionaries. There are several versions about its origin in and around Narsapur region. There
is a version that the Irish sisters introduced the art of crocheting around 1860. Another version
tells us that lace-making was introduced by Mr. & Mrs. Macrae from Scotland who had joined
the Godavari Delta Mission.
Mrs. Cain had started lace work in Dummugudem in 1882. Lace making became a
regular production process under her initiative. Mrs. Cain paid daily wages to the lace workers
of Dummugudem. The lace exported was qualitative. She sold it first in India, later in England,
Australia, Canada and New Zealand. The marketing of the lace was organized through friends
and well-wishers in India and abroad. Though she was succeeded by Miss C. Wallen, the
Dummugudem lace industry came shortly afterwards to an end.
In the early phase, the missionaries gave thread to the women and taught them some
patterns. Then they collected the finished goods and sent them as gift parcels to friends and
dignitaries in Scotland, England and Ireland in order to collect donations from them for
missionary work. Probably, crocheting was also taught to the girls who attended the schools
which had been founded by Beer in 1854 in Narsapur and by Macrae in 1875 in Amalapuram.
Mrs. Uhl visited this region and toured the whole of the East and West Godavari fields,
along with Miss. Hollerbach. She talked with all lace makers at all centers and explained them
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about the necessity of superior clean lace. She showed her deep interest in the women and the
industry, by showing them many new patterns and by giving several suggestions. Thus there
was an even stauncher friend at home.
Messrs. Jonah and Josef organized the production of lace along the classical and
putting-out system. They employed several agents who visited the artisans at certain intervals,
gave them the thread and the designs chosen by their customers abroad and after a certain time
they were collecting the finished articles. The agents or middle-women sometimes also did the
finishing work-stretching, sorting out etc., of lace in the house of the exporters. They as well
as the artisans were paid piece rates. Jonah and Josef, who for a long time were the biggest lace
exporters at Narsapur. They exported to Ireland, England, New Zealand, etc., and won prizes
at various exhibitions.

Lace work (1920-1960)


There seems to be quite an expansion in the 1920s. The census of India reports that
there were 15 lace merchants at Narsapur and Palakol in 1921-24 and that they exported lace
worth Rs.5,00,000 per year. Their number had gone down to 8 in 1931. The big exporters,
however, remained in the market.
The government imposed certain restrictions on the industry during World War II. The
supply of thread was affected by these, but there were also curbs on the export of lace from
India. After the War, however lace exports expanded rapidly. Many more countries all over
the world became customers of the lace merchants at Narsapur. The production between 1942
and 1946 was to the record figure of Rs. 60 lakhs.
In 1953, many importing countries imposed high import duties on lace. As there was
more demand for lace products, the importing countries wanted to impose more tax on the lace
products. It coincided with the rise of machine-made lace in the foreign markets. With the
decline of the industry due to import restrictions and the raising competitiveness among
exporters, a new effort was made in 1952 to form an Exporters Association. It was called the
Narsapur All India Crochet Lace Exporters Association. At the beginning it had 36 members.
In 1960, there were 57 and in 1961, the registered rose to 66. At present they are 75 members.
The Crochet Lace at Narsapur seems to have been a fairly stable business since Messrs.
Jonah and Josef started to export lace. The only slump in industry was around 1933 due to the
general crisis in the world economy. But changing fashions did not affect the production of
lace to a large degree, particularly since the exporters got their designs from their foreign
customers and gave these designs to some skilled crafts women to make the new patterns or
articles which were required by the foreign buyers.

Lace Work (1960-2011)


In the year 1960, the government took various steps to develop and organize handicrafts
in Andhra Pradesh including the lace industry. In and around Narsapur the main farmer
communities are Kapus, Settibalijas, Kshatriya and Kammas. Among the above communities
Kapus are numerically strong and dominant community and it has entered the lace business.
Only the women of these communities undertake lace making. They are successful in lace
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exporting business. Apart from making quick money in lace exports, the Indian government
has also given export incentives. In addition to this, the banks gave loans to the persons who
wanted to invest in lace business on the security of their properties. All these factors have
changed the caste and class composition of the lace merchants and lace business. Mainly the
agriculturalist class i.e. Kapus began to assume the role of lace merchants by financing the
work, collecting it back and exporting it to other countries.

Present Scenario of Crochet Lace - 2018


Lace currently runs behind the iron curtain of a few private exporters. Most of the lace
workers are un-organized and desperate. Women are pursuing this work and are producing
laces in different designs according to the orders of exporters. They are not aware of the actual
cost of the raw material used for the production of lace and the value added after the lace is
prepared and the rates at which the finished lace is sold in the market. In other words, their
work is totally restricted to their labor only and hence they are ignorant of the profits made by
the agents.

CONCLUSION
It is observed that the employment conditions of lace workers are not as expected due
to middlemen. As the workforce is predominantly female, the major reason for taking up the
lace making work is to supplement family income. The nature of work of female includes hand
work, joints, bordering and lining. In case of male workers the work includes checking,
repairing, finishing, washing, ironing, packing and forwarding. It can be stated that the lace
making is dominated by women workforce with a marginal number of male workers.
Lace currently behind the iron curtains of a few private exporters and most of the lace
women workers are un-organized and desperate. The crochet lace industry has potential for
women employment and foreign exchange earning. The lace cluster at Narsapur has
tremendous business potential. It is being considered as one of the mega clusters in the country
where about two lakhs artisans, all women, live and depends for their livelihoods.

REFERENCES
1. Maria Mies (1982): The Lace Makers of Narsapur, London: Zed Press.
2. Dolbeer, M.L. (1959) : “A History of Luthernism in the Andhra Desa 1842-1920”, Board
of Foreign Missions, New York.
3. John Ratnam T. (1992): “Lutheran Sangham” (Telugu) Lagos Printers & Publishers,
Guntur.
4. M. Hari Prasad, Dr. Gandham Sri Rama Krishna, Dr. N.G.S. Prasad(2011), Crochet Lace
Industry: Narsapur , LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Germany, ISBN: 978-3-
8465-9019-5.
5. Dr. Gandham Sri Rama Krishna, Dr. N.G.S. Prasad(ed.)(2013) HRD Climate in Crochet
Lace Park, Business Management Trends, Paramount Publishing House, New Delhi. ISBN:
978-93-82163-08-4.
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ISSN (Print) : 2454-275X

6. Dr. Gandham Sri Rama Krishna, Dr. N.G.S. Prasad(2010) “Role of Women Artisans in
Crochet Lace Industry” , Journal of Indian Economic Panorama, New Delhi, Vol.20, No.2.
PP 40-43.
7. Dr. Gandham Sri Rama Krishna, Dr. N.G.S. Prasad(2014), “Crochet Lace Industry,
Commonman Indian Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol.2, Issue.3, PP.66-69.
Print ISSN: 2348-4934, Online ISSN: 2348-6325.
8. Rev. B.D.P. Rao (1993): “The Good News of Rajahmundry in brief”, St. Peter’s Lutheran
Church Silver Jubilee Souvenir 1968-1993, Rajahmundry.
9. Swavely, Ch. (1942): One Hundred years in the Andhra Country 1842-1942 Diocesan
Press, Madras.
10. Rev. M.L. Dolbeer (1950): “Hundred years of Lutheran Society 1842-1950” (Telugu),
Rajahmundry.
11. Bromley(1937), E.B. They were men sent from God, Bangalore, Madras District
Gazetteers, District of Godavari 1907, supplement, Madras, 1935.
M.Hari Prasad, Lecturer in History, SRR & CVR Govt. Degree College (A),
Machavaram, Vijayawada, Krishna District.