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Aerobic Granular Sludge Technology

Brian Bates
Channel Manager – AquaNereda®

Nereda® is a registered trademark of Royal HaskoningDHV.


Presentation Outline

• Aerobic Granular Sludge


– History
– Definition
– Granule Formation
– Process Description
• Process Comparison & Design Approach
• Applications and Existing Installations
• Solids Handling
• Demonstration Facility / Pilot System
• Summary
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Short History of Granules

• Prior to 1914: Biofilms


• 1914: Activated sludge flocs
• 1970’s: Anaerobic granules
• 1990’s: Aerobic granules – RHDHV begins research
• 2005: Construction of first full scale plant (industrial)
• 2009: First full-scale plant (municipal)
• 2016: Aqua Aerobic signs licensee agreement
• 2017: Aqua starts construction of first US demonstration plant (municipal)
• 2017: Aqua builds first US Pilot Plant
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Definition
“Granules making up aerobic granular activated sludge are to be
understood as aggregates of microbial origin, which do not coagulate
under reduced hydrodynamic shear, and which subsequently settle
significantly faster than activated sludge flocs.”

• True microbial biomass


• Minimum particle diameter of ~ 0.2 mm
• AGS SVI5 is comparable to SVI30 of
typical activated sludge

Aerobic Granular Sludge Workshop 2004


Munich, Germany
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Conventional Activated Sludge vs Granule Structure

Conventional Activated Sludge Aerobic Granular Sludge

Source: engineersjournal.com
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Granule Structure

PAO
Denitrifiers Aerobic
Nitrifiers Anoxic
Anaerobic

Conventional Activated Sludge Aerobic Granular Sludge


Mixed Microbial Community Layered Microbial Community

Source: engineersjournal.com
Fish Analysis
(Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization)

GAO Fluo
Nit Cy3
PAO Cy5
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Granule Structure
AquaNereda® Granule
DO concentration

Granule profile
Influence of DO
• Population distribution depends on DO
• Oxygen will be diffused in the granule
• Important to control the aerobic and anaerobic zone

O2 Concentration O2 Concentration
greater than 2 mg/l less than 0.5 mg/l
Source: Mark van Loosdrecht Presentation WEFTEC 2016
Aerobic Granular Sludge
• Excellent Settling Properties
• Increased MLSS

Granules Flocs
8 g/l or more 4 g/l
SVI5 SVI5
Granule Formation
Selection Mechanisms
1) Hydraulic selection for fast settling particles
2) Biology selection of EPS forming microorganisms
Selection Mechanisms
Hydraulic Selection
• Selective wasting
• Wash out smaller particles
• Dense granules settle faster than CAS
• Decrease settling time

transformation
Selection Mechanisms
Biology Selection
• PAO’s form EPS
• EPS is the chemical backbone of the granule
• Dense bacterial gathering allow rapid settling
AquaNereda Process

• Simple one-tank reactor concept


• Timed cycle flexibility
• Enhanced biological nutrient removal
• No sludge recirculation
AquaNereda® Process Flow

Influent Effluent

Pre-EQ (if needed)


Grit Removal AGS Tertiary
and Screening Reactors Filtration
and
Disinfection
(if needed)

Side Stream Digester


Sludge Thickening
AquaNereda® Process Cycle
AquaNereda® Process Cycle

Fill/Draw
– Influent enters
– Readily Available Carbon
– High F/M
– P-release
– Effluent is displaced
AquaNereda® Process Cycle

React
– Influent flow is terminated
– Aerobic and anoxic conditions
– Simultaneous nitrification/ denitrification
– Nitrate transported by diffusion
into granule layers
– P-Uptake
– Automated control of the process
AquaNereda® Process Cycle
Settle
– Influent flow still terminated
– Granules separate from treated water
– Sludge is wasted
– Maintain desired concentration of biomass

…ready for a new cycle.


Advantages

• Excellent settling properties


• Up to 75 % smaller footprint
• Up to 50% energy savings
• Increased capacity
• Sustainable robust technology
• No support media
• No bulking sludge
• Chemical savings

Source: T.R. Devlin Aerobic Granular Sludge Presentation


Advantages
Up to 75% Footprint Reduction
35% Flow Split

~158’

65%

~135’

Garmerwolde, NL WWTP
Advantages
Up to 50% Energy Savings

Frielas, Portugal WWTP

1 of 6 Aeration basins was


retrofitted into a Nereda®
reactor

https://www.royalhaskoningdhv.com
Advantages
Up to 50% Energy Savings

• High substrate and


oxygen utilization
rates

• Compact bioreactor

• Automated Control
Process

Frielas WWTP, Portugal


Advantages
Up to 50% Energy Savings

Garmerwolde, NL WWTP
Advantages
Significant Chemical Savings
Chemical Unit A/B system Nereda
2014 2015 2014 2015 2016
Fe ton 119 130 25 8 0
Coagulant ton PEactive 39 30 - - -
Flocculant ton PEactive 8.4 7 - - -
PAC kgal 38 37 - - -
C-source kgal 189 159 - - -

In 2015, 8 ton of Fe was used during storm events.

In 2016, the operator better managed the system


and used no Fe

Data from Garmerwolde, NL WWTP


Advantages
Process Robustness
• Robust during less favorable conditions:

• Salinity fluctuations
• Chemical spikes
• pH fluctuations
Activated sludge and
• Load variations
granular sludge with
shock addition of
5,000 ppm NaCl after 5
min of settling

CAS AGS
AquaNereda®

Process Comparison & Design Approach


Comparison
AquaNereda
5-Stage BNR®System
System
Comparison to Typical
Single Multi-Stage
Tank Reactor BNR System
Design

1Q 3-5Q
1Q

Anaerobic Primary Primary Secondary Secondary


Reactor Anoxic Aerobic Anoxic Aerobic
2 Hr HRT 2 Hr HRT 12-18 Hr HRT 2 Hr HRT 1 Hr HRT

RAS
Comparison
AquaNereda® System
Single Tank Reactor Design
Comparison
Footprint

BNR SBR Ballasted Floc MBBR MBR

100%
Footprint

50% 60% - 45% 45%

Note: Ballasted Floc 25% 25%


footprint will depend on
Process retrofitted
Comparison
Energy

BNR SBR Ballasted Floc MBBR MBR

100%

70%
Energy

65%
75% - 50%
50%
Note: Ballasted Floc
40%
Energy consumption will
depend on Process
retrofitted
Design Approach
Ideal Application
• Retrofit Applications
- Any existing process
- Higher flows and loads
• New construction
• Limited footprint
• Plant expansion
• Upgrade to BNR requirements
• Industrial plants
Application Guidelines

• Typically applied with flows greater than 1 MGD


• Tanks deeper than 18 ft ideal (as low as 15 ft possible)
• Required 6 mm perforated plate upstream screening
• Flexible basin geometry
Typical System Components
• Aeration system
• Pumps
• Valves
• Internal process piping
• Weir assembly
• Instrumentation
• Controls
Existing Installations
40 Plants Worldwide!
Nereda® Plants Around the World
Daily average Peak flow
Operational plants Start-up
flow (MGD) (MGD)
Vika, Ede (NL) 0.07 2005
Cargill, Rotterdam (NL) 0.18 2006
Smilde, Oosterwolde (NL) 0.13 2009
STP Gansbaai (RSA) 1.3 2.5 2009
STP Epe (NL) 2.1 10 2011
STP Garmerwolde (NL) 7.9 25 2013
STP Vroomshoop (NL) 0.40 1.3 2013
STP Dinxperlo (NL) 0.82 3.6 2013
STP Wemmershoek (RSA) 1.3 3.0 2013
STP Frielas, Lisbon (PT) 3.2 11.7 2014
STP Ryki (PL) 1.5 2.9 2015
Westfort Meatproducts, IJsselstein (NL) 0.37 2.1 2015
STP Clonakilty (IRL) 1.3 3.9 2015
STP Carrigtwohill (IRL) 1.8 5.4 2015
Phase 1 17 29 2016
STP Deodoro, Rio de Janeiro (BR)
Phase 2 23 39 2025
STP Kingaroy (AUS) 0.7 2.9 2016
STP Simpelveld (NL) 1.0 6.0 2016
STP Cork Lower Harbour (IRL) 4.8 12 2017
Nereda® Plants Around the World
Daily average Peak flow
Plants under construction Start-up
flow (MGD) (MGD)
STP Jardim Novo, Rio Claro (BR) 6.4 11 2017
STP Hartebeestfontein (RSA) 1.3 1.3 2017
STP Ringsend, Dublin (IRL) 159 317 2021
STP Highworth (UK) 0.45 1.2 2017
STP Alpnach (CH) 3.7 12 2017
STP Zutphen (NL) 2.7 3.5 2017
STP Faro – Olhão (PT) 5.4 12 2018
STP Utrecht (NL) 15 84 2018
Plants under design
STP Österröd, Strömstad (S) 1.0 2.3 2017
STP Tatu, Limeira (BR) 15 22 2017
Phase 1 5.0 8.2 2019
STP São Lourenço, Recife (BR)
Phase 2 6.6 11 2024
Phase 1 29 54 2018
STP Jaboatão, Recife (BR)
Phase 2 41 76 2025
Phase 1 6.0 12 2018
STP Jardim São Paulo, Recife (BR)
Phase 2 18 35 2025
STP Kendal (UK) 6.9 11.1 2018
STP Barston (UK) 5.8 9.0 2019
STP Kloten (CH) 6.9 18 2019
STP Tijuco Preto, Sumaré (BR) 0.005 0.009 2019
STP Walsall Wood (UK) 1.9 4.1 tbd
STP Radcliffe (UK) 1.4 2.9 tbd
STP Breskens (NL) 0.92 6.3 2018
STP Great Dunmow (UK) 0.50 1.3 2018
Nereda® Plants Around the World

Daily average Peak flow


Pilots and demo’s Start-up
flow (MGD) (MGD)

2014-
STP Utrecht (NL) 0.40 3.8
2022
2011-
Anonymous Petrochemicals (NL)
2017
2014-
STP Daldowie (UK) 43 60
2017
2014-
STP Dalmarnock (UK) 36 46
2017
Macclesfield (UK) 0.001 0.004 2017
Newmarket (UK) 0.001 0.004 2017
STP Sha Tin (HK) 0.26 2016
Epe, Netherlands 2011
Greenfield – 3 Reactors
Flows
Average Peak Flow
Flow (MGD) (MGD)
2.1 9.5

Parameters
Influent Effluent
BOD5 333 2
TSS 341 5
TN - 4
TP 9.3 0.34
Epe, Netherlands 2011
Start- Up

• First full scale municipal


installation in the NL
• Granulation occurred over
winter months with water
temp below 10 degrees C
• Nereda reduced energy
consumption by 40%
Kingaroy , Australia
Greenfield – 2 Reactors
Flows
Average Peak Flow
Flow (MGD) (MGD)
0.71 2.85

Parameters
Influent Effluent
BOD5 230 10
TSS 264 12
TN 70 3
TP 10 1
June 16 till February 17
Ringsend, Ireland, 2019
Retrofit – Expansion and Upgrade
Flows
Average Peak Flow
Flow (MGD) (MGD)
159 314

• Retrofit SBR
• To be built in stages
• Handles high salinity
• Increased MLSS to 8 g/l

• This plant demonstrates


that there are not upper
limits to increasing capacity
Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 2016
Greenfield
Flows
Average Peak Flow
Flow (MGD) (MGD)
22.8 38.8

Parameters
Effluent
BOD5 25
TSS 10
NH4-N 1
PO4-P 1.5
Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 2016
Greenfield

• Operational just prior to the


start of the 2016 Olympic games

• 10 times the capacity of the


original design
Solids Handling
Solids Handling
• AGS produces more EPS, but the chain is different than CAS EPS*
• Characterized as Alginate Like Exopolysaccarides (ALE)**
• Unlike the slimy EPS found in CAS, ALE forms clumps
– Therefore, despite the increase in EPS, it does not negatively impact solids
handling

*Lin et al., 2012, **Lin et al., 2010 Untreated AGS Sludge


Solids Handling
Dinxperlo, NL

Digestion &

0.1 - 0.3% 0.8 – 1.0%


Total Solids Total Solids

2.3 – 2.5%
Total Solids

Courtesy of GEA
Solids Handling
Decanter Centrifuge Pilot Results
• AquaNereda 22% cake Polymer 17-20 #/DT *
• SBR 18-20% cake Polymer 25 #/DT
• CAS 18-22% cake Polymer 22-30 #/DT

GEA CF4000 Pilot


*GEA pilot study in Dinxperlo, NL
AquaNereda®

Demonstration Facility
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Demonstration Facility – Rockford, IL
0.2 MGD AGS

Reactors

Process
Building Blowers

Filters

Sludge
Holding

AquaNereda®
Reactor
Demonstration Facility
Rockford, IL - 0.2 MGD AGS
Construction of a 0.2 MGD AquaNereda® reactor with associated
pretreatment, instrumentation and mechanical equipment

Sludge
Holding

AquaNereda®
Reactor
Demonstration Facility Objectives
• Quicker access for operators to visit than travelling to Europe
• Granule formation to seed future plants
• Use for future seminars
Pilot Plant
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Pilot Plant #1
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Pilot Plant
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Pilot Plant #2
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Pilot Plant #2
Aerobic Granular Sludge
Pilot Plant #3

Compact, single reactor design


Summary
AquaNereda® Summary
• AGS reduces footprint, increases capacity and reduces energy
• Compact, sustainable, robust
• Achieves BNR and Bio-P removal
• Over 40 installations worldwide
• Demo facility and pilot are resources to assist with implementation in
the U.S.
Questions?
Design Examples
Design Example
Greenfield – Example #1

• 1.0 MGD equalized flow


• Influent equalization
• Excess flow diverted to existing ponds
• Compared with Oxidation Ditch
• (2) AquaNereda reactors 43 ft x 43 ft x 21 ft WL
• Savings of over 50% on area

Future Treatment
Plant Location
Design Example
Greenfield – Example #1
Design Example
Greenfield – Example #2
• Existing tricking filters
• Upgrade to meet BNR
• Comparing to flow-through activated sludge BNR process
Design Example
Greenfield – Example #2
• Design Flow = 46 MGD Avg / 65 MGD Max
• AquaNereda reactors would fit in 3/4 of the aeration basins area
• Recommend (6) reactors / volume = 2.2 MG each

Secondary Secondary
Clarifier 1 Clarifier 2

Secondary Secondary
Influent Clarifier 3 Clarifier 4 Influent
Equalization Equalization

Secondary Secondary
Clarifier 5 Clarifier 6

BNR Reactors AquaNereda


Design Example
Retrofit – Example #1
• 2.8 MGD Average Flow / 5.9 MGD Maximum Flow
• (3) Existing SBR tanks 90 ft x 80 ft x 16.4 ft Water Level
• Convert basins to AquaNereda 80 ft x 68 ft
• Split 80 ft x 21 ft into ancillary basins

AquaNereda AquaNereda AquaNereda


Reactor #1 Reactor #2 Reactor #3

Equalization and Sludge Basins


Design Example
Retrofit – Example #2
• Existing two train system 4 MGD total (Ammonia only)
• No additional land available
• Retrofitting one of the trains to AquaNereda for 3.5 MGD / 7.2 MGD
• Splitting tank into 2 AquaNereda reactors
• AquaNereda designed for TN of 5 mg/l and TP of 1 mg/l

Equalization
Basin

AquaNereda
Reactors
AquaNereda® Summary

• Compared to other BNR Process


– Smaller footprint
– Energy savings
• Ideal for greenfield or retrofit
• Nutrient removal
• Fits any basin geometry