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1. Is defined as a framework of methods and techniques chosen by a researcher to combine various

components of research in a reasonably logical manner so that the research problem is efficiently
handled. We need to consider the these three major items to create most descriptive output of
preparing research Neutrality, Reliability, Validity, Generalization, to obtained results and this can
happen only when the research design is reliable.

2. In a nutshell, quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted
into numbers. Qualitative Research on the other hand generates non-numerical data.

The researcher serves as the primary data gathering instrument in Qualitative Research. Here,
the researcher employs various data-gathering strategies, depending upon the thrust or approach of his
research. Examples of data-gathering strategies used in Qualitative Research are individual in-depth
interviews, structured and non-structured interviews, focus groups, narratives, content or documentary
analysis, participant observation and archival research.

On the other hand, Quantitative Research makes use of tools such as questionnaires, surveys,
measurements and other equipment to collect numerical or measurable data.
Part 2

1. To optimize the teaching-learning process using the software application system of statistics which was
built based on the problem centered approach to brought about through teaching, teaching process is the
arrangement of environment within which the students can interact and study how to learn. The process
of teaching learning aims at transmission of knowledge, imparting skills and formation of attitudes, values
and behaviour. The statistics software assists the teachers and students encouraging interactive learning
through the pedagogical module, exercise module and feedback module during the teaching-learning
process. Survey findings and post intervention assessment outcomes were used to assess the student’s
and teacher’s perception of their goals, satisfaction, motivation, and performance. Our findings suggest
that the teachers and students had high level of satisfaction in attaining their goals, and the students who
undertook learning with this methodology had much higher mean performance test scores.

Probably the relationship of teaching and learning process to statistics was to demonstrate the clearly that
there are several kinds of intelligence. Hence, statistics, if clearly understood is a fascinating subject,
which has tremendous importance in psychology and education. Some of the importance may be
summarized below –
o It helps in collecting data either numerically or otherwise.
o It also helps us in classification, organisation and summarization.
o It also helps us in drawing general conclusions.
o Statistics also help in the task of evaluation and measurement.
o It helps us in the construction and standardization of test as well as using them properly.
o It helps the teacher to know the individual differences of the students, comparing the
suitability of one method or technique with another, making predictions for the future etc.
o Last but not least, statistics also helps in research work in many ways.