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Analog Electronics

Using
Operational Amplifiers
Agenda

• Operational amplifier basics


• Specifications
• Typical applications

• Some content based on information in “Operational


Amplifiers Design and Applications,” edited by Tobey,
Graeme and Huelsman, Burr-Brown Research Corp.,
published by Mc Graw-Hill, 1971.
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Operational Amplifier Basics

• Differential input, single output amplifier


• High differential gain ~ 106
• Low common mode gain ~ 1
• High input impedance 106 to 1015 ohms
• Single pole frequency response

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Operational Amplifier Frequency Response

+V
SUPPLY

120

100
Gain IN OUT

80

|Gain|
60 - V SUPPLY
dB

40 0°
Phase
20 -90°

0 -180°
.0001 Hz .01Hz 1Hz 100Hz 10KHz 1MHz

Frequency

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Basic Operational Amplifier Connection

Positive input grounded

Z FB

E IN Z
IN
E DIFF K E OUT

E =-(Z /Z )xE
OUT FB IN IN
(1) EOUT = - K x E DIFF
(2) EDIFF = ZFB
x (E IN - E OUT) + EOUT
Z FB + Z IN
Solve (1) for EDIFF and substitute in (2).
Let (K+1)/K = 1.

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Historical Roots

• Originally designed for use in analog computers.


• These amplifiers allowed simple implementation of
transfer functions.
• A resistor input and a capacitor feedback makes an
operational amplifier into an integrator.
• These can be combined with adders and inverters to
solve differential equations.

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Analog Computers

• Solve the differential 1/3 1


1
equation for the highest e(t)
1
- e(t)
1
order derivative. +4 V
e(t)
1 1
• Use successive integrators 2

to create lower order terms.


• Compute the terms on the
right side of the equation This arrangement solves the equation
and sum them into the first
integrator. e(t) = 3 e(t) + 2 e(t) + 4
• The challenge is in the for e(t).
scaling of the problem to get
measurable signal levels.

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Typical Operational Amplifier
• Operates with inputs and
outputs between the supply
voltages. +Vs

• Differential input stage.


• Constant current sink allows
inputs to track over a wide
range without changing the
output.
• After intermediate amplification,
the output is driven through a
half-bridge or totem pole output -Vs

stage.

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Specifications

• Performance specified for certain supply voltages.


• Input voltage and current offsets
• Input impedance - parallel R, C.
• Output voltage and current capacity
• Short circuit output current
• Gain x Bandwidth product
• Output slew rate
• Supply current
• and more

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Operational Amplifier Usage

• The simplicity of use has displaced transistor circuits


in low power applications.
– Fewer components
– Ideal response
– Low cost
– For limited frequency circuits.

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Inverting configurations

• Negative input held virtually


at ground by high gain.
• Input impedance equals Z in. E1 Z1 Z FB

• Output impedance is near E2 Z2


zero - limited by output E OUT

E3 Z3
current.
• Multiple inputs can be
summed:

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Non-Inverting Configurations
E IN
Unity Gain
E OUT
• Input is to positive input
terminal.
• Feedback is to negative E IN
input terminal. Gain = (Z FB + Z IN )/Z IN
E OUT
• Very high input
impedance. ZIN Z FB

• Makes an excellent
buffer.
EIN
High Current E OUT

• Added current gain inside


the feedback provides
higher output current. ZIN ZF
B

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Design Considerations
• Input offset voltage and bias currents are amplified by the amplifier
itself.
• Input signal voltages usually can not go within a few volts of the supply
rails.
• If the negative supply rail is zero volts, then the signals need to be
referenced to something between the rails. If you use 0 and 5 volts for
the supply voltages, then the signals should be referenced to
something like 2.5 volts.
• Output signal voltage usually can not go all the way from rail to rail.
• Output current is limited. Usually in the 5 to 25 mA range.
• Slew rates are the maximum dV/dt on the outputs. For a sine wave,
E sin wt, this is wE.
• Bandwidth is limited to the unity gain bandwidth divided by the stage
gain.

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Typical Circuits

• Many good references show circuits like those which


follow. Some show design equations and design
sequences to follow. Some will be exact and others
will be approximations which require tuning.
• Circuits which follow include:
– High pass circuits, low pass circuits, and band pass circuits,
– Oscillators,
– Synchronous demodulator,
– Voltage to frequency and frequency to voltage converters,
– Phase locked loop, and
– Digital to analog converter.

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High Pass Filters
High Pass log Gain

Fc log Freq.

VCVS

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More Filters
Low Pass

Band Pass

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Oscillators

Wein Bridge R C R

Feedback is in phase when R = 1/jwC C

Negative feedback through the limiter


prevents saturation and clipping.
R >2R

Quadrature Oscillator
Uses two integrators to solve sine wave equation e(t) = -e(t).
Both sine and cosine terms are generated.
Amplitude control is required here also.

-SIN COS SIN

LIMITER

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More Oscillators

Phase Shift Oscillator


Multistage 180° phase shifter is used.

Harmonics are not in phase, which


R R
helps purity, >12R

Limiter helps control distortion also. LIMITER

Square Wave Integrator


Successive integratons of a square wave approximates a sine wave with only a few percent of
harmonic content.

The amplitude falls off as the inverse square of frequency, so an amplitude control loop will be
required.

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Demodulator and V/F Converters
Synchronous Demodulator
This cirduit can extract a signal of known frequency and phase from a high noise background.
It is used most frequently in AC parameter measurements where the signal source is available.

E ref

Analog Switch

Voltage to Frequency Converter


The integrator ramps at a rate proportional to the input voltage. When the output reaches the
reference (negative) level in the second Op Amp, the integrator is quickly reset. Dividing the
output with a flip-flop gives a square wave.

+V in

-15V

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Frequency to Voltage Converter

Each negative half cycle of the Op Amp output charges C1 as


shown. On each positive half cycle, this charge is transferred to C2.

C1 C2

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Phase Locked Loop
The input signal crossovers are used to generate a rectangular wave. The JK flip-flop
generates a square wave. When this is exclusive ORed with the output of a voltage
controlled oscillator, the result is a voltage proportional to the phase difference
between the two signals. This can be used to control the oscillator.

+V in
JK
A Low B
Pass
JK

Phase: 0 90 180
VCO N A:

B: 0 2.5 5

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Some DAC Configurations
R FB

Binary EO
Weighted N
2 R 2 N-1
R 2 N-2
R R

(Linear)
LSB MSB
Eo = 2EREF R FB BF
EREF R

N N-1 N-2 0

R FB

EO
RMAX RMIN

Non-Linear
EREF

0 1 2 2 N -1
One of 2N Decoder
N N-1 N-2 0

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R, 2R DAC
R FB
2R R R R

EO
2R 2R 2R 2R

LSB MSB
E REF

R R R 0
2R 2R 2R R FB
2R R R R

EO
2R 2R 2R 2R

E REF
R FB
EO E REF 2R

R FB R FB
EO E REF 8R EO E REF 4R

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Conclusions

• This presentation has only touched on some of the


Op Amp circuits most relevant to the needs of senior
design projects. There are a large number of other
circuits to be found for applications requiring
generation, amplification, detection and
measurement of analog signals.

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